Using the power of research to inform ICT integration in education

Posts tagged ‘technology and professional development’

What is the relationship between teacher beliefs and technology integration practices?

Peggy A. Ertmer, Anne T. Ottenbreit-Leftwichb, Olgun Sadik, Emine Sendurur, Polat Sendurur (2012) Teacher beliefs and technology integration practices: A critical relationship, Computers & Education 59 (2012) 423–435

Although efforts are still needed to provide ubiquitous technology access to teachers and their students, little will be gained if second-order barriers (knowledge and skills, attitudes and beliefs) are not addressed.  We are still woefully short of classroom environments that permit students to engage with technology in a way that prepares them to use technology in the real world. The results of this study suggest we should be utilizing the same technology tools for professional development that teachers are able to use in their classrooms: “It is time for our education workforce to engage in learning the way other professionals do continually, collaboratively, and on the job to address common problems and crucial challenges where they work”.  Web 2.0 technologies, such as blogs and wikis, enabled many of the teachers in this study to develop new ideas for their classrooms. Teachers should be introduced to the idea of joining and/or developing their own professional learning networks. PLNs allow teachers to select one or multiple Web 2.0 technologies by which they can “follow” individual teachers or organizations. This method of professional development is effective due to the “individualized focus, context-based learning, and empowerment of teachers”.

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What are the necessary conditions for ICT to support teaching and learning in primary schools?

Cher Ping Lim & Grace Oakley (2013) Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in Primary Education: Opportunities and Supporting Conditions in L.Y. Tay & C.P. Lim (eds.), Creating Holistic Technology-Enhanced Learning Experiences, 1–18.

The authors highlight the opportunities and potentials of ICT for teaching and learning in primary (elementary) education. However, they also acknowledge that ICT in the primary classrooms do not guarantee enhanced learning, though they do outline how ICT could be used to facilitate the learning of 21st century skills, literacy, numeracy and science. In addition, they also listed the necessary and sufficient conditions to support ICT for teaching and learning in primary schools. These necessary and sufficient conditions are: (1) policy and school leadership; (2) physical and technological infrastructure; (3) curriculum and assessment; and (4) professional development for teachers.

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What could an iPad Professional Development Program look like?

Rebecca J. Hogue (2013) iPad Professional Development Program (iPDP), Proceedings of the 11th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning.

Scholars who have studied the adoption of technology in educational settings, believe that professional development is necessary for its successful adoption. This paper addresses a need for an iPad Professional Development Program (iPDP) to support the adoption of iPad tablet computers in higher education teaching and learning. The proposed iPDP is a hybrid program involving both face-to-face learner interventions and online resources. The program is made up of three interrelated components: (a) an online resource that supports the entire program, (b) an introductory workshop (iPadogogy) targeted at pre-adoption learners; and, (c) a knowledge-sharing event targeted at all learners. This paper describes: the components of an iPDP; the design considerations for each of the components; and, the limitation of the proposed iPDP.

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What do ICT teachers think about the introduction of ICT in Primary Education in Greece?

Tziafetas Konstantinos, Avgerinos Andreas, Tsampika Karakiza (2013) Views of ICT teachers about the introduction of ICT in Primary Education in Greece, The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

The difficulties in the effective integration of ICT in the classroom make the subject a constant challenge for modern educational systems. The “New School”, an innovative new curriculum applied experimentally in Greek schools, introduces the full and effective use of ICT in all aspects of school reality. Prominent in this effort is the role of ICT teachers. Given the vague framework which describes the integration of ICT in primary schools with reformed curriculum, it is important to investigate the views of ICT teachers in relation to the aims of the Ministry of Education and the obstacles they encounter in their teaching process. The research results reveal that on one hand, there is a considerable confusion among teachers with regard to their role and on the other hand, there are several external and internal barriers to effective teaching

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How do iPads impact language learning in Kindergarten?

Margareth Sandvik, Ole Smørdal & Svein Østerud (2012) Exploring iPads in Practitioners’ Repertoires for Language Learning and Literacy Practices in Kindergarten, Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, 03/2012

We have explored the role of a tablet computer (the Apple iPad) and a shared display as extensions of a practitioner’s repertoire for language learning and literacy practices in a multicultural kindergarten. In collaboration with a practitioner, an intervention was designed that included the use of two iPad apps in a language learning and literacy practice session with a group of 5 children aged 5. We have analysed the conversations around the tablet computers and in front of a shared display, trying to identify types of talk. The roles of the iPads, the apps and the shared display are discussed in relation to the types of talk, engagement and playfulness observed in the activities. We argue that the intervention led to valuable activities for language learning and literacy practices. The two selected apps differ in their levels of structure (directed vs. open) and genre (show and tell vs. fairy tale), and this difference will be discussed in relation to the types of conversation they initiate, and the extent to which they enable the children to transfer experiences from books and hence develop their literacy to include digital and multimodal resources.

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How can Social Networking be a Vehicle for Teacher Professional Development?

Michael Sammartano (2011) Social Networking as a Vehicle for Teacher Professional Development, New York Institute of Technology, Masters of Science in Instructional Technology

Social networking has the potential to transform education-related professional development by connecting teachers quickly and inexpensively, regardless of the physical distance or other barriers that may seperate them. Incorporating these digital tools into teachers learning can expand and improve existing professional relationships, while fostering an environment in which new ones can be built. This study explores the extent to which K-12 teachers currently utilize a variety of social media tools to further their professional learning. (..) Overall, the research revealed that few educators utilize social networking tools for professional reasons. Data showed that there is a desire amongst the respondents to incorporate more digital media into future professional development activities, though a significant population wanted to maintain at least some level of face-to-face interaction. Implications suggest that increased integration of social media as a vehicle for professional development will better meet the needs of many educators.

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Does digital immersion improve students digital literacy skills?

Land, J. (2012). Does digital immersion improve students digital literacy skills? Computers in New Zealand Schools: Vol. 24, No 1. pp. 4-20.

When introducing a 1:1 programme or similar, you need to allow time to teach the students how to use the tools. A study by Dunleavy, Dextert and Heinecket (2007) concluded by saying that, “In order to create effective learning environments, teachers need opportunities to learn what instruction and assessment practices, curricular resources, and classroom management skills work best in a 1:1 student to networked laptop classroom setting” (p. 450). We need to bear this in mind when introducing any programme, and allow time to teach the teachers as well as the students.

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What is the role of instructional practices in successful implementation of a 1:1 program?

Jenifer O. Corn, Jennifer T. Tagsold, Ruchi K. Patel (2011) The Tech‐Savvy Teacher: Instruction in a 1:1 Learning Environment, Journal of Educational Research and Practice, 2011, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 1–22

A research team conducted an evaluation of a laptop initiative in 18 North Carolina high schools through administrator, teacher, and student focus groups; teacher and student surveys; and classroom observations. The study aimed to provide information about the value of the laptop initiative in enhancing student learning. In addition, it intended to identify challenges to the successful implementation of 1:1 programs, strategies for meeting those challenges, and services and supports needed to enable successful 1:1 programs throughout the state. This paper explores how the initiative affected instructional practice in areas such as technology use, communication, the role of the teacher, and the learning environment. It also discusses unique challenges for teachers in a 1:1 environment, as well as implications for educators and administrators.

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Why does the Island of Innovation Model fail to support Technology Innovation in Education?

Orit Avidov-Ungar and Yoram Eshet-Alkakay (2011) The Islands of Innovation Model: Opportunities and Threats for Effective Implementation of Technological Innovation in the Education System, Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology, Volume 8, 2011

In recent years, there have been an increasing number of educational technology-integration projects which employ the Islands of Innovation model. According to this model, technological innovation is implemented in small islands within an organization, in the hope that they will be imitated, permeate the whole organization with their values and lead to overall, comprehensive innovation and to a new organizational culture. Studies on technological innovation implementation in education systems show that for the most part, islands of innovation fail to generate overall, comprehensive innovation. The article warns against the stagnation that these islands of innovation may cause organization managements, which use them as an excuse to consider themselves innovative, and warns against unsupervised, poorly thoughtout use of this model for technological innovation implementation.

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Can Technology for Personalising Learning (TPL) support better pedagogical use of ICT?

Jones, Mellita M. and McLean, Karen J. (2012) “Personalising Learning in Teacher Education through the use of Technology,” Australian Journal of Teacher Education: Vol. 37: Iss. 1, Article 5.

This paper considers the components of personalising learning and describes one approach to creating a technology-infused learning environment that has been trialled in the tertiary sector. The key focus of this trial was the effective integration of technology as an enabler of personalising learning. Findings indicate that meaningful student learning experiences can be achieved through a personalised approach which also supports the emerging tenets of effective, pedagogical use of ICT for learning. These findings led to a model of Technology for Personalising Learning (TPL) which is presented as a planning framework through which personalising learning with technology can be achieved in higher education.

