Using the power of research to inform ICT integration in education

Posts tagged ‘obstacles to technology integration’

What is the relationship between teacher beliefs and technology integration practices?

Peggy A. Ertmer, Anne T. Ottenbreit-Leftwichb, Olgun Sadik, Emine Sendurur, Polat Sendurur (2012) Teacher beliefs and technology integration practices: A critical relationship, Computers & Education 59 (2012) 423–435

Although efforts are still needed to provide ubiquitous technology access to teachers and their students, little will be gained if second-order barriers (knowledge and skills, attitudes and beliefs) are not addressed.  We are still woefully short of classroom environments that permit students to engage with technology in a way that prepares them to use technology in the real world. The results of this study suggest we should be utilizing the same technology tools for professional development that teachers are able to use in their classrooms: “It is time for our education workforce to engage in learning the way other professionals do continually, collaboratively, and on the job to address common problems and crucial challenges where they work”.  Web 2.0 technologies, such as blogs and wikis, enabled many of the teachers in this study to develop new ideas for their classrooms. Teachers should be introduced to the idea of joining and/or developing their own professional learning networks. PLNs allow teachers to select one or multiple Web 2.0 technologies by which they can “follow” individual teachers or organizations. This method of professional development is effective due to the “individualized focus, context-based learning, and empowerment of teachers”.

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What factors affect the Implementation of a 1:1 Learning Environment in a Primary School?

Lee Yong Tay, Siew Khiaw Lim, & Cher Ping Lim  (2013) Factors Affecting the ICT Integration and Implementation of One-To-One Computing Learning Environment in a Primary School – a Sociocultural Perspective in L.Y. Tay & C.P. Lim (eds.), Creating Holistic Technology-Enhanced Learning Experiences, 1–18.

Even with an elaborate technological infrastructure, teaching and learning would not be possible without committed and skilful teachers who are on the ground implementing the day-to-day lessons in their respective classrooms. In addition, directions for the school leadership and channelling of the necessary resources are all critical factors to be considered. A good curriculum plan also provides the necessary structure and procedure on how to integrate ICT in a more seamless and pervasive manner.

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What are the necessary conditions for ICT to support teaching and learning in primary schools?

Cher Ping Lim & Grace Oakley (2013) Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in Primary Education: Opportunities and Supporting Conditions in L.Y. Tay & C.P. Lim (eds.), Creating Holistic Technology-Enhanced Learning Experiences, 1–18.

The authors highlight the opportunities and potentials of ICT for teaching and learning in primary (elementary) education. However, they also acknowledge that ICT in the primary classrooms do not guarantee enhanced learning, though they do outline how ICT could be used to facilitate the learning of 21st century skills, literacy, numeracy and science. In addition, they also listed the necessary and sufficient conditions to support ICT for teaching and learning in primary schools. These necessary and sufficient conditions are: (1) policy and school leadership; (2) physical and technological infrastructure; (3) curriculum and assessment; and (4) professional development for teachers.

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What does an integrated research-based model of technology planning in schools look like?

Ruben Vanderlinde and Johan van Braak (2013) Technology planning in schools: An integrated research-based model, British Journal of Educational Technology, Vol 44 No 1 2013

In this colloquium, an integrated research-based model on technology planning in schools (TPS) is described. This model integrates research results of several studies conducted during the past years on technology planning in primary schools. While all of these studies have their individual scientific merit, this colloquium brings them together in a well-organised and holistic model on technology planning. This overall model is intended for teachers and school leaders when developing their school technology plan, for researchers when investigating technology planning and for policy makers and educational developers when designing initiatives to support schools in the technology planning process.

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What do ICT teachers think about the introduction of ICT in Primary Education in Greece?

Tziafetas Konstantinos, Avgerinos Andreas, Tsampika Karakiza (2013) Views of ICT teachers about the introduction of ICT in Primary Education in Greece, The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

The difficulties in the effective integration of ICT in the classroom make the subject a constant challenge for modern educational systems. The “New School”, an innovative new curriculum applied experimentally in Greek schools, introduces the full and effective use of ICT in all aspects of school reality. Prominent in this effort is the role of ICT teachers. Given the vague framework which describes the integration of ICT in primary schools with reformed curriculum, it is important to investigate the views of ICT teachers in relation to the aims of the Ministry of Education and the obstacles they encounter in their teaching process. The research results reveal that on one hand, there is a considerable confusion among teachers with regard to their role and on the other hand, there are several external and internal barriers to effective teaching

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Computers in Education: What for?

Eevi E. Beck (2011) Computers in Education: What for? Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy / 2011 / Special Issue

The assumption that increased use of computing technologies is beneficial per se has been questioned in research on workplace computing since the early 1970ies. The intention of this paper is to encourage stopping and pausing to consider what is happening (an empirical question), and whether what is seen is desirable (a normative question). The paper calls for more debate (among researchers, teachers, parents, school leaders, governmental bodies, and other interested parties) as to what we would want computers for and how to get there. Points of view would differ; possibly never fully settling on agreement. This would constitute an ideal and a practice of attempting to bring Bildung and democracy to computing use in education, and would be a worthwhile lead to equip the young for participation in a technology-intensive society.

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What Do Students Use Their Laptops for During Teacher Instruction?

Marte Blikstad-Balas (2012) Digital Literacy in Upper Secondary School – What Do Students Use Their Laptops for During Teacher Instruction? Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, Vol 7, 2012, Nr 02, 81-96

Many schools assume that the technology will fit into school practices, and thus use the computer as a supplement to the “regular” instruction. However, the students have their own vernacular practices concerning the use of the same technology, which they bring to school and wherever they go. This means that if schools fail to create the need of relevant educational Internet-based practices, the students will continue to use the Internet mainly for their personal vernacular practices, even at school. It goes without saying that banning Internet activity will not contribute to developing students’ literacy skills. What might need more explicit attention, is that neither will allowing unlimited Internet access without any guidance or clear educational purpose.

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Integrating Digital Technology: What Are Students Really Learning?

Tara L. Evans (2012) Integrating Digital Technology: What Are Students Really Learning? Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand

The present study investigated the learning that occurred as students interacted with teacher-planned lessons which included digital technologies (DTs). An Activity Theory (AT) framework was utilised to analyze the data collected and to make sense of the complex environment that teachers and students work within to identify factors within the sociocultural setting affected student learning when DTs were utilized. Results indicated that students gained technical skills, reinforced and developed conceptual understandings, built cooperative skills, thought critically and creatively, learned to troubleshoot when technical errors occurred, developed a sense of autonomy and agency in the classroom, and engaged in self-regulated learning through the use of DTs. A number of factors impacted on these outcomes including aspects of the school environment, teachers’ knowledge and beliefs, and teaching methods used when DTs were included in classroom activities.

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What are the constraints of technology integration in the elementary school?

Mrs. M. Taylor (2012) School Improvement : Supporting Research for Technology Implementation, School Reform, & Teaching and Learning, University of NC at Greensboro

The purpose of this study was to investigate what facilitated and what hindered technology integration at a public elementary school. The school was chosen for study due to its excellent work with integrating technology. Using the constructs of school culture, institutional change, and teacher beliefs as lenses, this study found that a student-centered culture, the principal’s belief in what he called “freedom to fail” and a plethora of resources, including human resources, facilitated integration.

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What is the Ideology of Serious Gaming?

Edouard Pignot (2012) An Exploration of the Ideology of the Virtual and the Practice of Serious Gaming, 20TH EDAMBA Summer Academy, WARWICK BUSINESS SCHOOL

Are game-based ways of learning as innocent as they look like? Through an anthropologically-grounded study, the gamification of learning and knowing is here criticized. Objectives are threefold: (1) define SG and simulation as signifying practice involving social, political, fantasmatic logics: not merely technology. (2) Re- materialize and re-embody virtual practices. Finally, uncover (3) how fantasy and jouissance operate in hegemonic discourse of gamification. The core contribution is to analyze virtual reality utilizing a discursive approach derived from the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan, including political theorists from the Essex School of Discourse Analysis and philosophers (Butler, Zizek) who argue in this circle.

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Can Technological Change Increase Gender Equity?

JACOBSEN, JOYCE P. (2011) “The Role of Technological Change in Increasing Gender Equity with a Focus on Information and Communications Technology,” ACSPL Working Paper Series: Vol. 1, Article 2.

This paper considers the potential role of various transformative general-purpose technologies in affecting gender equity. The particular technologies considered at length and contrasted are four network technologies: electricity and water provision on the one hand, and the newer information and communications technologies of the Internet and mobile phones on the other. Available evidence on the effects of transformative technologies, both historically and in recent developing country contexts, is surveyed. The results indicate difficulties in finding cleanly measurable factors due to the complex nature of the effects of the technologies, as well as the containment of many effects in the household/nonmarket sector rather than the market sector. However, there is some optimism regarding continued expansion of electrification and the use of mobile phones in particular for improving women’s empowerment.

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Is multitasking of technology a support or a distraction to learning?

Ajao, Peter Olayinka Oluwasegun (2012)  Multitasking-Impact of ICT on learning, Case Study (LUAS), Lahti University of Applied Sciences, Degree programme in Business Information Technology

The purpose of this paper is to use a questionnaire/survey, interview, and observations, and a test to examine how multitasking using various technologies impact or affects students. Multitasking of technology becomes a distraction when it is not managed well, such as when multitasking is heavily done, it leads to ineffectiveness, inefficiency, and affect productivity because the brain is subject to many things. Heavy multitasking is reported to cause even stress to the multitasker. In the case of students, more mental work is required since there is divided attention and concentration. So, it is possible that the education productivity goes on the dwindling side. On the other hand, multitasking that is done moderately, and that is controlled, is seen as a support.

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Is there a relationship between the use of computer technology in instruction and student achievement in mathematics?

Megan Carpenter Townsend (2012) Computer Technology, Student Achievement, and Equity: A Multilevel Analysis of the Relationship between High School Students’ Use of Computers, Gender, and Mathematics Achievement, A dissertation submitted to the Graduate Faculty of North Carolina State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Educational Research and Policy Analysis Raleigh, North Carolina 2012

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the use of computer technology in instruction and student achievement in mathematics across a wide spectrum of students and schools. Of particular interest are the roles that the gender of the student, teachers’ exposure to professional development in technology, and specific uses of computer technology play in the relationship between the use of computer technology in mathematics classes and student achievement in mathematics.

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How can teachers use serious games with simple technologies?

Peter van Rosmalen, Wim Westera (2012) Introducing Serious Games with Wikis: Empowering the Teacher with simple Technologies,

Despite the continuous and abundant growth of the game market the uptake of games in education has been hampered by the general impression that games require complex technologies and that games are difficult to organise and to embed in education curriculums. This paper explores to what extent a simple serious game scenario that can be easily adopted and adapted by individual teachers and that only uses a common, relatively simple technology can leverage the adoption of serious games. It discusses the design of such a game, Argument, based on a Wiki and its use in a 6 weeks trial by students of a Master of Learning Sciences Programme. The results indicate that, even though a Wiki has clear limitations, it is a useful instrument to build game alike educational activities, to gain experience with and as a first step to use (more) complex serious games.