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How is Media Literacy approached in Germany?

Gerard Tulodziecki, Silke Grafe (2012) Approaches to Learning with Media and Media Literacy Education – Trends and Current Situation in Germany, The National Association for Media Literacy Education’s Journal of Media Literacy Education 4:1 (2012) 44 – 60

German approaches to media literacy education are concerned with the questions, how the variety of media can be used in a meaningful way for learning and teaching and what educational tasks result from the extensive use of media. Considering these questions there are various conceptual ideas, research and development projects as well as implementations into practice in the field of education and teacher training. The development and the current situation of approaches to media literacy education in Germany are described and discussed in the article. Thereby, the focus is on media literacy education in schools.

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Can Android App Inventor Bring Computational Thinking to K-12 learners?

R. Morelli, T. de Lanerolle, P. Lake, N.Limardo, B. Tamotsu, C. Uche (2010) Can Android App Inventor Bring Computational Thinking to K-12?  Unpublished, September 2010.

App Inventor for Android is a new visual programming plat- form for creating mobile applications for Android-based smart phones. This paper reports on the summer component of an ongoing project aimed at addressing whether App Inven- tor would be a suitable platform for bringing computational thinking to K-12 students. The project brought together a team consisting of two high school CS teachers, two novice undergraduate computing students, a community outreach leader, and a college CS instructor. The students were eas- ily able to develop complex mobile apps completely on their own initiative. Overall, the team found App Inventor to be an accessible and powerful platform that could well support introductory level courses at the college and K-12 levels.

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How can Google Fusion facilitate data sharing and collaboration?

Hector Gonzalez, Alon Y. Halevy, Christian S. Jensen, Anno Langen, Jayant Madhavan, Rebecca Shapley, Warren Shen, Jonathan Goldberg-Kidon (2010) Google Fusion Tables: Web-Centered Data Management and Collaboration,  SIGMOD’10, June 6–11

Google Fusion Tables represents an initial answer to the question of how data management functionality that focussed on enabling new users and applications would look in today’s computing environment. This paper characterizes such users and applications and highlights the resulting principles, such as seamless Web integration, emphasis on ease of use, and incentives for data sharing, that underlie the design of Fusion Tables. We describe key novel features, such as the sup- port for data acquisition, collaboration, visualization, and web-publishing.

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How can Educational Games Enhance Adaptive Learning in Virtual Learning Environments?

Angel del Blanco, Javier Torrente, Pablo Moreno-Ger, Baltasar Fernández-Manjón (2011) Enhancing Adaptive Learning and Assessment in Virtual Learning Environments with Educational Games, Intelligent Learning Systems and Advancements in Computer-Aided Instruction: Emerging Studies

The rising acceptance of Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) in the e- Learning field poses new challenges such as producing student-centered courses which can be automatically tailored to each student’s needs. For this purpose digital games can be used, taking advantage of their flexibility (good video games always try to adapt to different players) and capabilities to stealthily track players’ activity, either for producing an accurate user model or enhancing the overall assessment capabilities of the system. In this chapter we discuss the integration of digital games in Virtual Learning Environments and the need of standards that allow the interoperable communication of games and VLE. We also present a middle-ware architecture to integrate video games in VLEs that addresses the technical barriers posed by the integration. We present a case study with the implementation of the architecture in the <e-Adventure> game authoring platform, along with three examples of video game integration in educational settings.

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What affects teachers’ use of technology?

Debbie Beaudry (2011) Technology and Fifth Grade Teaching: a Study of Teacher Reported Classroom Practice, Professional Development, Access, and Support, A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the College of Education in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Florida Atlantic University Boca Raton, FL December 2011

This mixed methods study investigated 5th-grade teachers’ reported use of computer technology and variables that have been identified by researchers as affecting teachers’ use of technology, including professional development activities, physical access to computer technology, and technical and instructional support provided for teachers. Quantitative data were collected from 80 5th-grade teachers from a Florida public school district through an online survey in which teachers reported how frequently they used and had their students use computer technology for 27 different purposes. The teachers also reported the amount of emphasis those 27 different topics received during their technology-related professional development experiences, the number of hours they participated in technology-related professional development, the number of months they participating in a technology coaching/mentoring program, the access their students had to computers in the classroom and in a one-to-one computing environment, and the frequency that they received technical and instructional support. Information from the school district’s technology plan provided a context for the study.

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What does learning look like in an age of digital networks?

Jones, Chris and Sclater, Niall (2010). Learning in an age of digital networks. International Preserva- tion News, 55 pp. 6–10.

The final years of the twentieth century and early years of the twenty first century have been marked by the rapid rise of digital and networked technologies. Some have even called it a paradigm shift and suggested that it will lead to a dramatic change in the way young people learn (Tapscott and Williams 2010). As with all commentary on new technologies we should beware of being carried away with the excitement of the new. There is a recurrent innovation cycle beginning with over excitement followed by disappointment and once the reaction has set in against the new it is followed a move away to yet another new technology, often before a proper assessment and evaluation of the previous cycle can take place. Equally we must be careful not to ignore the profound changes that are taking place and how they may affect universities and learning in society more generally.

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How can technology enhance learning and teaching?

Price, Linda and Kirkwood, Adrian (2011). Enhancing professional learning and teaching through technology: a synthesis of evidence-based practice among teachers in higher education. Higher Education Academy, York, UK.

Technology has the potential effectively to support learning and teaching in a number of situations. However, the manner in which the technology was used and aligned with the goals and aspirations of the learner was an important consideration. Practitioners do not appear to be capitalising on existing evidence. More emphasis appears to be placed on generating new evidence rather than evidence driving new practices. Teachers’ beliefs and practices are influential in determining how they engage with technology. The context of both the student and the teacher is also influential in determining the successfulness of learning and teaching practices with technology. Academic developers have key roles in supporting practitioners in engaging with relevant evidence while also supporting the development of their beliefs and practices concerning learning and teaching with technology. Policy makers have key roles in determining the integration of technology, as they influence the culture within which practitioners operate and hence their actions.

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What is the role of blogging for twenty first century professional academic practitioners?

Kirkup, Gill (2010). Academic blogging, academic practice and academic identity. London Review of Education, 8(1), pp. 75–84.

This paper describes a small scale study which investigates the role of blogging in professional academic practice in higher education. It draws on interviews with a small sample of academics (scholars, researchers and teachers) who have blogs and on the author’s own reflections on blogging to investigate the professional benefits and costs of academic blogging. It argues that blogging offers a new genre of authoritative and accessible academic textual production, and in this way is changing the nature of what it is to be a twenty first century academic practitioner.

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Does combining technology knowledge with a problem based learning approach impact students’ learning?

Walker, A; Recker, M; Ye, L; Robertshaw, B; Sellers, L; and Leary, H. (2012) Comparing Technology-Related Teacher Professional Development Designs: a Multilevel Study of Teacher and Student Impacts, The Instructional Architect Research Group. Paper 6.

This article presents a quasi-experimental study comparing the impact of two technology-related teacher professional development (TTPD) designs, aimed at helping junior high school science and mathematics teachers design online activities using the rapidly growing set of online learning resources available on the Internet. The first TTPD design (tech-only) focused exclusively on enhancing technology knowledge and skills for finding, selecting, and designing classroom activities with online resources, while the second (tech+pbl) coupled technology knowledge with learning to design problem-based learning (PBL) activities for students. Both designs showed large pre-post gains for teacher participants (N=36) in terms of self-reported knowledge, skills, and technology integration. Significant interaction effects show that teachers in the tech+pbl group had larger gains for self-reported knowledge and externally rated use of PBL. Three generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were fit to study the impact on students’ (N=1,247) self reported gains in behavior, knowledge, and attitudes. In the resulting models, students of tech+pbl teachers showed significant increases in gain scores for all three outcomes. By contrast, students of tech-only teachers showed improved gains only in attitudes.

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How can Libraries adopt ‘Information in Context’ structures to facilitate organizational learning?

Somerville, M.M.& Howard,Z. (2010) Information in context: Co- designing workplace structures and systems for organizational learning. Information Research, 15(4).

This paper discusses an ‘information in context’ design project at Auraria Library in Denver, Colorado which aims to collaboratively create organizational structures and communication systems with and for library employees. This project resulted in several of the co-designed knowledge initiatives being implemented within Auraria Library to enhance communication, decision making and planning systems. These included both face to face and technology enabled initiatives such as such as ‘brown bag’ lunches to a new wiki based intranet system. This project advances professional practice through better understanding how to create workplace contexts that cultivate individual and collective learning through situated ‘information in context’ experiences. An appreciative framework was developed which values information sharing and enables knowledge creation through shared leadership.