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Are young learners ready for virtual learning?

Leppisaari, I., & Lee, O. (2012) Modeling Digital Natives’ International Collaboration: Finnish-Korean Experiences of Environmental Education. Educational Technology & Society, 15 (2)

A new generation of young learners often described as digital native school children are attitudinally and technically equipped to employ social media as a social process in learning. However, few international virtual learning projects have been implemented and researched. This article examines a trial which aimed to combine viable technology with future pedagogic solutions for primary students from Korea and Finland and create an international collaboration model in virtual learning for environmental education. The results show various challenges of the operational model and suggest effective implementation strategies. The challenges were organisational, language, technical and collaboration barriers. The operational model illustrates possibilities of implementing cyber space pedagogy, visualization of knowledge using technology, cyber spaces for collaboration, and the motivational impetus provided by the model. This pilot study demonstrates the need to increase greater interactivity between teachers from the partner countries during the planning phase and provide more authentic interaction for inter-learner dialogue.

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Does blogging really benefit high school students?

Mandy Lynn LeBourgeois (2012) Technology in the classroom: effect of student blogging on learning gains in a high school classroom, A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Natural Sciences

Writing web logs (blogs) as well as reading the blogs of others has shown to extensively benefit students in terms of obtaining content knowledge. In the present study, analyses were done comparing raw gains of students who blogged about Biology I topics and those who simply answered questions on the same topics. No overall significant differences or trends were found in the learning gains of the experimental group of students (bloggers) and the control group (non-bloggers).

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How is internet safety promoted and managed within schools?

Don Passey  (2011) Internet Safety in the Context of Developing Aspects of Young People’s Digital Citizenship, Department of Educational Research, Lancaster University

In the study reported here, specific evidence has been gathered about perceived and real risks of using the internet and digital devices, how issues are managed, issues concerned with access to and uses of social networking sites, the use of mobile telephones or handheld devices, and how internet safety is promoted and managed within schools.

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What is the role of instructional practices in successful implementation of a 1:1 program?

Jenifer O. Corn, Jennifer T. Tagsold, Ruchi K. Patel (2011) The Tech‐Savvy Teacher: Instruction in a 1:1 Learning Environment, Journal of Educational Research and Practice, 2011, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 1–22

A research team conducted an evaluation of a laptop initiative in 18 North Carolina high schools through administrator, teacher, and student focus groups; teacher and student surveys; and classroom observations. The study aimed to provide information about the value of the laptop initiative in enhancing student learning. In addition, it intended to identify challenges to the successful implementation of 1:1 programs, strategies for meeting those challenges, and services and supports needed to enable successful 1:1 programs throughout the state. This paper explores how the initiative affected instructional practice in areas such as technology use, communication, the role of the teacher, and the learning environment. It also discusses unique challenges for teachers in a 1:1 environment, as well as implications for educators and administrators.

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Why does the Island of Innovation Model fail to support Technology Innovation in Education?

Orit Avidov-Ungar and Yoram Eshet-Alkakay (2011) The Islands of Innovation Model: Opportunities and Threats for Effective Implementation of Technological Innovation in the Education System, Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology, Volume 8, 2011

In recent years, there have been an increasing number of educational technology-integration projects which employ the Islands of Innovation model. According to this model, technological innovation is implemented in small islands within an organization, in the hope that they will be imitated, permeate the whole organization with their values and lead to overall, comprehensive innovation and to a new organizational culture. Studies on technological innovation implementation in education systems show that for the most part, islands of innovation fail to generate overall, comprehensive innovation. The article warns against the stagnation that these islands of innovation may cause organization managements, which use them as an excuse to consider themselves innovative, and warns against unsupervised, poorly thoughtout use of this model for technological innovation implementation.

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Can Technology for Personalising Learning (TPL) support better pedagogical use of ICT?

Jones, Mellita M. and McLean, Karen J. (2012) “Personalising Learning in Teacher Education through the use of Technology,” Australian Journal of Teacher Education: Vol. 37: Iss. 1, Article 5.

This paper considers the components of personalising learning and describes one approach to creating a technology-infused learning environment that has been trialled in the tertiary sector. The key focus of this trial was the effective integration of technology as an enabler of personalising learning. Findings indicate that meaningful student learning experiences can be achieved through a personalised approach which also supports the emerging tenets of effective, pedagogical use of ICT for learning. These findings led to a model of Technology for Personalising Learning (TPL) which is presented as a planning framework through which personalising learning with technology can be achieved in higher education.

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How are music teachers using technology to assess learning?

Lance D. Nielsen (2011) A study of K‐12 music educators’ attitudes toward technology-assisted assessment tools, Presented to the Faculty of The Graduate College at the University of Nebraska In Partial Fulfillment of Requirements For the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

The purpose of this study was to examine K‐12 music educators’ attitudes regarding the use of technology in the assessment of music learning. There is a considerable range of musical behaviors with different levels of complexity that can be assessed (Boyle & Radocy, 1987). A variety of software and web‐based assessment tools are available for music educators. However, it is unclear how many teachers are taking advantage of incorporating these technological assessment tools into their instructional practice. This study provided current data about the demographics of teachers using technology to assess musical growth and the variables that might motivate a music teacher to use technology‐assisted assessment tools. A sample of 2,211 music educators, provided by MENC: The National Association of Music Education, was surveyed. The survey questions determined the number of teachers using technology‐assisted assessment tools and the types of assessment tools they use. The mean score from a series of belief statements suggested teachers’ attitudes towards assessment practices and technology was positive. However, it was discovered that specific school and teacher factors had a generally small influence on their perceptions of technology‐assisted assessment tools. It was evident that music teachers are utilizing technology for daily instruction more often than to assist with assessment strategies. The factors of time and resources are two important variables that affect teachers’ decisions regarding the use of technology for assessment in music settings.

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How can the Web support Differentiation in Elementary Classrooms?

Gail Arakaki (2011)  The Use of Websites as an Aid in Differentiating Instruction, TCC Worldwide Online ConferenceEmerging Technologies: Making it Work 

In a typical heterogeneous elementary school classroom, one might find highly motivated students, struggling readers, those reading two levels above grade level, unmotivated students, and students with behavior problems. Teachers are faced with the challenge of teaching these students the skills necessary to be successful 21st Century students as well as motivating them to attain proficiency. In order to provide effective instruction for all, many teachers have turned to differentiated instruction (DI). In differentiated instruction, student differences form the basis of planning and many instructional strategies are employed. This study focused on the development and evaluation of a class website to facilitate differentiation of instruction in a science lesson, and its potential use as a tool to increase instructional time and address all learners. Research results indicated the use of a class website can be a valuable tool for teachers to use in providing differentiated instruction. A class website was successfully utilized to disseminate information and assignment directions, as well as provide instruction, scaffolding, and additional resources to nine second grade students, based on their level of readiness. Further research is necessary to determine if its use results in an increase in instructional time.

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What makes the difference between success and failure in technology integration?

Berret, B., Murphy, J., & Sullivan, J. (2012). Administrator insights and reflections: Technology integration in schools. The Qualitative Report, 17(1), 200-221.

There are numerous technology tools that educators utilize to support student learning. Often, technology is mandated from the top down with school administrators’ responsible for overseeing the implementation. Innovative technological approaches to learning often meet resistance within schools. The pervasive culture in education is counteractive to technology integration, which may be useful to pedagogy and in the long run may help students deal with the ever growing level of technology present in today’s society. Characteristics are identified at two out of four schools as a way of assessing the progress of technology integration and locating individuals who will help move the process forward. This knowledge, combined with competent leadership, makes the difference between success and failure of an innovation implementation.

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How do high school math teachers use technology to teach geometry?

Melanie Lolli (2012) The Views of High School Geometry Teachers regarding the Effect of Technology on Student Learning, Honors Thesis Final Project, Ohio Dominican University

The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics claims that technology is necessary to student learning in math and, in fact, enhances it. There are some studies to support this claim, but these studies leave some unanswered questions. The purpose of this study was to find out from current high school math teachers, of geometry specifically, what their views of technology are. The goal of the study was to ask these teachers which technologies they use and whether they believe technology has beneficial effects on student learning. This study did find a consensus among the participants as to which technologies they felt were the most beneficial in their classrooms, as well as those that might not be needed at all in a classroom.

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Does the structure of the brain help explain why some people are more distractible?

Kanai, R., Dong, M. Y., Baharami, B. & Rees, G. (2011) Distractibility in daily life is reflected in the structure and function of human parietal cortex. J. Neurosci. 31, 6620 – 6626.

Inter-individual variability in perception, thought and action is frequently treated as a source of ‘noise’ in scientific investigations of the neural mechanisms that underlie these processes, and discarded by averaging data from a group of participants. However, recent MRI studies in the human brain show that inter- individual variability in a wide range of basic and higher cognitive functions — including perception, motor control, memory, aspects of consciousness and the ability to introspect — can be predicted from the local structure of grey and white matter as assessed by voxel-based morphometry or diffusion tensor imaging. We propose that inter-individual differences can be used as a source of information to link human behaviour and cognition to brain anatomy.

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How can a cognitive lens help better understand technical change?

Sarah Kaplana, Mary Tripsas (2008) Thinking about technology: Applying a cognitive lens to technical change, Research Policy 37 (2008) 790–805

We apply a cognitive lens to understanding technology trajectories across the life cycle by developing a co-evolutionary model of technological frames and technology. Applying that model to each stage of the technology life cycle, we identify conditions under which a cognitive lens might change the expected technological outcome predicted by purely economic or organizational models. We also show that interactions of producers, users and institutions shape the development of collective frames around the meaning of new technologies. We thus deepen our understanding of sources of variation in the era of ferment, conditions under which a dominant design may be achieved, the underlying architecture of the era of incremental change and the dynamics associated with discontinuities.

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Should Librarians teach students how to Google?

Sorensen, Charlene; Dahl, Candice (2008) Google in the research and teaching of instruction librarians, Journal of Academic Librarianship v.34, no.6, 482-488

This exploratory study assesses the differences and similarities between how instruction librarians in Western Canada use Google and how they instruct students to use it. Survey results indicate that these librarians do use Google but can be influenced by faculty to present Google negatively to students.

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What affects teachers’ use of technology?

Debbie Beaudry (2011) Technology and Fifth Grade Teaching: a Study of Teacher Reported Classroom Practice, Professional Development, Access, and Support, A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the College of Education in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Florida Atlantic University Boca Raton, FL December 2011

This mixed methods study investigated 5th-grade teachers’ reported use of computer technology and variables that have been identified by researchers as affecting teachers’ use of technology, including professional development activities, physical access to computer technology, and technical and instructional support provided for teachers. Quantitative data were collected from 80 5th-grade teachers from a Florida public school district through an online survey in which teachers reported how frequently they used and had their students use computer technology for 27 different purposes. The teachers also reported the amount of emphasis those 27 different topics received during their technology-related professional development experiences, the number of hours they participated in technology-related professional development, the number of months they participating in a technology coaching/mentoring program, the access their students had to computers in the classroom and in a one-to-one computing environment, and the frequency that they received technical and instructional support. Information from the school district’s technology plan provided a context for the study.

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What does learning look like in an age of digital networks?

Jones, Chris and Sclater, Niall (2010). Learning in an age of digital networks. International Preserva- tion News, 55 pp. 6–10.

The final years of the twentieth century and early years of the twenty first century have been marked by the rapid rise of digital and networked technologies. Some have even called it a paradigm shift and suggested that it will lead to a dramatic change in the way young people learn (Tapscott and Williams 2010). As with all commentary on new technologies we should beware of being carried away with the excitement of the new. There is a recurrent innovation cycle beginning with over excitement followed by disappointment and once the reaction has set in against the new it is followed a move away to yet another new technology, often before a proper assessment and evaluation of the previous cycle can take place. Equally we must be careful not to ignore the profound changes that are taking place and how they may affect universities and learning in society more generally.

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How can technology enhance learning and teaching?

Price, Linda and Kirkwood, Adrian (2011). Enhancing professional learning and teaching through technology: a synthesis of evidence-based practice among teachers in higher education. Higher Education Academy, York, UK.

Technology has the potential effectively to support learning and teaching in a number of situations. However, the manner in which the technology was used and aligned with the goals and aspirations of the learner was an important consideration. Practitioners do not appear to be capitalising on existing evidence. More emphasis appears to be placed on generating new evidence rather than evidence driving new practices. Teachers’ beliefs and practices are influential in determining how they engage with technology. The context of both the student and the teacher is also influential in determining the successfulness of learning and teaching practices with technology. Academic developers have key roles in supporting practitioners in engaging with relevant evidence while also supporting the development of their beliefs and practices concerning learning and teaching with technology. Policy makers have key roles in determining the integration of technology, as they influence the culture within which practitioners operate and hence their actions.

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Does research overemphasize the need for technology in education?

M. Oliver (2011) Technological determinism in educational technology research: some alternative ways of thinking about the relationship between learning and technology, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning (2011), 27, 373–384

This paper argues that research on the educational uses of technology frequently overemphasizes the influence of technology. Research in the field is considered a form of critical perspective, and assumptions about technology are questioned. Technological determinism is introduced, and different positions on this concept are identified. These are used to discuss the ways in which work within the field might be described as technologically deterministic. Four theoretical perspectives (activity theory, communities of practice, actor–network theory, and the social construction of technology) are then briefly characterized, demonstrating that alternative positions are viable, and positioning each in relation to the earlier discussion of technological determinism. The paper concludes by arguing that research, building on such alternative conceptions of technology, is important in developing our understanding of the relationship between technology and learning, as well as identifying potential methodological implications.

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Does combining technology knowledge with a problem based learning approach impact students’ learning?

Walker, A; Recker, M; Ye, L; Robertshaw, B; Sellers, L; and Leary, H. (2012) Comparing Technology-Related Teacher Professional Development Designs: a Multilevel Study of Teacher and Student Impacts, The Instructional Architect Research Group. Paper 6.

This article presents a quasi-experimental study comparing the impact of two technology-related teacher professional development (TTPD) designs, aimed at helping junior high school science and mathematics teachers design online activities using the rapidly growing set of online learning resources available on the Internet. The first TTPD design (tech-only) focused exclusively on enhancing technology knowledge and skills for finding, selecting, and designing classroom activities with online resources, while the second (tech+pbl) coupled technology knowledge with learning to design problem-based learning (PBL) activities for students. Both designs showed large pre-post gains for teacher participants (N=36) in terms of self-reported knowledge, skills, and technology integration. Significant interaction effects show that teachers in the tech+pbl group had larger gains for self-reported knowledge and externally rated use of PBL. Three generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were fit to study the impact on students’ (N=1,247) self reported gains in behavior, knowledge, and attitudes. In the resulting models, students of tech+pbl teachers showed significant increases in gain scores for all three outcomes. By contrast, students of tech-only teachers showed improved gains only in attitudes.

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What should a touch keyboarding program look like?

Mark A. Ertl (2007) The Effects of Initial Touch Keyboarding Speed Achievement of Fifth Graders and Touch Keyboarding Skill Retention in Seventh Grade , A Paper Presented to the Faculty of Viterbo University In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Arts in Education

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of initial touch speed achievement of fifth grade keyboarding students on their touch keyboarding skill retention in seventh grade. The conclusion that can be drawn from this study is students keying 20 or more words per minute by touch were more likely to retain their skill 2 years later than students who initially keyed less than 20 words per minute by touch. Students who keyed less than 20 words and stated they had 2 or less hours of computer usage a week were highly unlikely to retain their keyboarding skill 2 years later. An implication of the findings is the importance of developing initial touch skill level above 20 words a minute. If the question were posed as to how long a training program should be this researcher would answer, “One that allows students to acquire a touch skill level of 20 words a minute or better.”

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Does presenting the same material in written and spoken form really benefit learning and understanding?

Slava Kalyuga, Paul Chandler, John Sweller (2004Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Fall 2004 vol. 46 no. 3 567-581

It is frequently assumed that presenting the same material in written and spoken form benefits learning and understanding. The present work provides a theoretical justification based on cognitive load theory, and empirical evidence based on controlled experiments, that this assumption can be incorrect. From a theoretical perspective, it is suggested that if learners are required to coordinate and simultaneously process redundant material such as written and spoken text, an excessive working memory load is generated. Three experiments involving a group of 25 technical apprentices compared the effects of simultaneously presenting the same written and auditory textual information as opposed to either temporally separating the two modes or eliminating one of the modes. The first two experiments demonstrated that nonconcurrent presentation of auditory and visual explanations of a diagram proved superior, in terms of ratings of mental load and test scores, to a concurrent presentation of the same explanations when instruction time was constrained. The 3rd experiment demonstrated that a concurrent presentation of identical auditory and visual technical text (without the presence of diagrams) was significantly less efficient in comparison with an auditory-only text. Actual or potential applications of this research include the design and evaluation of multimedia instructional systems and audiovisual displays.

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What are the psychological and sociological barriers to the learning of new technology?

Paschalina (Lilia) Ziamou, Stephen Gould, Alladi Venkatesh (2010) “Am I Getting It or Not?” The Practices Involved in “Trying to Consume” a New Technology, Journal of Product Innovation Management, Volume 29, Issue 2, pages 216–228, March 2012

In recent years, high rates of failure of technology-based products have spurred interest in understanding the psychological and sociological barriers to consumer learning of technological innovations. We conducted a real-time study of consumers’ initial interactions with a new technology using verbal protocols in order to understand consumers’ learning experience. We identified three major factors that hinder the consumer’s learning process: (a) interface and functionality practices, (b) social influence, and (3) causal attributions. The results show how each factor hinders the learning process and suggest how managers can influence consumer learning of technological innovations.

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How might technology be transforming the literacies of children entering the classroom?

Joanne O’Mara, Linda Laidlaw (2011) Living in the iworld: Two literacy researchers reflect on the changing texts and literacy practices of childhood, English Teaching: Practice and Critique, December, 2011, Volume 10, Number 4,  pp. 149-159

Within the article we demonstrate, using media links and images, the ways in which our own children have begun to navigate digital devices and texts and to create new sorts of narratives that open possibilities for literacies in multiple ways, as “creators”, “designers”, and experts. We argue that, once translated into classroom practice, technological tools tend to be “domesticated” by practices that resist the transformative affordances of these tools, and may even provide barriers to student engagement and practice. Finally, we conclude the article by making some practical suggestions for creating opportunities for transformative technology use in education.

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How do teachers understand students’ digital learning at home?

Honan, Eileen (2012) A whole new literacy’: Teachers’ understanding of students’ digital learning at home [online]. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, The, Vol. 35, No. 1, Feb 2012: 82-98.

This paper reports on an analysis of data collected through interviewing four teachers about their understandings of young people’s uses of new digital technologies at home and outside school. The teachers display some understanding and knowledge of their students’ access to new technologies, the skills they have developed using these technologies and the learning that occurs when using digital texts. However, it seems that these teachers cannot perceive the learning in terms of any educational affordance, or cannot see that students’ knowledge of digital texts used outside of school could be useful or have any place in the literacy classroom. The paper concludes with some questions that may start teachers thinking in different ways about their incorporation of digital texts into their literacy classrooms.

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Can 3D virtual worlds be literacy learning environments?

MERCHANT, G. H. (2010). 3D virtual worlds as environments for literacy learning. Educational research, 52 (2), 135-150.

Although much has been written about the ways in which new technology might transform educational practice, particularly in the area of literacy learning, there is relatively little empirical work that explores the possibilities and problems – or even what such a transformation might look like in the classroom. 3D virtual worlds offer a range of opportunities for children to use digital literacies in school, and suggest one way in which we might explore changing literacy practices in a playful, yet meaningful context. From a Foucauldian perspective, the article suggests that social control of pedagogical practice through the regulation of curriculum time, the normalisation of teaching routines and the regimes of individual assessment restricts teachers‟ and pupils‟ conceptions of what constitutes literacy. The counternarrative, found in recent work in new litearcies (Lankshear & Knobel, 2006) provides an attractive alternative, but a movement in this direction requires a fundamental shift of emphasis and a re- conceptualisation of what counts as learning.

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Should Laptops be banned from classrooms?

Robin A. Boyle  (2011) Should Laptops be Banned? Providing a Robust Classroom Learning Experience Within Limits, Vol. 20, No 1, Perspectives: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 8

Laptops, iPods, iPads, and BlackBerrys are just a few of the newly developed modes of communication, note-taking, and music-storing devices that creep into our vocabulary–and students’ backpacks. Given the competitive nature of law school, students understandably bring laptops to class hoping to maximize their performance. Unfortunately for all involved, students use their laptops beyond the task of note-taking. The distractions that present themselves in class have led law professors to complain on various fora about the frequency of laptop use in the classroom. Some posit that students’ inappropriate use of laptops in the classroom has exceeded acceptable limits.

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Can educational gaming be understood as a complex interplay of four forms of knowledge?

Thorkild Hanghøj (2011) Clashing and Emerging Genres: The interplay of knowledge forms in educational gaming, Designs for Learning vol4, No1, September 2011

Based upon a series of design interventions with the educational computer game series Global Conflicts at various secondary schools, this article explores how educational gaming can be understood as a complex interplay between four knowledge forms – i.e. students’ everyday knowledge (non-specialised knowledge), the institutionalised knowledge forms of schooling, teachers’ subject-specific knowledge (specialised knowledge forms), and game-specific knowledge forms such as professional journalism, which is one of the inspirations for the game scenario. Depending on how the GC series was enacted by different teachers and students, these knowledge forms were brought into play rather differently. More specifically, several students experienced genre clashes in relation to their expectations of what it means to play a computer game, whereas other students experienced emerging genres – e.g. when one student was able to transform the game experience into a journalistic article that challenged her classmates’ understanding of journalistic writing.

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How is Digital Media changing the way young people learn?