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Does presenting the same material in written and spoken form really benefit learning and understanding?

Slava Kalyuga, Paul Chandler, John Sweller (2004Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Fall 2004 vol. 46 no. 3 567-581

It is frequently assumed that presenting the same material in written and spoken form benefits learning and understanding. The present work provides a theoretical justification based on cognitive load theory, and empirical evidence based on controlled experiments, that this assumption can be incorrect. From a theoretical perspective, it is suggested that if learners are required to coordinate and simultaneously process redundant material such as written and spoken text, an excessive working memory load is generated. Three experiments involving a group of 25 technical apprentices compared the effects of simultaneously presenting the same written and auditory textual information as opposed to either temporally separating the two modes or eliminating one of the modes. The first two experiments demonstrated that nonconcurrent presentation of auditory and visual explanations of a diagram proved superior, in terms of ratings of mental load and test scores, to a concurrent presentation of the same explanations when instruction time was constrained. The 3rd experiment demonstrated that a concurrent presentation of identical auditory and visual technical text (without the presence of diagrams) was significantly less efficient in comparison with an auditory-only text. Actual or potential applications of this research include the design and evaluation of multimedia instructional systems and audiovisual displays.

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What are the psychological and sociological barriers to the learning of new technology?

Paschalina (Lilia) Ziamou, Stephen Gould, Alladi Venkatesh (2010) “Am I Getting It or Not?” The Practices Involved in “Trying to Consume” a New Technology, Journal of Product Innovation Management, Volume 29, Issue 2, pages 216–228, March 2012

In recent years, high rates of failure of technology-based products have spurred interest in understanding the psychological and sociological barriers to consumer learning of technological innovations. We conducted a real-time study of consumers’ initial interactions with a new technology using verbal protocols in order to understand consumers’ learning experience. We identified three major factors that hinder the consumer’s learning process: (a) interface and functionality practices, (b) social influence, and (3) causal attributions. The results show how each factor hinders the learning process and suggest how managers can influence consumer learning of technological innovations.

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Are Students More ICT Literate Than Their Teachers?

Saeid MORADI-REKABDARKOLAEI (2011) The Comparison of ICT’ Literacy between Teachers and Students and Presenting a Model for Development of ICT in Schools, Journal of  TURKISH SCIENCE EDUCATION Volume 8, Issue 4, December 2011

The major goal of the research is “the comparison of ICT’ literacy between teachers and students in Iran’s schools and presenting a model for development of information and communication technology literacy in schools”. A group sample of teachers, 367 and a group sample of students, 384 were selected through simple random sampling method. Deductive analysis of the data shows that for all five factors, there is a meaningful difference between ICT literacy of teachers and students. General result of the research shows that ICT literacy of students in all factors is higher and greater than teachers’.

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How do professionals manage their personal professional networks?

Kamakshi Rajagopal, Desirée Joosten–ten Brinke, Jan Van Bruggen, and Peter B. Sloep (2012) Understanding personal learning networks: Their structure, content and the networking skills needed to optimally use them, First Monday, Volume 17, Number 1 – 2 January 2012

Networking is a key skill in professional careers, supporting the individual’s growth and learning. However, little is known about how professionals intentionally manage the connections in their personal networks and which factors influence their decisions in connecting with others for the purpose of learning. In this article, we present a model of personal professional networking for creating a personal learning network, based on an investigation through a literature study, semi–structured interviews and a survey.

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How are School Leaders using Data-Driven Decision-Making to Improve Schools?

Guadalupe H. Simpson (2011) School Leaders’ use of Data-Driven Decision-Making for School Improvement: A Study of Promising Practices in two California Charter Schools, A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of USC Rossier School of Education University of Southern California In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor Of Education

The current interest in using data-driven decision-making in schools has focused on how best to use student achievement data to meet the demands of current accountability requirements. The purpose of this study was to investigate promising practices specific to school leaders’ use of data-driven decision-making for school improvement at two California charter schools. The study found that the greatest impact of using data-driven decision- making was on results of high student achievement and on the improvement of teaching strategies to meet student needs. By establishing a strong data-driven school culture, daily classroom observations, professional development, and providing teachers with ongoing support, school leaders experienced a profound impact on student achievement.

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How do IT Teachers Use Differentiated Instruction and Assess for Understanding?

Rollins, R. L. (2012) Assessing the Understanding and Use of Differentiated Instruction: A Comparison of Novice and Experienced Technology Education Teachers, A dissertation submitted to the Graduate Faculty of North Carolina State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Education.

The primary purpose of this quantitative online study was to assess the extent to which Technology Education teachers in the state of North Carolina understand and use differentiated instructional components. Additionally, this study examined the differences between novice and experienced TED teachers’ understanding and use of differentiated instructional components. Differentiated instruction is a philosophy which governs practices for addressing the needs of academically diverse students within the classroom. Modifications are made to the content, process, products and learning environment. Data collected from 127 Technology Education teachers were organized, analyzed, and summarized using descriptive statistics. The findings suggest that TED teachers collectively understand and use differentiated instructional components. However, as it relates to years of teaching experience, novice and experienced statistically differed in their understanding of content differentiation, process differentiation, and product differentiation. Additionally, TED novice teachers reported using the component of product differentiation the least.

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How Do Exemplary Science Teachers Use Technology?

Meral Hakverdi-Can,  Thomas M. Dana (2012) EXEMPLARY SCIENCE TEACHERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY, The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology – January 2012, volume 11 Issue 1

The purpose of this study is to examine exemplary science teachers’ level of computer use, their knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, how often they required their students to use those applications in or for their science class and factors influencing their decisions in using technology in the classroom. The sample of this study includes middle and high school science teachers who received the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science Teaching Award. Analysis of the survey responses indicated that exemplary science teachers have a variety of knowledge/skills in using computer related applications/tools. The most commonly used computer applications/tools are information retrieval via the Internet, presentation tools, online communication, digital cameras, and data collection probes. Results of the study revealed that students’ use of technology in their science classroom is highly correlated with the frequency of their science teachers’ use of computer applications/tools.

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How Is Instructional Technology Being Integrated in Higher Education?

Mariya Markova (2011) Integrating Instructional Technology into Higher Education, A dissertation submitted to the faculty of Franklin Pierce University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Arts in Leadership in the College of Graduate and Professional Studies.

This dissertation presents the findings of an in-depth study conducted at two universities in New England. The purpose of this study is to identify the reasons why higher education faculties are not fully embracing instructional technology. Findings suggest that many faculty members view the instructional technology to be difficult to apply to existing instructional methodologies. In addition, existing technology infrastructure appears to be inadequate and unreliable. While technical problems persist, the primary cause of faculty resistance at this time relates to a lack of adequate faculty development and training resources. Results suggest, given the increasing sophistication of instructional technology, institutions should require a higher degree of technological proficiency than most faculty members currently possess.

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What do Physical Education Teachers Think about Integrating Technology in Physical Education?

Rolf Kretschmann (2012) What do Physical Education Teachers Think about Integrating Technology in Physical Education? European Journal of Social Sciences ISSN 1450-2267 Vol.27 No.3 (2012), pp. 444-448

In an exploratory approach 114 physical education teachers in selected secondary schools in Stuttgart (Germany) were surveyed using a questionnaire for the use of digital media in physical education. The questionnaire contained items for media equipment, media literacy, learning outcome, motivation, gender aspects, and comparison of analog and digital media.In summary, based on the empirical findings, said resistance and skepticism about digital media in physical education among physical education teachers can rather be approved than dispelled. Exemplarily, most physical education teachers stated by overwhelming majority that their teaching in physical education was successful even without integrating digital media at all.

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Blended Learning or E-learning?

Maryam Tayebinik, Marlia Puteh (2012) Blended Learning or E-learning? International Magazine on Advances in Computer Science and Telecommunications, volume 3 number 1 february 2012 , Special Issue on International Conference on Advanced Information System, E-Education and Development ICAISED 2012, Malaysia

ICT or Information and Communication Technology has pervaded the fields of education. In recent years the term “e-learning” has emerged as a result of the integration of ICT in the education fields. Following the application this technology into teaching, some pitfalls have been identified and this have led to the “Blended learning” phenomenon. However, the preference on this new method has been debated quite extensively. The aim of this paper is to investigate the advantages of blended learning over face-to-face instruction through reviews of related literature. The present survey revealed that blended learning is more favorable than pure e- learning and offers many advantages for learners like producing a sense of community or belonging. This study concludes that blended learning can be considered as an efficient approach of distance learning in terms of students’ learning experience, student-student interaction as well as student-instructor interaction and is likely to emerge as the predominant education model in the future.

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How can Serious Games Support Education?

Mary Ulicsak,  Martha Wright (2010) Games in Education: Serious Games,  A Futurelab literature review

It is argued that digital games, including simulations and virtual worlds, have the potential to be an important teaching tool because they are interactive, engaging and immersive activities. This document begins by briefly considering the rationale for using games in education – informal and formal. It then considers the various types of digital games that are described as being educational. The report then has an overview of their current use and research around their usage in multiple environments: the military, health, informal, vocational and formal education settings. It looks at the challenges of embedding serious games in formal education and three current methods for assessing appropriateness and effectiveness of games for teaching. From this it argues that what is required is a toolkit for educators, game designers and policy makers that allows the design and assessment of games to be used with an educational goal.

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Can a Virtual Reality Library help students develop information literacy skills?

Jamshid Beheshti (2012) Teens, Virtual Environments and Information Literacy, Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, Volume 38, Issue 3

As digital natives, the vast majority of teens are used to cellphones, text messaging, social networking sites and other forms of electronic communications and technologies. Though rooted in the digital world for many of their daily activities, teens lack basic information literacy skills for academic tasks and other demands. Specific instruction through the educational system may not be feasible, but it may be possible to build teens’ information competence through interactive virtual learning environments. Game-style virtual environments are highly motivating and engaging, providing opportunities for repeated practice and reward for persistence and achieving goals. A virtual reality library, VRLibrary, was constructed, collaboratively designed by young teens and adults, based on the metaphor of a physical library. Teens could wander the virtual space and browse links to age-appropriate websites presented as virtual books. VRLibrary was very positively received and succeeded at engaging teen users. A librarian avatar could be incorporated to provide help as needed with a user’s information seeking.

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How can Library Media specialists be leaders in Professional Learning Communities?

Leslie E. Brantley (2011) The Leadership Role of the Library Media Specialist in a Professional Learning Community, a research paper submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Library Science and Information Services in the Department of Educational Leadership and Human Development University of Central Missouri

The Professional Learning Community (PLC) concept has been adopted by school districts as a model for professional development. A PLC requires strong leadership to function. The library media specialist is a natural servant-leader in school districts. The problem under study is what leadership role does the library media specialist play in a PLC? This is a review of the literature of PLC leadership and the role of the library media specialist in the PLC. The research demonstrates how the library media specialist fulfills a servant-leadership role in the daily structure of the school. The adoption of the PLC concept provides an opportunity to elevate the servant-leadership role of the library media specialist through collaboration, instructional leadership, and in the creation of a learning commons.

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Do ICT Competences Support Educational Attainment at University?

Kurt De Wit, Dirk Heerwegh (2012) Do ICT Competences Support Educational Attainment at University?, Journal of Information Technology Education: Research Volume 11, 2012

Taking into account that universities assume students will have at least some basic knowledge of the use of computers and the Internet, we hypothesize that the command of ICT skills by freshmen could have an influence on their educational attainment. To test this hypothesis an online questionnaire was used, which was answered by a representative sample of 1,529 freshmen studying at a large university. Four factors are very powerful in predicting a student’s educational attainment: the GPA in secondary school, the number of hours spent weekly on the study of maths in secondary school, the study of classical languages in secondary school, and any ambivalent feelings about the chosen study subject. Contrary to our expectations, ICT social contact skills and basic ICT skills do not provide a better prediction of educational attainment, whereas maintenance skills do.

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What is the potential of narrative technology?

Tony Hall (2012) Digital Renaissance: The Creative Potential of Narrative Technology in Education, Creative Education 2012. Vol.3, No.1, 96-100

This paper outlines research which explores the potential of narrative technology: the synergy of storytelling and computing to enhance creativity and creative education. The paper outlines the theoretical basis of the research: nöogenic narrative, which is informed by contemporary debates and themes in the educational sciences. These include narrativity and storytelling in education; and positive and humanistic psychology. Furthermore, from an empirical/practical perspective, a number of examples of narrative technology are presented and discussed. These exemplify the principal ways in which narrative technology has been deployed in the research-enhanced teaching outlined in this paper: as both a pedagogical, and as a reflective methodology. The paper concludes with insights regarding the deployment of narrative technology to enhance creativity and creative education; and how the synergy of storytelling and computing is potentially affording new possibilities for a digital renaissance in education and educational technology.

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What is the impact of performance system-based instruction with peer instruction on student learning?

Tracy Michelle Hunter Allison (2012) The Impact of Classroom Performance System-Based Instruction with Peer Instruction Upon Student Achievement and Motivation in Eighth Grade Math Students, A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Education Liberty University January, 2012

The results of this study indicated that eighth grade students who received Classroom Performance System (CPS) based math instruction combined with Peer Instruction (PI) showed a statistically significant difference in posttest scores compared to eighth grade students who received CPS-based math instruction without PI. The findings from this study also demonstrated that student mean scores for motivation were statistically significantly different on two out of four subscales for eighth grade students who received CPS-based math instruction in conjunction with PI compared to eighth grade students who did not receive CPS-based math instruction with PI. Thus, this study suggests that the variable of PI used in conjunction with CPS has a positive effect on enhancing student achievement and certain aspects of student motivation in eighth grade students.

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How can administrators facilitate technology integration in their school?

Bryan Berrett, Jennifer Murphy and Jamie Sullivan (2012) Administrator Insights and Reflections: Technology Integration in Schools, The Qualitative Report Volume 17 Number 1 January 2012 200-221

There are numerous technology tools that educators utilize to support student learning. Often, technology is mandated from the top down with school administrators’ responsible for overseeing the implementation. Innovative technological approaches to learning often meet resistance within schools. The pervasive culture in education is counteractive to technology integration, which may be useful to pedagogy and in the long run may help students deal with the ever growing level of technology present in today’s society. Characteristics are identified at two out of four schools as a way of assessing the progress of technology integration and locating individuals who will help move the process forward. This knowledge, combined with competent leadership, makes the difference between success and failure of an innovation implementation.

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How are ICT-rich learning environments changing teacher practice in India, Turkey, and Chile?

Daniel Light with Scott Strother and Deborah Keisch Polin (2009) Emerging 
changes 
in 
ICT‐rich 
learning 
environments:
 The 
Intel®
Teach 
Essentials 
Course
 and
 changing 
teacher
practice 
in 
India, 
Turkey,
 and
 Chile, Center for Children and Technology Education Development Center

Understanding how technology fits into the complex realities of classrooms was a critical factor in creating real change in the industrialized nations, yet little is known about how educational technology projects are impacting the classrooms of the developing world. This study looked at successful schools from the Intel® Teach Essentials Course in Chile, India and Turkey to explore how schools and teachers have been able to integrate ICT and the pedagogical approaches from the Essentials Course into their schools and how these changes are, in turn, changing what happens in the classroom. The teachers are developing new beliefs about teaching and improving their knowledge of new practices; their students are engaging with content in new ways; and the relationships between teachers and students are changing relationships. And, both groups are using new ICT tools to support learning.


How are Web 2.0 tools changing the culture of learning?

Daniel  Light, Deborah  Keisch  Polin, (2010) Integrating Web 2.0 tools into the classroom: Changing the culture of learning, EDC Center for Children and Technology

While this study suggests great potential for Web 2.0 tools, it also demonstrates that careful planning is required to align  instructional activities and the affordances of these tools. Teachers need to design activities in which the communication facilitated by the Web 2.0 tools is meaningful and relates to students’ learning of the content or to their own lives. One of the most salient themes, consistent among more sophisticated users across all of our sites, is that we are perhaps beginning to see a Web  2.0 approach or mentality. It may not be the tool itself that defines Web 2.0, but how it is used to support teaching and learning, both in individual classrooms and as part of a school’s or district’s larger vision. All the tools employed within this approach do not necessarily have to be what immediately comes to mind when one thinks of  “Web 2.0” (e.g., blogs and wikis). However, the philosophy that has developed through the use of these tools embraces a Web 2.0 mentality. The tools are  interactive, they can be used  asynchronously, they are collected together as a suite of resources within a virtual platform, and teachers are integrating them seamlessly into their classrooms to extend and  deepen the educational environment.

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What does the TPACK in action look like?

Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Action: A Descriptive Study of Secondary Teachers’ Curriculum-Based, Technology-Related Instructional Planning JRTE | Vol. 43, No. 3, pp. 211–229

How does teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) inform their instructional planning? How can this knowledge be enhanced? In an interpretivist study of experienced secondary social studies teachers’ planning, we sought to discover clues to the nature and development of these teachers’ TPACK-in-action as it was expressed in their planning processes. Comparisons of interview data and planning products before and after en- gaging in professional development that addressed content-focused, TPACK- based learning activity types (Harris & Hofer, 2009) revealed three primary findings, each supported by participating teachers’ oral and written reflections upon their learning. The participating teachers’(a) selection and use of learn- ing activities and technologies became more conscious, strategic, and varied; (b) instructional planning became more student-centered, focusing primarily upon students’ intellectual, rather than affective, engagement; and (c) quality standards for technology integration were raised, resulting in deliberate deci- sions for more judicious educational technology use.