Mizuko Ito (2011) Mobilizing the Imagination in Everyday Play: The Case of Japanese Media Mixes, Draft of a chapter to appear in the International Handbook of Children, Media, and Culture, edited by Sonia Livingstone and Kirsten Drotner

The spread of digital media and communications in the lives of children and youth have raised new questions about the role of media in learning, development and cultural participation. In post-industrial societies, young people are growing up in what Henry Jenkins (2006) has dubbed “convergence culture”—an increasingly interactive and participatory media ecology where Internet communication ties together both old and new media forms.  My focus in this chapter is on outlining the contours of these shifts. How do young people mobilize the media and the imagination in everyday life? And how do new media change this dynamic?

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Are Instructional Design and Educational Technology Overlooked by Academic Library Administrators?

John D. Shank, Nancy H. Dewald (2012), Academic Library Administrators’ Perceptions of Four Instructional Skills, College & Research Libraries vol. 73 no. 1 78-93

The profession is in the midst of an unprecedented paradigm shift, moving from print-based to digital-based information. This dramatic change is impacting, and will continue to impact, the academic library. Clearly, it is vital to have highly skilled employees who are able to rapidly adapt to the changes as well as drive the innovations within the field. This study raises a very big question: who is responsible for driving that process? If, as the authors suppose, library administrators are key players in facilitating the hiring of new or redefined positions, then, based on the survey data, library administrators might be restraining change within the educational role of the library because of their biases.

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How can Libraries Support Students Live and Learn with Digital Media?

C. Shoemaker, H. Martin, B. Joseph (2010) How Using Social Media Forced a Library to Work on the Edge in Their
Efforts to Move Youth From “Hanging Out” to “Messing Around,  Journal of Media Literacy Education 2:2 (2010) 181 – 184

In 2009, Mimi Ito released Hanging Out, Messing Around and Geeking Out: Living and Learning with New Media, a book composed of 23 related studies. These ethnographic studies interrogated how learning is being experienced by teens via informal uses of digital media. The title refers to the framework around how youth learn through digital media and networked spaces, a kind of learning that is quite often invisible to adults who often confuse it with playing, wasting time or, at worst, as undermining youth’s ethical values and social competencies. This collection of studies, however, finds that these three different modes of participation with digital media, in fact, support the development of a wide range of new media literacies. This is the challenge offered by Ito and the one recently taken up by the New York Public Library. This worked example is not designed to report the successes or failure of this pilot project. Rather, it is intended to explore and take a critical look at the obstacles encountered along the way and discuss how they were negotiated. Finally, it will leverage Ito’s framework to provide context to understand what it means to use digital media for learning and how to apply these lessons learned, both for this organization and others.

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Are Students More ICT Literate Than Their Teachers?

Saeid MORADI-REKABDARKOLAEI (2011) The Comparison of ICT’ Literacy between Teachers and Students and Presenting a Model for Development of ICT in Schools, Journal of  TURKISH SCIENCE EDUCATION Volume 8, Issue 4, December 2011

The major goal of the research is “the comparison of ICT’ literacy between teachers and students in Iran’s schools and presenting a model for development of information and communication technology literacy in schools”. A group sample of teachers, 367 and a group sample of students, 384 were selected through simple random sampling method. Deductive analysis of the data shows that for all five factors, there is a meaningful difference between ICT literacy of teachers and students. General result of the research shows that ICT literacy of students in all factors is higher and greater than teachers’.

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Should school policies protect students from social networking?

Jacqueline Vickery (2011) Why can’t we be (Facebook) friends? Social Networking, risk & school policies, Presented at the EU Kids Online ConferenceLondonSept22-232011

This paper analyzes educational policies within the United States in order to assess how risk is constructed in various social media policies. Policies tend to overstate the role of technology as both the problem and the solution which leads to techno-phobic policies. Additionally, such policies shut down opportunities for student and teacher engagement in both the formal and informal learning spaces. A more nuanced understanding of risk and the role of teachers as mediators is needed to ensure policies are empowering rather than hindering kids’ online engagement.

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Do teachers believe they are competent to promote healthy ICT use among their students?

R. Zlamanskia, M. Ciccarelli (2012) Do teachers believe they are competent to promote healthy ICT use among their students?  Work, A Journal of Prevention, Assessment and Rehabilitation Vol, 41 (2012) 869-875

Information and communication technologies (ICT), including computers, are becoming common place tools for learning by school children in Australia and around the world. Teachers are responsible for integrating ICT into the school learning environment; however, they may not recognize how and when ICT use may compromise their students’ physical health. Children’s exposure to physical harm through the unhealthy use of ICT may have liability implications for the education sector.  All Catholic Education school principals in Western Australia were sent an email link to the survey for distribution to teachers at their respective schools. Fifty-five percent of teachers agreed they were concerned about their students’ physical health when using ICT. Only 19% of teachers reported they frequently or always provided their students with information on how to use computers in their class in a way, so as to promote physical health. Teachers identified barriers to promoting healthy computing use among students including; insufficient time (47%), non-adjustable furniture (46%), and insufficient knowledge (41%).  Designing and implementing school-based computer ergonomics education programmes may assist teachers fulfil their duty of care in regard to the physical health and well-being of their students.

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How can Speech Recognition-Supported Games Improve Literacy?

Anuj Kumar, Pooja Reddy, Anuj Tewari, Rajat Agrawal, Matthew Kam (2012) Improving Literacy in Developing Countries Using Speech Recognition-Supported Games on Mobile Devices, To appear in Proceedings of ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’12), Austin, Texas, May 5-10, 2012.

Learning to read in a second language is challenging, but highly rewarding. For low-income children in developing countries, this task can be significantly more challenging because of lack of access to high-quality schooling, but can potentially improve economic prospects at the same time. A synthesis of research findings suggests that practicing recalling and vocalizing words for expressing an intended meaning could improve word reading skills – including reading in a second language – more than silent recognition of what the given words mean. Unfortunately, many language learning software do not support this instructional approach, owing to the technical challenges of incorporating speech recognition support to check that the learner is vocalizing the correct word. In this paper, we present results from a usability test and two subsequent experiments that explore the use of two speech recognition- enabled mobile games to help rural children in India read words with understanding.

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How are secondary school students using the internet in Nigeria?

Ukpebor Osaretin Christopher and Emwanta Maria-Gorretti (2012) Availability and the use of computer and internet by secondary school students in Benin City, Nigeria, International Journal of Library and Information Science Vol. 4(2), pp. 16-23, February 2012

This study identifies the availability of internet use among 1000 secondary schools students Benin City, Nigeria. Internet has become a useful tool for education. Access to information communication technology (ICT), the internet in particular, has provided people especially students with a foundation for meeting their information needs. Many private schools can boast of computer laboratories, but only few can pride themselves on Internet access. Another frustration is the capacity to use the Internet. 1000 students were selected from 20 private secondary schools across the two (out of three) local government of Benin City. Result showed that students have the capacity to use the internet which they learnt from friends and family members. However, the level of internet access in schools is poor despite the schools having computer laboratories. Students access the internet from their homes and cyber cafes since they are denied access in their respective schools while most of the students use the internet for educational activities. Internet availability should be considered as one of the most important scientific tools in schools.

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How Do Exemplary Science Teachers Use Technology?

Meral Hakverdi-Can,  Thomas M. Dana (2012) EXEMPLARY SCIENCE TEACHERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY, The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology – January 2012, volume 11 Issue 1

The purpose of this study is to examine exemplary science teachers’ level of computer use, their knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, how often they required their students to use those applications in or for their science class and factors influencing their decisions in using technology in the classroom. The sample of this study includes middle and high school science teachers who received the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science Teaching Award. Analysis of the survey responses indicated that exemplary science teachers have a variety of knowledge/skills in using computer related applications/tools. The most commonly used computer applications/tools are information retrieval via the Internet, presentation tools, online communication, digital cameras, and data collection probes. Results of the study revealed that students’ use of technology in their science classroom is highly correlated with the frequency of their science teachers’ use of computer applications/tools.

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How Is Instructional Technology Being Integrated in Higher Education?

Mariya Markova (2011) Integrating Instructional Technology into Higher Education, A dissertation submitted to the faculty of Franklin Pierce University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Arts in Leadership in the College of Graduate and Professional Studies.

This dissertation presents the findings of an in-depth study conducted at two universities in New England. The purpose of this study is to identify the reasons why higher education faculties are not fully embracing instructional technology. Findings suggest that many faculty members view the instructional technology to be difficult to apply to existing instructional methodologies. In addition, existing technology infrastructure appears to be inadequate and unreliable. While technical problems persist, the primary cause of faculty resistance at this time relates to a lack of adequate faculty development and training resources. Results suggest, given the increasing sophistication of instructional technology, institutions should require a higher degree of technological proficiency than most faculty members currently possess.

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What do Physical Education Teachers Think about Integrating Technology in Physical Education?

Rolf Kretschmann (2012) What do Physical Education Teachers Think about Integrating Technology in Physical Education? European Journal of Social Sciences ISSN 1450-2267 Vol.27 No.3 (2012), pp. 444-448

In an exploratory approach 114 physical education teachers in selected secondary schools in Stuttgart (Germany) were surveyed using a questionnaire for the use of digital media in physical education. The questionnaire contained items for media equipment, media literacy, learning outcome, motivation, gender aspects, and comparison of analog and digital media.In summary, based on the empirical findings, said resistance and skepticism about digital media in physical education among physical education teachers can rather be approved than dispelled. Exemplarily, most physical education teachers stated by overwhelming majority that their teaching in physical education was successful even without integrating digital media at all.

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How is ICT Impacting Education in Pakistan?

M. Wasif Nisar, Ehsan Ullah Munir and Shafqat Ali shad (2012) Usage and Impact of ICT in Education Sector; A Study of Pakistan,  Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(12): 578-583, 2011

In many countries, information and communication technology (ICT) has a lucid impact on the development of educational curriculum. This is the era of Information Communication Technology, so to perk up educational planning it is indispensable to implement the ICT in Education sector. Student can perform well throughout the usage of ICT. ICT helps the students to augment their knowledge skills as well as to improve their learning skills. To know with reference to the usage and Impact of ICT in Education sector of Pakistan, we accumulate data from 429 respondents from 5 colleges and universities, we use convenient sampling to accumulate the data from district Rawalpindi of Pakistan. The consequences show that Availability and Usage of ICT improves the knowledge and learning skills of students. This indicates that existence of ICT is improving the educational efficiency as well as obliging for making policies regarding education sector.

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Has the One Laptop per Child Program (OLPC) Made a Difference in Peru?

Julián P. Cristia Pablo Ibarrarán Santiago Cueto Ana Santiago Eugenio Severín (2012) Technology and Child Development: Evidence from the One Laptop Per Child Program,  IZA DP No. 6401

Although many countries are aggressively implementing the One Laptop per Child (OLPC) program, there is a lack of empirical evidence on its effects. This paper presents the impact of the first large-scale randomized evaluation of the OLPC program, using data collected after 15 months of implementation in 319 primary schools in rural Peru. The results indicate that the program increased the ratio of computers per student from 0.12 to 1.18 in treatment schools. This expansion in access translated into substantial increases in use both at school and at home. No evidence is found of effects on enrollment and test scores in Math and Language. Some positive effects are found, however, in general cognitive skills as measured by Raven’s Progressive Matrices, a verbal fluency test and a Coding test.