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Can Google Apps support a Professional Learning Community?

Barbra Kaimuloa Bates (2011) Using Google Apps in Professional Learning Communities, Educational Technology University of Hawaii at Mānoa Kailua-Kona, Hawaii USA

Being an educator presents challenges, especially when communication is a barrier. Google Apps provide collaboration tools which allow teachers to create, share, collaborate and publish work within their Professional Learning Community (PLC). All documents and revisions saved on Google Apps are easily accessible for each collaborator, eliminating This project sought to implement an instructional design module that can serve as an orientation for new users of Google Apps, so that teachers will be able to gain an understanding of the tools and adopt them into their PLC. Voicethread presentations were embedded into the web-based modules so users would be able to view step-by-step procedures as a tutorial for Google Apps. The project was delivered in a hybrid approach, both synchronous and asynchronous, since teachers’ technology abilities vary. Ten public school teachers participated in and tested the web-based module and its effectiveness was evaluated in a survey completed by participants after they finished the module. Post survey results indicated positive reactions to using Google Apps as a collaboration tool in their PLC, although they have expressed concern that without total “buy in” amongst their colleagues, the collaboration tool would not be effective.

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How can preschool children’s learning with technology be supported?

Plowman L, Stephen C., McPake, J. (2010). Supporting young children’s learning with technology at home and in preschool. Research Papers in Education 25 (1) 93-113.

We describe two empirical investigations of three- and four-year-old children’s uses of technology, one conducted in family homes and the other in preschool settings, with the aim of comparing the ways in which children’s learning with technology is supported in these different settings. The studies conceptualise learning within a sociocultural framework and use the concept of guided interaction to focus the discussion. Three areas of learning that can be supported by the use of technologies are outlined (extending knowledge of the world, acquiring operational skills, and developing dispositions to learn), with the addition of learning about the cultural roles of technology in the home context. Children encountered a more diverse range of technologies at home, were more likely to request help and could benefit from observing family practices. The limitations on the technologies available in most preschool settings and their lack of use for authentic activities meant that there were fewer opportunities to develop children’s awareness of the different cultural and work-related uses of technology. Preschool and primary school staff have limited knowledge of children’s home experiences with technology.

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How is ICT Changing Libraries in Nigeria?

Speirs, M. (2010) “The Development of Information and Communication Technologies in Nigerian Libraries”, e-prints in library & information science

The development and use of information and communications technologies (ICT) in the libraries of Nigeria has been a slowly emerging process involving many successes and failures over the past decades. This chapter examines the history of this process while reviewing the challenges to this development that many libraries face because of inadequate infrastructure, and budgeted funding, as well as a lack of leadership and training for capacity building. Strategies for the way forward towards the effective and sustainable inclusion of technology in Nigerian libraries are suggested.

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What are the risks of introducing new technologies to teachers?

Caroline Stockman, Fred Truyen (2011) The Danger of the Downward Spiral: Teachers and Digital Literacy, Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on e-Learning, Brighton 10-11 Nov 2011

The primary purpose of this paper is to provide anyone active in the field of education with a useful tool to assess risks during the integration of new technology in an educational setting, but especially to raise awareness of the danger of a downward spiral, which not only undermines our investment of time and money into these promising new technologies, but which also puts the learners at a great disadvantage when providing useful tools for their benefit which are, in the end, not fully or even wrongly used.

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How is e-Learning Improving Secondary Schools in Kenya?

Mildred A. Ayere, F. Y. Odera and J. O. Agak (2010) E-learning in secondary Schools in Kenya: A Case of the NEPAD E-schools, Educational Research and Reviews Vol. 5 (5), pp. 218-223, May, 2010

The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) schools were set up as centres of excellence in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) integration, so that other schools could copy their model in e-learning. It was for this reason that they were provided with computers, e-materials, internet appliances and trained personnel. But to gauge their levels of success as e-learning centres there was need to compare them to other schools offering ICT education in Kenya. It was for this reason that this study compared the application of the e-learning in NEPAD and non-NEPAD schools in Kenya. Specifically, the study: Identified significant differences in levels of integration of ICT in curriculum subjects; surveyed the differences in use of e-materials in education research; examined availability of e-libraries; identified significant differences in academic performance of NEPAD and non-NEPAD schools attributed to e-learning. Based on these findings, it was recommended that schools involved in ICT education should intensify teacher facilitation and support teacher roles that are required in e-learning.

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Why is Research in Educational Technology Essential to Inform Improved Learning in Schools?

Steven M Ross, Gary R Morrison, Deborah L Lowther (2010) Educational Technology Research Past and Present: Balancing Rigor and Relevance to Impact School LearningCONTEMPORARY EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY, 2010, 1(1), 17-35

Today, the exponential growth of technology usage in education, via such applications of distance education, Internet access, simulations, and educational games, has raised substantially the focus and importance of educational technology research. In this paper, we examine the past and present research trends, with emphasis on the role and contribution of research evidence for informing instructional practices and policies to improve learning in schools. Specific topics addressed include: (a) varied conceptions of effective technology uses in classroom instruction as topics for research, (b) historical trends in research approaches and topics of inquiry; (c) alternative research designs for balancing internal (rigor) and external (relevance) validity; and (d) suggested directions for future research. Attention is devoted to describing varied experimental designs as options for achieving appropriate rigor and relevance of research evidence, and using mixed-methods research for investigating and understanding technology applications in complex real-life settings.

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Does Technology Integration “Work” When Key Barriers are Removed?

Deborah Lowther, J. Dan Strahl, Fethi A. Inan, and Steven M. Ross (2008) Does Technology Integration “Work” When Key Barriers are Removed?, Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association in New York, NY March 2008

The effectiveness of Tennessee EdTech Launch (TnETL), a statewide technology program was investigated in this mixed-methods study. The goal of the program was to provide full-time, on-site technology coaches to prepare teachers to create lessons that engage students in critical thinking and use of computers as tools in order to increase learning. The study examined TnETL impact on student achievement, teachers’ skills and attitudes toward technology integration; use of research-based practices; and students’ skills in using technology as a tool. The study was implemented as “Launch” 1 and 2 cohorts that collectively involved 54 schools, 28,735 students and 1,746 teachers. Program effectiveness was measured via direct classroom observations, surveys, student performance assessments, focus groups, and student achievement analysis.

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What do recent studies show about literacy and technology in primary classrooms?

BURNETT, C. (2009). Research into literacy and technology in primary classrooms: an exploration of understandings generated by recent studies. Journal of research in reading (special issue: New developments in literacy and technology), 32 (1), 22-37.

Whilst much has been written about the implications for ‘literacy’ for practices surrounding digital technologies (Gee, 2000a; Luke and Carrington, 2002; Snyder, 1998), there has been surprisingly little research investigating new literacies in primary classrooms (Andrews, 2003; Labbo and Reinking, 2003: Lankshear and Knobel, 2003). This review examines the kinds of understandings that have been generated through studies of primary literacy and technology reported during the period 2000-2006. It uses Green’s distinction between ‘operational’, ‘cultural’ and ‘critical’ dimensions of primary literacy (Lankshear and Bigum, 1999; Snyder, 2001) to investigate the focus and methodology of 38 empirical studies. It explores ways in which research may be informed by assumptions and practices associated with print literacy, but also highlights the kinds of studies which are beginning to investigate the implications of digital texts for primary education. The paper concludes by arguing for further ethnographic and phenomenological studies of classroom literacy practices in order to explore the complex contexts which surround and are mediated by digital texts.

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What are the Obstacles to Technology-Enhanced Problem-Based Learning (PBL)?

Sung Hee Park and Peggy A. Ertmer (2008) Examining barriers in technology-enhanced problem-based learning: Using a performance support systems approach, British Journal of Educational Technology Vol 39 No 4 2008

This study focused on the barriers that middle school teachers faced when implementing technology-enhanced problem-based learning (PBL) in their classrooms. Using a human performance-based model, we interviewed teachers, administrators, university faculty and technical support staff to determine the perceived importance of multiple barriers to the implementation of technology-enhanced PBL. Twenty-one teachers, two school administrators and a project manager, two faculty members, and two technical support staff participated in the study. Interview data were supported by surveys, classroom observations and researchers’ reflective journals. Results suggested that lack of a clear, shared vision was the primary barrier. Additional barriers included lack of knowledge and skills, unclear expectations and insufficient feedback. Recommendations to support teachers’ efforts to integrate technology- enhanced problem-based learning are presented.