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Blended Learning or E-learning?

Maryam Tayebinik, Marlia Puteh (2012) Blended Learning or E-learning? International Magazine on Advances in Computer Science and Telecommunications, volume 3 number 1 february 2012 , Special Issue on International Conference on Advanced Information System, E-Education and Development ICAISED 2012, Malaysia

ICT or Information and Communication Technology has pervaded the fields of education. In recent years the term “e-learning” has emerged as a result of the integration of ICT in the education fields. Following the application this technology into teaching, some pitfalls have been identified and this have led to the “Blended learning” phenomenon. However, the preference on this new method has been debated quite extensively. The aim of this paper is to investigate the advantages of blended learning over face-to-face instruction through reviews of related literature. The present survey revealed that blended learning is more favorable than pure e- learning and offers many advantages for learners like producing a sense of community or belonging. This study concludes that blended learning can be considered as an efficient approach of distance learning in terms of students’ learning experience, student-student interaction as well as student-instructor interaction and is likely to emerge as the predominant education model in the future.

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Do people collaborate more effectively using computers than face to face?

Wadhah Amer Hatem, Alan S Kwan & John C Miles (2012) A Comparison of Face to Face and Computer Mediated Collaboration, Advanced Engineering Informatics, February 2012

In the construction industry, the need for collaboration between people who are geographically remote is a reoccurring feature. The traditional way of dealing with this is collocation but this is expensive and disruptive and so increasingly, use has been made of remote collaboration using computational technology over networks. To assess whether or not such computer mediated collaboration is effective, a carefully controlled set of experiments has been undertaken using ten groups of two people who are required to work on a partially developed design task. The work is undertaken using computer mediated communication supported by a 3D CAD package. As a control, the same people have also undertaken a similar design task working face to face. The results show that, for the type of design task involved, people collaborating using computer mediated communication, at worst are as effective as people working face to face and probably are slightly more effective.

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How can Serious Games Support Education?

Mary Ulicsak,  Martha Wright (2010) Games in Education: Serious Games,  A Futurelab literature review

It is argued that digital games, including simulations and virtual worlds, have the potential to be an important teaching tool because they are interactive, engaging and immersive activities. This document begins by briefly considering the rationale for using games in education – informal and formal. It then considers the various types of digital games that are described as being educational. The report then has an overview of their current use and research around their usage in multiple environments: the military, health, informal, vocational and formal education settings. It looks at the challenges of embedding serious games in formal education and three current methods for assessing appropriateness and effectiveness of games for teaching. From this it argues that what is required is a toolkit for educators, game designers and policy makers that allows the design and assessment of games to be used with an educational goal.

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How Significant is the Web as a Learning Resource?

Si Fan (2011) Significance of the Web as a Learning Resource in an Australian University Context, Submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University of Tasmania June 2011

This research involved the participation of 502 students and 100 teaching staff from seven faculties/disciplines at the University of Tasmania. The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of the Web as a learning resource in this university context. It examined the views of teaching staff and students toward the significance of the Web in teaching and learning practices, and identified the environment in which the Web was used to facilitate teaching and learning. The results of this study indicated a strong recognition of the role of the Web as a learning resource at the University of Tasmania. The Web was recognised as performing an essential role in the processes of communication, information retrieval, collaborative learning and assessment. Also, the Web and web-based technologies were seen as an important supplementary tool for face-to-face learning. However, there were differences between perceived expectations of web-based education by teaching staff and students, and the ways in which it was conducted and managed. By discussing the end-users‟ views and evaluations, recommendations are made on the further development and modification of the Web adoption. It suggests that taking student expectations and needs into consideration can help create a more supportive and meaningful web-based learning environment. Training for both staff and students is also desired to enhance their skills in using the Web as a learning resource and to provide standard web-based support in all courses.

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What is the link between learning styles and self-perceived ICT skills?

Jef C. Verhoeven & Dirk Heerwegh & Kurt De Wit (2010) First year university students’ self-perception of ICT skills: Do learning styles matter?, Education and Information Technologies, Volume 17, Number 1

Do ICT skills of freshmen change in 6 months at the university? What is the contribution of learning styles (or patterns) to the explanation of the variance in self-perceived ICT skills and the possible change in these skills? And what is the contribution of learning styles and of gender, social class, and ICT course attendance to the explanation of the variance in these skills? To answer these questions, data were collected in a panel research project that recruited 714 freshmen at a large Belgian university. The data show that the ability of the students to maintain a computer and to develop a website improves at the university but not the ability to use the Internet or to apply basic ICT skills. The analyses show that there is a link, albeit weak, between learning styles and self-perceived ICT skills. Learning styles can partially explain differences between groups of students with different characteristics. The data show that having a certain learning style might influence the perception of students of their ICT skill, but learning styles do not allow one to predict the change in the self-perceived ICT skills of the students.

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What is the role of Principals in implementing ICT?

Mojgan Afshari, Simin Ghavifekr, Saedah Siraj and Rahmad Sukor Ab. Samad (2012) Transformational Leadership Role of Principals in Implementing Informational and Communication Technologies in Schools, Life Science Journal, 2012; 9(1)

The implementation of information and communication technologies is very important to schools. Transformational leaders provide greater contributions to implement technology in education. This paper examines the relationship between two independent variables (computer competence and computer use) and transformational leadership role of principals in implementing ICT in schools. This paper based on responses from 320 school leaders in Iran, reports that computer competence and ICT usage are key factors that influence technology leadership behaviors. It is suggested that decision makers should provide professional development for principals to become proficient in all the competency areas.

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How can administrators facilitate technology integration in their school?

Bryan Berrett, Jennifer Murphy and Jamie Sullivan (2012) Administrator Insights and Reflections: Technology Integration in Schools, The Qualitative Report Volume 17 Number 1 January 2012 200-221

There are numerous technology tools that educators utilize to support student learning. Often, technology is mandated from the top down with school administrators’ responsible for overseeing the implementation. Innovative technological approaches to learning often meet resistance within schools. The pervasive culture in education is counteractive to technology integration, which may be useful to pedagogy and in the long run may help students deal with the ever growing level of technology present in today’s society. Characteristics are identified at two out of four schools as a way of assessing the progress of technology integration and locating individuals who will help move the process forward. This knowledge, combined with competent leadership, makes the difference between success and failure of an innovation implementation.

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How do blogs help EFL students become academic writers through collaborative dialogues?

Yu-Chih Sun, Yu-jung Chang (2012) Blogging To Learn: Becoming EFL Academic Writers Through Collaborative DialoguesLanguage Learning & Technology, February 2012, Volume 16, Number 1

This study examines how blogs and their interactive and collaborative features help academically-advanced graduate students process academic writing knowledge and make sense of their writer identity. Seven graduate students undertaking Master’s level study in TESOL and Linguistics participated. The research questions are: (a) What kinds of writing-related topics do students blog about? (b) How do students’ collaborative dialogues on blogs help them process and reconstruct knowledge about academic writing? (c) How do students’ collaborative dialogues on blogs facilitate their negotiation of academic identities and construction of authorship? Open-coding and content analysis were conducted to inductively identify salient themes and patterns regarding students’ learning and perception of their writer identities. The results suggest that the blog activity not only encourages students to actively and reflectively engage in knowledge sharing, knowledge generation, and the development of numerous strategies to cope with difficulties encountered in the learning process. Blogs also endow students with a sense of authorship as the writers of blog entries and, at the same time, provide a space for them to sort out what being an author entails, their purposes of writing, and their authority in writing.

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How are ICT-rich learning environments changing teacher practice in India, Turkey, and Chile?

Daniel Light with Scott Strother and Deborah Keisch Polin (2009) Emerging 
changes 
in 
ICT‐rich 
learning 
environments:
 The 
Intel®
Teach 
Essentials 
Course
 and
 changing 
teacher
practice 
in 
India, 
Turkey,
 and
 Chile, Center for Children and Technology Education Development Center

Understanding how technology fits into the complex realities of classrooms was a critical factor in creating real change in the industrialized nations, yet little is known about how educational technology projects are impacting the classrooms of the developing world. This study looked at successful schools from the Intel® Teach Essentials Course in Chile, India and Turkey to explore how schools and teachers have been able to integrate ICT and the pedagogical approaches from the Essentials Course into their schools and how these changes are, in turn, changing what happens in the classroom. The teachers are developing new beliefs about teaching and improving their knowledge of new practices; their students are engaging with content in new ways; and the relationships between teachers and students are changing relationships. And, both groups are using new ICT tools to support learning.


How are Web 2.0 tools changing the culture of learning?

Daniel  Light, Deborah  Keisch  Polin, (2010) Integrating Web 2.0 tools into the classroom: Changing the culture of learning, EDC Center for Children and Technology

While this study suggests great potential for Web 2.0 tools, it also demonstrates that careful planning is required to align  instructional activities and the affordances of these tools. Teachers need to design activities in which the communication facilitated by the Web 2.0 tools is meaningful and relates to students’ learning of the content or to their own lives. One of the most salient themes, consistent among more sophisticated users across all of our sites, is that we are perhaps beginning to see a Web  2.0 approach or mentality. It may not be the tool itself that defines Web 2.0, but how it is used to support teaching and learning, both in individual classrooms and as part of a school’s or district’s larger vision. All the tools employed within this approach do not necessarily have to be what immediately comes to mind when one thinks of  “Web 2.0” (e.g., blogs and wikis). However, the philosophy that has developed through the use of these tools embraces a Web 2.0 mentality. The tools are  interactive, they can be used  asynchronously, they are collected together as a suite of resources within a virtual platform, and teachers are integrating them seamlessly into their classrooms to extend and  deepen the educational environment.

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What does the TPACK in action look like?

Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Action: A Descriptive Study of Secondary Teachers’ Curriculum-Based, Technology-Related Instructional Planning JRTE | Vol. 43, No. 3, pp. 211–229

How does teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) inform their instructional planning? How can this knowledge be enhanced? In an interpretivist study of experienced secondary social studies teachers’ planning, we sought to discover clues to the nature and development of these teachers’ TPACK-in-action as it was expressed in their planning processes. Comparisons of interview data and planning products before and after en- gaging in professional development that addressed content-focused, TPACK- based learning activity types (Harris & Hofer, 2009) revealed three primary findings, each supported by participating teachers’ oral and written reflections upon their learning. The participating teachers’(a) selection and use of learn- ing activities and technologies became more conscious, strategic, and varied; (b) instructional planning became more student-centered, focusing primarily upon students’ intellectual, rather than affective, engagement; and (c) quality standards for technology integration were raised, resulting in deliberate deci- sions for more judicious educational technology use.

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Are blogs the way to go for innovative web 2.0 Libraries?

Hanne Westh Nicolajsen, Ada Scupola, Flemming Sørensen (2010) Open Innovation Using Blog, Proceedings of IRIS33 Seminar (2010)

This article discusses the potential of involving users in service innovation through social software in the form of a blog. After a theoretical discussion of user involvement, and in particular about the pros and cons of user involvement using social software, the article reports from a field experiment at a university library. In the experiment a blog was established in an attempt to collect innovation ideas from the library users. The experiment documents, that a blog may provide for very different types of input resulting in insight into user’s perception of the library services, critics, wishes, concrete ideas etc. Additionally the experiment sheds light on the challenges using a blog to involve users in service innovation.

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Can Google docs effectively support Project Based Learning?

Daire Ó Broin, Damien Rafter (2011) Using Google Docs To Support Project-Based Learning, AISHE-J, Volume 3, Number 1 (Spring 2011)

Project-Based Learning is a wide-ranging approach that uses authentic problems to engage students. One of its main benefits is that it enables ideas in the classroom to be linked with real-life. Among its limitations: it is difficult for students to collaborate on artefacts outside of class time and it is problematic for the teacher both to monitor the progress of the project and to assess the individual contribution of each student. These limitations are partly overcome by Google Docs, a suite of free online applications that facilitate collaboration. Firstly, Google Docs enables students in different locations to work simultaneously but independently on the same artefact. Secondly, we, as teachers, can be included as observers on each project group and thus track the development of the work. This year, various groups of students across the Science and Business departments used the Google Docs word-processor to work both collaboratively and individually on a diverse range of projects. We present a case study of one of these class groups, the results of which were largely positive. However, some problems arose that will inform our approach with future student groups.

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Are young children surrounded by techno-optimist teachers and techno-pessimist parents?

Fox, Jillian L., Diezmann, Carmel M., & Grieshaber, Susan J. (2011) Teachers’ and parents’ perspectives of digital technology in the lives of young children. In Howard, Sarah (Ed.) AARE Annual Conference 2010, 28th November – 2nd December 2010, Melbourne, Australia. (Unpublished)

This paper examines teachers’ and parents’ perspectives and considers whether they are techno-optimists who advocate for and promote the inclusion of digital technology, or whether they are they techno-pessimists, who prefer to exclude digital devices from young children’s everyday experiences. The results of data analysis identified a misalignment among adults’ perspectives. Teachers were identified as techno-optimists and parents were identified as techno-pessimists with further emergent themes particular to each category being established. This is concerning because both teachers and mothers influence young children’s experiences and numeracy knowledge, thus, a shared understanding and a common commitment to supporting young children’s use of technology would be beneficial. Further research must investigate fathers’ perspectives of digital devices and the beneficial and detrimental roles that a range of digital devices, tools, and entertainment gadgets play in 21st Century children’s lives.

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Does age determine willingness to participate in online communities?

Jae Eun Chung, Namkee Park, Hua Wang, Janet Fulk, Margaret McLaughlin (2010) “Age differences in perceptions of online community participation among non-users: An extension of the Technology Acceptance Model”, Computers in Human Behavior 26 (2010) 1674–1684

This study examined age differences in perceptions of online communities held by people who were not yet participating in these relatively new social spaces. Using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), we investigated the factors that affect future intention to participate in online communities. Our results supported the proposition that perceived usefulness positively affects behavioral intention, yet it was determined that perceived ease of use was not a significant predictor of perceived usefulness. The study also discovered negative relationships between age and Internet self-efficacy and the perceived quality of online community websites. However, the moderating role of age was not found. The findings suggest that the relationships among perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and intention to participate in online communities do not change with age. Theoretical and practical implications and limitations were discussed.

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Are boys disadvantaged by handwritten tests and exams?

Fayza S Al-Hammadi (2009) “The impact of multimedia on critical thinking and writing of Saudi secondary school students”, Information Technology Journal (2010) Volume: 9, Issue: 1, Pages: 11-19

A study was carried out to investigate the impact of multi-media on the critical thinking and writing of Saudi secondary school students. The study compared the critical thinking in two writing samples (essays) from adolescents who attended two Saudi secondary schools for boys and girls. The results demonstrated a gender-specific effect of using computers to compose essays. The boys produced significantly more words, sentences and paragraphs by using computers than those who did not use computers to write and received higher ratings on a structured rubric. Girls scored identical grades in both conditions (handwritten and computer) and performed consistently at par with boys using computers.

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Can the move to a Digital Library be Informed by the Technology Acceptance Model?

Jade Miller, Otto Khera (2010) “Digital Library Adoption and the Technology Acceptance Model: A cross-country analysis”, EJISDC (2010) 40, 6, 1-19

In this article, we examine, through the framework of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), some of the features that inform user acceptance of a digital library system implementation at agricultural universities in two developing countries: Kenya and Peru. This is a study not only examining factors contributing to adoption of this offline digital library, but also a cross-site comparison, meant to examine the functionality in the developing world of a theoretical model developed in and based on conditions in the developed world. As we unravel predictors of technological acceptance of a digital library implementation in the developing world, we simultaneously investigate a broader question: not just questions regarding improved research in the developing world, but on it as well.

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How can TAM explain student attitudes towards ICT in and out of school?

Edmunds, Rob; Thorpe, Mary and Conole, Grainne (2012). Student attitudes towards and use of ICT in course study, work and social activity: a technology acceptance model approach. British Journal of Educational Technology, 43(1), pp. 71–84

One of the most well known models investigating resistance to new technologies in the workplace was developed by Davis (1989) in the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). In its simplest 1989 form, Davis devised a scale that produced measures on two factors, ease of use and perceived usefulness. The increasing use of information and communication technology (ICT) in higher education has been explored largely in relation to student experience of coursework and university life. Students’ lives and experience beyond the university have been largely unexplored. Research into student experience of ICT used a validated model – The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) – to explore the influence of work and social/leisure contexts as well as course study, on attitudes towards and take up of technology. The results suggest that usefulness and ease of use are key dimensions of students’ attitudes towards technology in all three contexts but that ICT is perceived most positively in the context of work and technology use at work is an important driver for technology use in other areas.

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How do Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch compare?

Ian Utting, Stephen Cooper, Michael Kölling, John Maloney, Mitchel Resnick (2010) “Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch — A Discussion”, ACM Transactions on Computing Education (2010) Volume: 10, Issue: 4, Pages: 1-11

This article distills a discussion about the goals, mechanisms, and effects of three environments which aim to support the acquisition and development of computing concepts (problem solving and programming) in pre-University and non-technical students: Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch. The conversation started in a special session on the topic at the 2010 ACM SIGCSE Symposium on Computer Science Education and continued during the creation of the resulting Special Issue of the ACM Transactions on Computing Education.

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What do students believe about the influence of the Internet on their learning?

Yifat Ben-David Kolikant (2010) Digital natives, better learners? Students’ beliefs about how the Internet influenced their ability to learn, Computers in Human Behavior xxx (2010) xxx–xxx

In the literature students are sometimes assumed to feel empowered with respect to learning because of their familiarity with and access to ICT. However, after interviewing 25 students from post-elementary schools, it was found that the majority of the students, although they use the Internet and other ICT for school purposes, believed that their generation is not as good at learning as the pre-ICT generation. Several students explained the situation in terms of the school’s failure to build on their abilities. Nonetheless, the majority believed that the Internet over-simplifies schoolwork (perceived primarily as the traditional processing of textual sources), which in turn diminishes learning abilities. These results carry important implications regarding school, given that low self-efficacy might make students less likely to apply themselves to learning.

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What does a TPACK-Based Technology Integration Assessment Rubric look like?

Judi Harris, Neal Grandgenett, Mark Hofer (2010) Testing a TPACK-Based Technology Integration Assessment Rubric,

Although there is ever-increasing emphasis on integrating technology in teaching, there are few well-tested and refined assessments to measure the quality of this integration. The few measures that are available tend to favor constructivist approaches to teaching, and thus do not accurately assess the quality of technology integration across a range of different teaching approaches. We have developed a more “pedagogically inclusive” instrument that reflects key TPACK concepts and that has proven to be both reliable and valid in two successive rounds of testing. Five TPACK experts also confirmed the instrument’s construct and face validities. We offer this new rubric to help teacher educators to more accurately assess the quality of technology integration in lesson plans, and suggest exploring its use in project and unit plans.

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Can teachers be trusted to accurately assess their acceptance of educational technologies?

Bram PYNOO, Jo TONDEUR, Johan VAN BRAAK, Wouter DUYCK, Bart SIJNAVEd, Philippe DUYCK (2011) Assessing teachers’ acceptance of educational technologies: Beware for the congruency between user acceptance and actual use, T. Hirashima et al. (Eds.) (2011). Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computers in Education. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

In this study, we investigated the extent to which self-reported measures for user acceptance (attitude, behavioral intention, self-reported frequency of use), added to the prediction of several aspects of use of a portal for education. Data from 835 teachers was collected: questionnaire “acceptance” data on one occasion and five parameters for observed use (number of logins, downloads, uploads, page views, and reactions) were extracted on two occasions from the portal database. We found that the self-reported measures for acceptance primarily predicted search behavior (monthly number of logins, downloads and page views), and not share behavior (monthly number of uploads and reactions). So, researchers aiming to assess teachers’ acceptance of a technology to contribute information, should adjust their measures for user acceptance so that these correspond with the targeted actual behavior.

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What could Computer Science look like in the Elementary School?

Katherine Gunion (2008) FUNdamentals of CS: Designing and Evaluating Computer Science Activities for Kids, University of British Columbia, A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE in the Department of Computer Science

Computer Science is not included in high school or middle school education in British Columbia. Young students are not exposed to Computer Science when they are learning their fundamentals. Given the correct abstractions like kinesthetic learn- ing activities and graphical programming languages, elementary school students can be exposed to computer science and can understand sophisticated topics like recursion and concurrency. This means that more students’ interest will be piqued and they will be exposed to sophisticated concepts before first year computer science.

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What makes teachers effective in using technology as a meaningful pedagogical tool?

Peggy A. Ertmer, Anne T. Ottenbreit-Leftwich (2010) Teacher Technology Change: How Knowledge, Confidence, Beliefs, and Culture Intersect, JRTE, Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 255–284

Despite increases in computer access and technology training, technology is not being used to support the kinds of instruction believed to be most powerful. In this paper, we examine technology integration through the lens of the teacher as an agent of change: What are the necessary characteristics, or qualities, that enable teachers to leverage technology resources as meaningful pedagogical tools? To answer this question, we discuss the literature related to four variables of teacher change: knowledge, self-efficacy, pedagogical beliefs, and subject and school culture. Specifically, we propose that teachers’ mind- sets must change to include the idea that “teaching is not effective without the appropriate use of information and communication technologies (ICT) resources to facilitate student learning.” Implications are discussed in terms of both teacher education and professional development programs.

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Why is the UK banning ICT from schools?

The Royal Society (2012) Shut down or restart? The way forward for computing in UK schools, The Royal Academy of Engineering, January 2012

This report analyses the current state of Computing education in UK schools and sets out a way forward for improving on the present situation. The report states that the term ICT as a brand should be reviewed and the possibility considered of disaggregating this into clearly defined areas such as digital literacy, Information Technology and Computer Science. There is an analogy here with how English is structured at school, with reading and writing (basic literacy), English Language (how the language works) and English Literature (how it is used). The term ‘ICT’ should no longer be used as it has attracted too many negative connotations.