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Why aren’t computers an essential tool in every classroom?

Jennifer Groff (2008) A Framework for Addressing Challenges to Classroom Technology Use, AACE Journal (2008) Volume: 16, Issue: 1

Creating effective learning environments with technology remains a challenge for teachers. Despite the tremendous push for educators to integrate technology into their classrooms, many have yet to do so and struggle to find consistent success with technology-based instruction. The challenges to effective technology integration have been well documented in the literature. In this article we present a comprehensive review of the literature on the challenges associated with effective technology integration in the classroom and the ways in which they interact with one another. Based on this review we have developed a framework, the Individualized Inventory for Integrating Instructional Innovations (i5), to help teachers predict the likelihood of success of technology-based projects in the classroom and identify potential barriers that can hinder their technology integration efforts. Identifying potential barriers upfront can empower teachers to seek solutions early in the process, thereby increasing the likelihood of experiencing success with technology integration.

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How can librarians use audience response technology to teach academic integrity

Christine Bombaro (2007) Using audience response technology to teach academic integrity, Reference Services Review Vol. 35 No. 2, 2007 pp. 296-309

Purpose – This paper seeks to explore the successes and challenges associated with teaching first-year students a session on plagiarism avoidance through the use of an audience response system. Design/methodology/approach – An audience response system was used to test first-year students’ knowledge of plagiarism. Quiz questions about academic honesty and plagiarism were administered, and were answered anonymously with hand-held remote control devices. The reporting feature of the technology was used to gather results of the answers to these questions, which will be used to improve the session in future years. Findings – Data gathered from the sessions indicated that this session helped students retain knowledge of plagiarism rules. Comments solicited about the session indicated that the students enjoyed the lesson, that they were better able to recognize problem areas in their own writing, and that the interactivity kept them focused on the lesson. Research limitations/implications – The session will have to be repeated over a number of years to determine whether there is a link between it and the number of plagiarism incidents on campus. Practical implications – This paper provides a practical and relatively inexpensive approach for teaching academic integrity to large groups of students.

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Where are the ethical fault lines in the digital media?

Carrie James with Katie Davis, Andrea Flores, John M. Francis (2008) Young people, ethics, and the new digital media: A synthesis from the GoodPlay Project, White paper for the MacArthur Foundation Digital Media & Learning Initiative, The MIT Press Cambridge, Massachusetts

In late 2006, our research team at Harvard Project Zero launched a three-year project funded by the MacArthur Foundation. The goals of the GoodPlay Project are twofold—(1) to investigate the ethical contours of the new digital media and (2) to create interventions to promote ethical thinking and, ideally, conduct. In the first year of the project, we conducted background research to determine the state of knowledge about digital ethics and youth and to prepare ourselves for our empirical study. This report describes our thinking in advance of beginning our empirical work. We expect to revisit the framework and arguments that are presented here after our empirical study is complete.

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What are the discriminating variables between teachers who fully integrate IT and teachers with limited integration?

Julie Mueller, Eileen Wood, Teena Willoughby, Craig Ross, Jacqueline Spechtd (2008) Identifying discriminating variables between teachers who fully integrate computers and teachers with limited integration, Computers & Education 51(2008) 1523–1537

Given the prevalence of computers in education today, it is critical to understand teachers’ perspectives regarding computer integration in their classrooms. The current study surveyed a random sample of a heterogeneous group of 185 elementary and 204 secondary teachers in order to provide a comprehensive summary of teacher characteristics and variables that best discriminate between teachers who integrate computers and those who do not. Discriminant Function Analysis indicated seven variables for elementary teachers and six for secondary teachers (accounting for 74% and 68% of the variance, respectively) that discriminated between high and low integrators. Variables included positive teaching experiences with computers; teacher’s comfort with computers; beliefs supporting the use of computers as an instructional tool; training; motivation; support; and teaching efficacy. Implications for support of computer integration in the classroom are discussed.

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How effective was the North Carolina 1:1 program mid year?

Jenifer O. Corn, Jason W. Osborne (2009) Mid-Year Evaluation Report on the Progress of the North Carolina 1:1 Learning Technology Initiative, Friday Institute for Educational Innovation

This report focuses on the schools progress toward implementing the 1:1 environment and the barriers, successes, and lessons learned in the early stages of implementation. A combination of teacher and student surveys, focus groups and interviews, classroom observations, and analyses of existing school- level data was used. At the time of this report, the 2007-2008 School Year (SY) End-of-Course test and other student outcome data collected by NCDPI were not yet available. The intent of the evaluation is to provide information about the value of the initiative to enhance student learning, as well as to identify challenges to the successful implementation of 1:1 programs, strategies for meeting those challenges, and services and supports needed to enable successful programs throughout the State.

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How are Elementary Classroom Websites Supporting Literacy?

Elizabeth (Betsy) A. Baker (2007) Elementary Classroom Web Sites: Support for Literacy Within and Beyond the Classroom, JOURNAL OF LITERACY RESEARCH, 39(1), 1–36

The purpose of this study was to understand how elementary classroom Web sites support children’s literacy. From a sociocultural perspective of literacy and a transformative stance toward the integration of literacy and technology, and building on explorations of new literacies, I discuss opportunities provided by the Internet that can support literacy within and beyond classrooms. Using open and axial coding as well as typological analyses, I found 3 basic Web site features and consider how they support common instructional approaches, parental involvement, and notions of the invisible classroom. I conclude with a discussion of how these findings are encourag- ing and revealing. I offer a variety of suggestions to expand features that are currently available on elementary classroom Web sites.

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How does a 1:1 Learning Environment Support Special Needs?

Jenifer O. CornJennifer Tingen, Ruchi Patel (2011) Examining Issues Critical to a 1:1 Learning Environment: Special Needs, Friday Institute for Educational Innovation

In the spring of 2008, the North Carolina State Board of Education awarded a contract to the Friday Institute for Educational Innovation to conduct a three-year evaluation of the NC 1:1 LearningTechnology Initiative (NCLTI) pilot schools. The evaluation includes eight Early College high schools and ten traditional high schools, with a total across the 18 schools of approximately 9,500 students and 600 school staff.  In these schools, every teacher and student received a laptop computer, and wireless Internet access was provided throughout the school.  The overall goal of the initiative is to use the technology to improve teaching practices, increase student achievement, and better prepare students for work, citizenship, and life in the 21st century. The intent of the evaluation was to provide information about whether the initiative enhanced student learning, as well as to identify challenges to successful implementation of 1:1 programs, strategies for meeting those challenges, and services and supports needed to enable successful programs throughout the State.

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How does a Library laptop checkout program work?

Arthur Gutierrez, Terri Pedersen Summey (2011) The Wireless Library:  An Assessment of a Library Laptop Program, CULS Proceedings, Volume 1, 2011

Approximately five years ago, the library at Emporia State University started a laptop checkout program to provide laptops for students and faculty members to checkout and use while they are in the library.  The program has been highly successful with students often waiting in line to be able to check out a laptop.  In 2009, the library purchased eight Netbooks to see how they would be received by the individuals using the laptop checkout program.  With the beginning of the Fall 2010 semester, some modifications were made to the laptop checkout program including reducing the fines for late returns and extending the checkout period.  Because the program has been in place for some time, the librarians at the Emporia State University Libraries would like to assess the program by surveying the individuals that check out laptops from the library.  In this article, the authors will explore laptop programs in a variety of library settings, present details on the ESU Libraries Laptop Checkout program, discuss the survey results, present what the library faculty and staff have learned, and potential future modifications to the program.

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Does the ICT PD Cluster Model developed in New Zealand work?

John Clayton (2010) The provision of professional development in ICT: a New Zealand perspective ,Waikato Institute of Technology, Hamilton, New Zealand, The 17th Association for Learning Technology Conference (ALT-C 2010). Association for Learning Technology (ALT), pp. 1-10

Over the last two decades there have been significant increases in the integration of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in New Zealand schools. Investment in infrastructure, equipment and applications has been supported by a corresponding increase in the funding for Professional Development (PD) provision for teachers in ICT. This is based on the assumption that the level of competence and confidence of teachers in ICT directly impacts on the capacity and capability of schools to positively engage their learners in ICT-supported learning environments. Influenced by the school reforms of the late 1980s (Tomorrow’s Schools) a school-administered model of professional development, the ICT PD Cluster Model, was conceived by the New Zealand Ministry of Education in 1996. This model encouraged groups of schools (clusters) to reflect upon the potential impact and influence of ICTs on their learning communities. The outcome of this process, combined with schools’ existing knowledge of their teachers’ capabilities and confidence in ICT, influenced decisions on the focus, design, delivery and assessment of professional development activities.  The dual purpose of this paper is to firstly, review the ICT PD cluster model and describe those key features that could be considered ‘best practice’ and secondly, identify those attributes that either enabled or impeded ICT PD Cluster implementations and the critical organisational and operational success factors which should be followed in any future model of ICT PD implementation.