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How can School Librarians be Technology Integration Leaders?

Melissa P. Johnston (2011) School Librarians as Technology Integration Leaders: Enablers and Barriers To Leadership Enactment, Florida State University, A dissertation submitted to the School of Library & Information Studies in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Degree Awarded: Summer Semester, 2011

The highly technological environment of 21st century schools has significantly redefined the role of school librarians by presenting the opportunity to assume leadership through technology integration. School librarians are continually directed to evolve as leaders in order to address the needs of today’s learners and ensure that they are equipped with the knowledge and skills they need to succeed in the 21st century. The purpose of this study is to identify the enablers and barriers that accomplished practicing school librarians, or those who are National Board Certified, experience in relation to crafting a leadership role in technology integration.

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What is the Relationship Between Principals’ Technological Leadership and Effective Use of Technology in Classrooms?

Andrea Burns Jackson (2009) The Relationship Between Principals’ Technological Leadership and Their School’s Implementation of Instructional Technology, A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of Georgia Southern University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Education

Despite the importance of technology, many principals ignore technology integration within their schools. Administrators commonly are proficient in technology for administrative purposes; however, they are deficient in areas of instructional technology. A technologically competent leader has a greater tendency to pass on technology-related characteristics within his or her school. The transformation of integrating technology within the curriculum is everyone’s responsibility but the primary responsibility resides with the school’s principal being receptive and competent in the area of technology before its consistent implementation is visible within the school. Principal leadership is a vital factor that affects the effective use of technology in classrooms. When used properly, technology becomes an accelerator of momentum and makes learning more interactive and captivating for the average student.

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Does Technology Integration “Work” When Key Barriers are Removed?

Deborah Lowther, J. Dan Strahl, Fethi A. Inan, and Steven M. Ross (2008) Does Technology Integration “Work” When Key Barriers are Removed?, Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association in New York, NY March 2008

The effectiveness of Tennessee EdTech Launch (TnETL), a statewide technology program was investigated in this mixed-methods study. The goal of the program was to provide full-time, on-site technology coaches to prepare teachers to create lessons that engage students in critical thinking and use of computers as tools in order to increase learning. The study examined TnETL impact on student achievement, teachers’ skills and attitudes toward technology integration; use of research-based practices; and students’ skills in using technology as a tool. The study was implemented as “Launch” 1 and 2 cohorts that collectively involved 54 schools, 28,735 students and 1,746 teachers. Program effectiveness was measured via direct classroom observations, surveys, student performance assessments, focus groups, and student achievement analysis.

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Who should decide how students use technology? Youth-Driven vs. Adult-Driven Genres of Participation

Tripp, Lisa M., and Rebecca Herr-Stephenson (2009) “Making Access Meaningful: Latino Young People Using Digital Media at Home and at School.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 14.4 (2009): 1190-1207.

This research challenges the assumptions held by some that incorporating media into the classroom is somehow inherently motivating for students. Just as Seiter (2005) urges us to be skeptical of the drive and hype to incorporate computers and the Internet into schools, and recommends that we stay attuned to the kinds of economic and pedagogic pressures that teachers and schools face from often ill-conceived efforts to integrate technology into instruction, we suggest that similar concerns exist about incorporating media production into instruction, and we see little value in incorporating digital media into instruction in superficial ways. At the same time, we take Warschauer’s (2007) charge seriously, that we should “promote multimedia literacy and information literacy in schools in ways that simultaneously develop diverse students’ reading, writing, cultural literacy, and academic literacy…” (p. 44). Based on this research, we conclude that media education can help accomplish these goals if it includes production and analysis activities that connect to young people’s existing knowledge and interests in media and technology, although we recognize that doing so successfully requires a great deal of innovation—and resources—often amidst challenging institutional, social, and cultural constraints.

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Why is effective use of technology so sporadic in educational institutions?

David A. Georgina, Myrna R. Olson (2008) Integration of technology in higher education: A review of faculty self-perceptions, Internet and Higher Education 11 (2008) 1–8

The rush over the last ten years to democratize technology in higher education by pouring vast sums of money into the systematic development of technological infrastructures seems to have surpassed the ability of educational institutions to affect the successful transfer of skill and technological “know how” into the traditional classroom. The increase in technological infrastructures is a direct result of the movement to increase revenue generated by distance education through online courses (Brown, 2003; Ertmer, 2005; Garrison, & Kanuka, 2004; Katz & Associates, 1999; Schrum, Burbank, Engle, Chambers, & Glasset, 2005). The move from online distance education courses and programs towards technologically enhanced traditional classrooms and pedagogies has been much slower. The result of this slow movement seems to suggest that while low level use of technologically enhanced pedagogy is wide-spread, high-level use is more sporadic (Ertmer, 2005). The results of the study showed significant correlations between technology literacy and pedagogical practice integration. The results also revealed that faculty technology training may be maximized for the integration of pedagogy by using the training strategy of small group faculty forums with a trainer.

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What support do teachers need to use ICT meaningfully?

Anne-Grete Nøhr Elliot (2011) From Preservice Teacher Education to the Primary Classroom: An Investigation into Beginning Teachers’ Experiences with Information and Communication Technology, A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education at Massey University, Palmerston North New Zealand

The findings suggest the meaningful use of ICT requires beginning teachers to possess a high level of complex knowledge, including pedagogical content knowledge. They also highlight the importance of a supportive school culture, strong leadership and induction systems for beginning teachers’ development. Notably, participants report relatively fragile conceptions of the potential of ICT for learning and lack knowledge of national and school policies in this area. Most of the beginning teachers were unable to make connections between their work as teachers and the broader policy goals for education. Overall the study offers valuable insights into the experiences of a group of beginning teachers over their first year of teaching, which has implications for tutor teachers, principals, teacher educators and policy makers. Through a new line of research, the thesis reveals the complexity of learning to be an ICT-using teacher and the type of factors that contribute to teacher development.

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How can the value of information technology in organisations be evaluated?

Janne Laine (2009) Evaluating the Business Value of Information Technology, HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Abstract of the Master’s Thesis

The effect and role of IT in organisations is complex. On the one hand, IT affects virtually every part of corporations and is crucial and integral part of organisations core assets and capabilities, and on the other hand, IT is nothing more than a tool, an enabler, which can be utilised to accomplish certain tasks. To make matters worse, the approach differs in every organisation and also in different situations. Vast technology investments should not be justified based on instinct and opportunistic value propositions. Information technology, just as any other corporate asset, must be planned, implemented and utilised with care. Proper level of systematic analysis and planning is required to make wise information technology investment decisions. Fortunately, there are tools and techniques that can help an organisation to govern manage and operate IT effectively. This study focuses on the concept of value of information technology in its different forms and tries to help looking at technology from the reasonable perspective. Similar to successful companies in IT sector is their ability to align IT investments and IT management with corporate business strategy and to be able to look at IT investments intangible benefits and their affect on different sides of corporation’s portfolio of assets.

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How can Libraries develop strategies for phones, ipads and other mobile devices?

Munro, K., Stevenson, K., Stenson, R., Walker, W. and Fisher, C. (2011Planning for the mobile library: a strategy for managing innovation and transformation at the University of Glasgow Library. Serials: the Journal for the Serials Community, 24 . S26-S31.

Modern mobile devices have powerful features that are transforming access to information. Lippincott1 argues that as mobile devices such as smartphones become ‘key information devices’ for our users, libraries will want to have a significant presence in offering content and services that are suitable for this medium. This article outlines the process of development and implementation of a mobile strategy at the University of Glasgow Library. The most popular devices our users had were smartphones such as the iPhone, BlackBerry and those with the Android operating system, and also the iPad. What began as an investigation into a mobile interface to the library catalogue evolved into a comprehensive strategic review of how we deliver services now and in the future in this rapidly changing mobile environment.

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What are the Obstacles to Technology-Enhanced Problem-Based Learning (PBL)?

Sung Hee Park and Peggy A. Ertmer (2008) Examining barriers in technology-enhanced problem-based learning: Using a performance support systems approach, British Journal of Educational Technology Vol 39 No 4 2008

This study focused on the barriers that middle school teachers faced when implementing technology-enhanced problem-based learning (PBL) in their classrooms. Using a human performance-based model, we interviewed teachers, administrators, university faculty and technical support staff to determine the perceived importance of multiple barriers to the implementation of technology-enhanced PBL. Twenty-one teachers, two school administrators and a project manager, two faculty members, and two technical support staff participated in the study. Interview data were supported by surveys, classroom observations and researchers’ reflective journals. Results suggested that lack of a clear, shared vision was the primary barrier. Additional barriers included lack of knowledge and skills, unclear expectations and insufficient feedback. Recommendations to support teachers’ efforts to integrate technology- enhanced problem-based learning are presented.

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How can Bourdieu’s concepts help overcome the binary division of technology and society?

Jonathan Sterne (2003) Bourdieu, Technique and Technology, Cultural Studies 17(3/4) 2003, 367–389

This paper examines the place of technology in Pierre Bourdieu’s social theory, and argues for the relevance of Bourdieu’s thought to the study of technology. In moving from an examination of the status of technology in Bourdieu’s work through to his broad approach to social practice and his widely cited concept of habitus, it is argued that technologies are crystallizations of socially organized action. As such, they should be considered not as exceptional or special phenomena in a social theory, but rather as very much like other kinds of social practices that recur over time. Ultimately, through the use of Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus, field, and capital, we are able to overcome the binary divisions such as technology/society and subject/object that have plagued technology studies.

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How does IT support Social Capital?

Huysman, M.; Wulf, V. (2004): Social Capital and Information Technology, MIT-Press, Cambridge, MA 2004, pp. 1- 16

The growth in attention in networks within and between organizations makes research into the relationship between IT and Social Capital even more important. Since social capital is about connected people, the question needs to be posed if and how social capital is influenced when these connections are supported by IT. Referring to the development of IT, one has to ask how to design specific functionality to support social capital and how to set up a design processes appropriately. Research is also needed into the other direction of the relationship, namely into the question whether and to what extent social capital is needed in order to develop, to customize and to appropriate IT?

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What is modern about technology?

Thomas J Misa (2003) The Compelling Tangle of Modernity and Technology, Publisher: MIT Press, Modernity and technology (2003) Pages: 1-30

The goals of this volume are: 1. To examine modernist icons such as clocks, railways and airports in the light of social theory 2. To understand technology as an embodiments of human needs and desires, the interactions of networks and systems. Modernity is charactarized following Weber by rationalization and following Marx, by concious change. Airports are brought as examplary complexes embodying modernity and technology. Modernity is bound with technology and every human experience in the modern world is mediated by technology.As much as we may desire to escape this nexus, we must confront it as humans and scholars and this is the task of this volume. What is the relation between modernity and technology? Proposal 1: The concepts “technology and “modeniry” have a complex and tengled history. So what is modern? In popular use it means the latest and necessarily the best, phase of an ongoing parade towards a better future. It is indeed bound with the idea of progress. This tie between modern technology and social progress was central to early 20th century thinkers. Modernist artists, influenced by American technology and managerial models, emphasized too, regularity, order and rationality. More recent recent traced the origins of the modern world to earlier revolutions, such as the sientific or industrial ones, or even to economic changes in the late middle ages. Others pointed to enlightenment as the touchstone of modernity due to its concern with rationality and social progress. To conclude, modernity as a multifaceted process is very hard to capture and define.It is the same with technology. The meanings of the term changed over time, assuming their contemporary meaning only after the mid 19th century. Proposal 2: Technology may be the truely distinctive feature of modernity There is a gap between social theories and empirical studies od technology, which this volume tries to bridge. Social theorists have described modern society as subjegated to technology, which was usually presented abstracly, without any reference to the messy, disorganized way by which problem solving technolgies are born and diffused. Technology in this writing is a unitary totalizing entity which is usually contrasted with “traditional” concepts such as the “self”, “lifeworld” etc.