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Do teachers need media-competences instead of ICT competences?

Bert Zwaneveld, Theo Bastiaens (2010) ICT competences of the teacher: About supporting learning and teaching processes with the use of ICT, International Federation for Information

Our starting observation is that there is a lot of literature about the use of ICT in teaching. Much of this literature with frameworks, schemes, flow charts etcetera, is about the process of introducing ICT in teaching. In our view the teacher and his or her main concerns, the learning and teaching processes inside the classroom, deserves much more attention. Our second observation is that there are much relevant new ICT-tools available which can support these learning and teaching processes. So, we focus in this paper on these aspects: what are the most important competences with respect to ICT for a teacher in order to support these learning and teaching processes? Because there are nowadays so many modern digital media available we propose the term media-competences for the teachers instead of ICT competences.

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Does ICT peer coaching support teachers’ integration of ICT in their learning and teaching?

Ellul, R (2010ICT peer coaches: Techno-pedagogues of the twenty-first century, PhD Thesis, School of Education, RMIT University

This PhD by project investigates the ICT peer coaching programmes in place in three government schools in Victoria, Australia. Teacher professional learning is essential in supporting teachers to improve their practice and support a culture of continuous improvement across the school. The literature review highlighted that past methods of professional learning such as one-off workshops and off-site events are less effective to enable teachers to develop both ICT skills and pedagogical knowledge needed for 21st century teaching and learning. While peer coaching is increasingly offered as a professional learning strategy in schools, very little is available which focuses on peer coaching in an ICT context and whether it effectively supports teachers to integrate ICT into their classroom practice. This research examines whether ICT peer coaching as a professional learning strategy supports teachers’ integration of ICT into their learning and teaching programme. It uses a constructivist (naturalistic) inquiry methodology and a collective case study approach. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews, observations and an analysis of artefacts such as school strategic plans and policies.

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What conditions foster ICT implementation in the curriculum?

Rafi Nachmias, David Mioduser, Alona Forkosh-Baruch (2008) Innovative Pedagogical Practices Using Technology: The Curriculum Perspective, INTERNATIONAL HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, Springer International Handbooks of Education, 2008, Volume 20, 2, 163-179,

Information and communication technologies (ICT) have affected our lives for over half a century. Yet, the school’s curriculum is still perceived as traditional in its structure and implementation. Attempts to assimilate ICT into schools’ curricula are frequently supported by policymakers. However, significant change in content, teaching and learning processes and assessment methods can actually be detected mainly in focal innovative initiatives within schools. This chapter analyzes case studies of innovative IT-supported pedagogical practices from 28 countries. The analysis refers to conditions required for fostering ICT implementation in the curriculum, with regards to new demands for teaching and learning. This suggests analysis of ICT-related curricular issues in separate subject areas, as well as in integrated subject domains. Further, we discuss desired changes in existing curricula, which may lead to innovative ICT implementation within schools.

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Are collaborative teaching and inquiry PjBL the best way to develop Information Literacy and IT skills?

Chu, S. K. W., Chow, K. & Tse, S. K. (2011). Developing Hong Kong primary school students‘ information literacy and IT skills through collaborative teaching and inquiry PjBL. Library & Information Science Research

Information literacy and information technology (IT) skills have become increasingly important in today’s knowledge society. However, many studies have shown that students across different educational levels from primary to postgraduate level actually lack crucial information literacy and IT skills, thus the need for an effective pedagogical approach that will develop these skills. This study investigated the effect of combining a collaborative teaching approach with inquiry project-based learning (PjBL) on the development of primary students’ information literacy and IT skills. Students in a Hong Kong primary school completed two inquiry-based group projects. A collaborative teaching approach involving three teachers in different subject areas (General Studies, Chinese, and IT) and the school librarian was adopted in guiding students through the two projects. Results indicated the positive impact of collaborative teaching and inquiry PjBL on the development of students’ information literacy and IT skills.

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How is Information Literacy Integrated in Laptop Classrooms?

Mark Warschauer (2007) Information Literacy in the Laptop Classroom, Teachers College Record

Technological and economic changes have put a high premium on developing students information literacy and research skills. Previous attempts to deploy educational technology toward these ends have proved disappointing because K12 teachers have difficulty integrating shared computers into instruction. In response, numerous schools and districts have piloted one-to-one programs, in which each student has access to a laptop computer connected wirelessly to the Internet throughout the school day. Purpose/Objective: This paper analyzes the information literacy and research practice in a purposely stratified selection of 10 one-to-one laptop K12 schools in California and Maine. Research Design/Data Collection and Analysis: Sources of data in this multisite case study include observations, interviews, surveys, and teacher- and student-produced materials. Findings/Results: The study found that students in all the laptop schools learned to access information, manage it, and incorporate in into their written and multimedia products. However, the focus on evaluating information, understanding the social issues surround- ing it, and analyzing it for the purpose of knowledge production varied widely across schools. Some schools succeeded in promoting scholarly approaches to working with informa- tion, whereas other schools mostly limited themselves to teaching procedural functions of computer and Internet use. Examples of these differences are given through a comparison of three diverse schools in Maine. Conclusions/Recommendations: The study concludes that one-to-one wireless laptops offer important affordances for promoting information literacy and research skills but that socioe- conomic context, visions, values, and beliefs all play a critical role in shaping how laptop programs are implemented and what benefits are thus achieved.

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Is it ICT or the ICT supported tasks that foster student engagement?

Sue Gregory, Ian Lloyd (2010) Accepting Choices: To ICT or Not to ICT: Engagement!!!, ACEC2010: DIGITAL DIVERSITY CONFERENCE

Over a period of several weeks 16 male students in a middle school were required to complete a project to measure their level of engagement using Information Communication Technology (ICT). During the lessons students were observed by the classroom teacher, two pre-service teachers and an ICT education lecturer, who assisted, photographed, videoed and interviewed students. Students were also requested to complete survey questions on three occasions throughout the project. The project required student to use anything they desired, technology or otherwise, to research and present their findings in order persuade the observers to choose their group’s project. The tasks of the onlookers were to observe whether students were engaged, or otherwise, in the production and presentation of their project. The degree of engagement when using ICT is dependant on a student’s ability to choose how and when to implement ICT. Engagement is the combination of feelings (emotional), observable actions or performance (behavioural) and perceptions and beliefs (cognitive). Many observations were made about the students’ choice of whether to use ICT or not and this paper addresses the results of their engagement in the task.

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How can an IT curriculum help schools best prepare for tech integration?

Amy Staples, Marleen C Pugach, D Himes (2005) Rethinking the technology integration challenge: Cases from three urban elementary schools, Journal of Research on Technology in Education (2005) Volume: 37, Issue: 3, Publisher: International Society for Technology in Education

Preparing a school well for technology integration appears to represent a special instance of professional development, one that has a unique identity requiring a unique kind of stewardship. To use technology effectively, principals and other technology leaders who contribute to decision making regarding how a school will invest in technology first need a solid understanding of the difference between technology use to enhance learning of the curriculum and technology use for productivity-as well as the ability to make distinctions in the various kinds of supports that will be required for each. We would argue that it is not a case of privileging professional development over acquisition, but rather that in planning for technology integration, professional development and acquisition considerations need to take place simultaneously. Curriculum needs to be the overriding framework for these deliberations. In other words, good planning for technology integration takes a special understanding of the acquisition of hardware and software specifically as it relates to the curriculum. This requires graduated staff development that anchors technology in the curriculum, but that also recognizes the need for teachers to have the opportunity to learn the technology well so that it can be used easily and transparently to support the curriculum. It goes without saying that teachers must be deeply informed about content and pedagogy in a particular content area to use technology to enhance learning effectively. Neither can be shortchanged.

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How can the iPad support EFL Digital Literacy?

Robert C Meurant (2010) The iPad and EFL Digital Literacy, Signal Processing and Multimedia (2010) Volume: 123

In future, the uses of English by non-native speakers will predominantly be online, using English language digital resources, and in computer mediated communication with other non-native speakers of English. Thus for Korea to be competitive in the global economy, its EFL should develop L2 Digital Literacy in English. With its fast Internet connections, Korea is the most wired nation on Earth; but ICT facilities in educational institutions need reorganization. Opportunities for computer-mediated second language learning need to be increased, providing multimedia-capable, mobile web solutions that put the Internet into the hands of all students and teachers. Wi-Fi networked campuses allow any campus space to act as a wireless classroom. Every classroom should have a teacher’s computer console. All students should be provided with adequate computing facilities, that are available anywhere, anytime. Ubiquitous computing has now become feasible by providing every student on enrollment with a tablet: a Wi-Fi+3G enabled Apple iPad.