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How can the diffusion of ICT in Schools be better Understood Using the Concept of Social Capital?

Kenneth A Frank, Yong Zhao, Kathryn Borman (2004) Social Capital and the Diffusion of Innovations Within Organizations: The Case of Computer Technology in Schools, Sociology of Education Volume: 77, Issue: 2, Publisher: American Sociological Association, Pages: 148-171

Although the educational community has learned much about better educational practices, less is known about processes for implementing new practices. The standard model of diffusion suggests that people change perceptions about the value of an innovation through communication, and these perceptions then drive implementation. But implementation can be affected by more instrumental forces. In particular, members of a school share the common fate of the organization and affiliate with the common social system of the organization. Thus, they are more able to gain access to each others’ expertise informally and are more likely to respond to social pressure to implement an innovation, regardless of their own perceptions of the value of the innovation. This article characterizes informal access to expertise and responses to social pressure as manifestations of social capital. Using longitudinal and network data in a study of the implementation of computer technology in six schools, the authors found that the effects of perceived social pressure and access to expertise through help and talk were at least as important as the effects of traditional constructs. By implication, change agents should attend to local social capital processes that are related to the implementation of educational innovations or reforms.

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What are the discriminating variables between teachers who fully integrate IT and teachers with limited integration?

Julie Mueller, Eileen Wood, Teena Willoughby, Craig Ross, Jacqueline Spechtd (2008) Identifying discriminating variables between teachers who fully integrate computers and teachers with limited integration, Computers & Education 51(2008) 1523–1537

Given the prevalence of computers in education today, it is critical to understand teachers’ perspectives regarding computer integration in their classrooms. The current study surveyed a random sample of a heterogeneous group of 185 elementary and 204 secondary teachers in order to provide a comprehensive summary of teacher characteristics and variables that best discriminate between teachers who integrate computers and those who do not. Discriminant Function Analysis indicated seven variables for elementary teachers and six for secondary teachers (accounting for 74% and 68% of the variance, respectively) that discriminated between high and low integrators. Variables included positive teaching experiences with computers; teacher’s comfort with computers; beliefs supporting the use of computers as an instructional tool; training; motivation; support; and teaching efficacy. Implications for support of computer integration in the classroom are discussed.

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How effective was the North Carolina 1:1 program mid year?

Jenifer O. Corn, Jason W. Osborne (2009) Mid-Year Evaluation Report on the Progress of the North Carolina 1:1 Learning Technology Initiative, Friday Institute for Educational Innovation

This report focuses on the schools progress toward implementing the 1:1 environment and the barriers, successes, and lessons learned in the early stages of implementation. A combination of teacher and student surveys, focus groups and interviews, classroom observations, and analyses of existing school- level data was used. At the time of this report, the 2007-2008 School Year (SY) End-of-Course test and other student outcome data collected by NCDPI were not yet available. The intent of the evaluation is to provide information about the value of the initiative to enhance student learning, as well as to identify challenges to the successful implementation of 1:1 programs, strategies for meeting those challenges, and services and supports needed to enable successful programs throughout the State.

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How does a 1:1 Learning Environment Support Special Needs?

Jenifer O. CornJennifer Tingen, Ruchi Patel (2011) Examining Issues Critical to a 1:1 Learning Environment: Special Needs, Friday Institute for Educational Innovation

In the spring of 2008, the North Carolina State Board of Education awarded a contract to the Friday Institute for Educational Innovation to conduct a three-year evaluation of the NC 1:1 LearningTechnology Initiative (NCLTI) pilot schools. The evaluation includes eight Early College high schools and ten traditional high schools, with a total across the 18 schools of approximately 9,500 students and 600 school staff.  In these schools, every teacher and student received a laptop computer, and wireless Internet access was provided throughout the school.  The overall goal of the initiative is to use the technology to improve teaching practices, increase student achievement, and better prepare students for work, citizenship, and life in the 21st century. The intent of the evaluation was to provide information about whether the initiative enhanced student learning, as well as to identify challenges to successful implementation of 1:1 programs, strategies for meeting those challenges, and services and supports needed to enable successful programs throughout the State.

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How does a Library laptop checkout program work?

Arthur Gutierrez, Terri Pedersen Summey (2011) The Wireless Library:  An Assessment of a Library Laptop Program, CULS Proceedings, Volume 1, 2011

Approximately five years ago, the library at Emporia State University started a laptop checkout program to provide laptops for students and faculty members to checkout and use while they are in the library.  The program has been highly successful with students often waiting in line to be able to check out a laptop.  In 2009, the library purchased eight Netbooks to see how they would be received by the individuals using the laptop checkout program.  With the beginning of the Fall 2010 semester, some modifications were made to the laptop checkout program including reducing the fines for late returns and extending the checkout period.  Because the program has been in place for some time, the librarians at the Emporia State University Libraries would like to assess the program by surveying the individuals that check out laptops from the library.  In this article, the authors will explore laptop programs in a variety of library settings, present details on the ESU Libraries Laptop Checkout program, discuss the survey results, present what the library faculty and staff have learned, and potential future modifications to the program.

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Does the ICT PD Cluster Model developed in New Zealand work?

John Clayton (2010) The provision of professional development in ICT: a New Zealand perspective ,Waikato Institute of Technology, Hamilton, New Zealand, The 17th Association for Learning Technology Conference (ALT-C 2010). Association for Learning Technology (ALT), pp. 1-10

Over the last two decades there have been significant increases in the integration of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in New Zealand schools. Investment in infrastructure, equipment and applications has been supported by a corresponding increase in the funding for Professional Development (PD) provision for teachers in ICT. This is based on the assumption that the level of competence and confidence of teachers in ICT directly impacts on the capacity and capability of schools to positively engage their learners in ICT-supported learning environments. Influenced by the school reforms of the late 1980s (Tomorrow’s Schools) a school-administered model of professional development, the ICT PD Cluster Model, was conceived by the New Zealand Ministry of Education in 1996. This model encouraged groups of schools (clusters) to reflect upon the potential impact and influence of ICTs on their learning communities. The outcome of this process, combined with schools’ existing knowledge of their teachers’ capabilities and confidence in ICT, influenced decisions on the focus, design, delivery and assessment of professional development activities.  The dual purpose of this paper is to firstly, review the ICT PD cluster model and describe those key features that could be considered ‘best practice’ and secondly, identify those attributes that either enabled or impeded ICT PD Cluster implementations and the critical organisational and operational success factors which should be followed in any future model of ICT PD implementation.

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What conditions foster ICT implementation in the curriculum?

Rafi Nachmias, David Mioduser, Alona Forkosh-Baruch (2008) Innovative Pedagogical Practices Using Technology: The Curriculum Perspective, INTERNATIONAL HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, Springer International Handbooks of Education, 2008, Volume 20, 2, 163-179,

Information and communication technologies (ICT) have affected our lives for over half a century. Yet, the school’s curriculum is still perceived as traditional in its structure and implementation. Attempts to assimilate ICT into schools’ curricula are frequently supported by policymakers. However, significant change in content, teaching and learning processes and assessment methods can actually be detected mainly in focal innovative initiatives within schools. This chapter analyzes case studies of innovative IT-supported pedagogical practices from 28 countries. The analysis refers to conditions required for fostering ICT implementation in the curriculum, with regards to new demands for teaching and learning. This suggests analysis of ICT-related curricular issues in separate subject areas, as well as in integrated subject domains. Further, we discuss desired changes in existing curricula, which may lead to innovative ICT implementation within schools.

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Is it ICT or the ICT supported tasks that foster student engagement?

Sue Gregory, Ian Lloyd (2010) Accepting Choices: To ICT or Not to ICT: Engagement!!!, ACEC2010: DIGITAL DIVERSITY CONFERENCE

Over a period of several weeks 16 male students in a middle school were required to complete a project to measure their level of engagement using Information Communication Technology (ICT). During the lessons students were observed by the classroom teacher, two pre-service teachers and an ICT education lecturer, who assisted, photographed, videoed and interviewed students. Students were also requested to complete survey questions on three occasions throughout the project. The project required student to use anything they desired, technology or otherwise, to research and present their findings in order persuade the observers to choose their group’s project. The tasks of the onlookers were to observe whether students were engaged, or otherwise, in the production and presentation of their project. The degree of engagement when using ICT is dependant on a student’s ability to choose how and when to implement ICT. Engagement is the combination of feelings (emotional), observable actions or performance (behavioural) and perceptions and beliefs (cognitive). Many observations were made about the students’ choice of whether to use ICT or not and this paper addresses the results of their engagement in the task.

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How can the iPad support EFL Digital Literacy?

Robert C Meurant (2010) The iPad and EFL Digital Literacy, Signal Processing and Multimedia (2010) Volume: 123

In future, the uses of English by non-native speakers will predominantly be online, using English language digital resources, and in computer mediated communication with other non-native speakers of English. Thus for Korea to be competitive in the global economy, its EFL should develop L2 Digital Literacy in English. With its fast Internet connections, Korea is the most wired nation on Earth; but ICT facilities in educational institutions need reorganization. Opportunities for computer-mediated second language learning need to be increased, providing multimedia-capable, mobile web solutions that put the Internet into the hands of all students and teachers. Wi-Fi networked campuses allow any campus space to act as a wireless classroom. Every classroom should have a teacher’s computer console. All students should be provided with adequate computing facilities, that are available anywhere, anytime. Ubiquitous computing has now become feasible by providing every student on enrollment with a tablet: a Wi-Fi+3G enabled Apple iPad.

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How does the iPad Contribute to Mobile Learning?

Melhuish, K. & Falloon, G. (2010). Looking to the future: M-learning with the iPad. Computers in New Zealand Schools: Learning, Leading, Technology , 22 (3).

This paper explores the potential affordances and limitations of the Apple iPad in the wider context of emergent mobile learning theory, and the social and economic drivers that fuel technology development. Against the background of effective teaching and learning, the functionality offered by the iPad, and its potential uses for learning, are discussed. A critical review of the way the iPad may support learning, that draws on learning theory, contemporary articles and e-learning literature, suggests that the device may offer an exciting platform for consuming and creating content in a collaborative, interactive way. However, of greater importance is that effective, evidence-driven, innovative practices, combined with a clear-sighted assessment of the advantages and limitations of any product, should take priority over the device itself.

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