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How does the iPad Contribute to Mobile Learning?

Melhuish, K. & Falloon, G. (2010). Looking to the future: M-learning with the iPad. Computers in New Zealand Schools: Learning, Leading, Technology , 22 (3).

This paper explores the potential affordances and limitations of the Apple iPad in the wider context of emergent mobile learning theory, and the social and economic drivers that fuel technology development. Against the background of effective teaching and learning, the functionality offered by the iPad, and its potential uses for learning, are discussed. A critical review of the way the iPad may support learning, that draws on learning theory, contemporary articles and e-learning literature, suggests that the device may offer an exciting platform for consuming and creating content in a collaborative, interactive way. However, of greater importance is that effective, evidence-driven, innovative practices, combined with a clear-sighted assessment of the advantages and limitations of any product, should take priority over the device itself.

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What is the potential of the iPad in schools?

Henrik Valstad (2010) iPad as a pedagogical device, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, TDT4520, Program and Information Systems, Specialization Project

This research paper dwelves into what kind of experiences exists with using the iPad in an educational setting, what can be learned from these experiences, and how the educational sector may benefit from bringing the iPad into the classroom. Chapter 2 considers the iPad’s technological features together with the iTunes App Store and its own educational app category. Then, Chapter 3 turns to the issue of app distribution among students and how to setup iPad configuration profiles. After this, Chapter 4 demonstrates the iPad’s pedagogical potential with examples, lists samples of apps that can be used for note taking and educational purposes and important success factors which should be read carefully if the iPad is to be used as a pedagogical device in a classroom

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How does the iPad perform at college level?

Trina Marmarelli, Martin Ringle (2011), The Reed College iPad Study, The Reed Institute

When Apple announced the release of its iPad tablet in late January 2010, Reed College had just completed a semester-long study of the Amazon Kindle DX eReader in which students and faculty in three upper-division seminars used the Kindle to read, annotate, and discuss books and articles for the courses.1 While the Kindle DX failed to meet faculty and student needs in several important ways, most notably highlighting, annotation, and manipulation of texts, the study participants were optimistic enough about the long-term potential of eReader technology to prompt the College to continue its evaluation of emerging products. Consequently, during the fall semester of 2010, we undertook a study parallel in structure to the 2009 Kindle DX study. Students in one upper-division seminar, Political Science 422: Nuclear Politics — The origins and effects of the spread of nuclear weapons, used the iPad for all of their assigned readings. Since this was one of the courses included in the Kindle study and much of the reading list was unchanged, comparisons between student reactions were easy to make. We anticipated that a multipurpose device like the iPad would have different strengths and weaknesses than the Kindle DX, a dedicated eReader, and we were particularly interested in examining these differences.

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Are schools making the most of new technologies?

A Collins, R Halverson (2009) Rethinking Education in the Age of Technology: The Digital Revolution and the Schools, Distance Education (2009) Publisher: Teachers College Pres

Parents and citizens need to push for a more expansive view of education reform. School leaders and teachers need to understand how learning technologies work and how they change the basic interactions of teachers and learners. Technology leaders need to work together with educators, not as missionaries bearing magical gifts, but as collaborators in creating new opportunities to learn. It will take a concerted effort to bring about such a radical change in thinking. If a broader view develops in society, leaders will emerge who can bring about the political changes necessary to make the new educational resources available to everyone.

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Can Informational Self-determination on the Internet Improve Online Privacy?

Simone Fischer-Hübner1, Chris Hoofnagle, Ioannis Krontiris, Kai Rannenberg, and Michael Waidner (2011) Online Privacy: Towards Informational Self-Determination on the Internet, Manifesto from Dagstuhl Perspectives Workshop 11061

While the collection and monetization of user data has become a main source for funding “free” services like search engines, online social networks, news sites and blogs, neither privacy-enhancing technologies nor its regulations have kept up with user needs and privacy preferences. The aim of this Manifesto is to raise awareness for the actual state of the art of online privacy, especially in the international research community and in ongoing efforts to improve the respective legal frameworks, and to provide concrete recommendations to industry, regulators, and research agencies for improving online privacy. In particular we examine how the basic principle of informational self-determination, as promoted by European legal doctrines, could be applied to infrastructures like the internet, Web 2.0 and mobile telecommunication networks.

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How do institutional forces shape ICT in education?

Jonathan Ezer (2005) The Interplay of Institutional Forces Behind Higher ICT Education in India, Submitted in Fulfilment of the Full Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Department of Information Systems, London School of Economics and Political Sciences

For several years, academics have debated the extent to which ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) can help poor people in developing countries. The conversation contains diverse views, yet education is always given a prominent role. Education helps shape how people think about technology and in turn, how the technology is used. This dissertation examines how the idea of ICTs is constructed at Indian universities, and how this process is impacted by institutional forces. The research findings indicate that for a variety of reasons, higher ICT education in India is markedly Western-focused, instrumental and technocratic. These characteristics of higher ICT education in India are impacted by a process that can be described as institutional collaboration – several diverse institutional forces are acting in ways that a re coherent and mutually reinforcing.

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Can there ever be a single unified metanarrative on the benefits of ICT in education?

Vinesh Chandra, Margaret Lloyd (2008) The methodological nettle: ICT and student achievement, British Journal of Educational Technology (2008)

A major challenge for researchers and educators has been to discern the effect of ICT use on student learning outcomes. This paper maps the achievements in Year 10 Science of two cohorts of students over two years where students in the first year studied in a traditional environment while students in the second took part in a blended or e-learning environment. Using both quantitative and qualitative methods, the authors have shown that ICT, through an e-learning intervention, did improve student performance in terms of test scores. They have also shown that this improvement was not global with the results for previously high-performing female students tending to fall while the results for lower-achieving boys rose. There was also a seeming mismatch between some students’ affective responses to the new environment and their test scores. This study shows the complexity of ICT-mediated environments through its identification and description of three core issues which beset the credibility of research in ICT in education. These are (1) ICT as an agent of learning, (b) site specificity, and (c) global improvement.

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How do laptops affect student learning in Grade 3?

Robert M. Bernard, Edward Clement Bethel, Philip C. Abrami, C. Anne Wade (2007) Introducing laptops to children: An examination of ubiquitous computing in Grade 3 reading, language, and mathematics, Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, Volume 33(3) Fall / automne 2007

This study examines the achievement outcomes accompanying the implementation of a Grade 3 laptop or so-called ubiquitous computing program in a Quebec school district. CAT-3 reading, language, and mathematics batteries were administered at the end of Grade 2 and again at the end of Grade 3, after the first year of computer implementation. Overall gain was found in all three content areas, but was differential when compared with the norms of the CAT-3. Additionally, some evidence suggested a differential gain for lower and middle-level learners during the school year. Teachers were administered an instrument called the Technology Implementation Questionnaire (TIQ) that assessed the purposes and extent of technology integration. Negative correlations were found in reading achievement gain for items associated with the higher use of communicative, evaluative, and creative uses of computers. Open-ended teacher responses indicated the need for more professional support for instructional implementations of computing.

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What are the physical risks of Screen Time for six year olds?

Louise A. Baur, Ph.D.; Jie Jin Wang, Ph.D.; Louise Hardy, Ph.D.; Erdahl Teber, Ph.D.; Annette Kifley, M.B.B.S.; Tien Y. Wong, M.D., Ph.D.; and Paul Mitchell, M.D., Ph.D (2011) Kids’ ‘Screen Time’ Linked to Early Markers for Cardiovascular Disease, ScienceDaily (Apr. 21, 2011)

Six-year-olds who spent the most time watching television, using a computer or playing video games had narrower arteries in the back of their eyes — a marker of future cardiovascular risk, in a first-of-its-kind study reported in Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology: Journal of the American Heart Association.

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Link to original Research Paper

Is Self-Paced Learning in an Inverted Classroom Environment (SPLICE) the way to go?

Curt Clifton and Matt Boutell (2010) SPLICE: Self-Paced Learning in an Inverted Classroom Environment, Grant proposal for the Rose-Hulman Summer Professional Development Grants

Learning to program is hard for many students. Practice with an expert coach is key to overcoming this challenge. We adopted the 3Å~2 format for our introductory courses to give students such mentored practice. In a single class session, students learn a concept, experiment with it, and apply it to a real problem, all with expert coaching at hand. While this format has been effective, we still find two significant problems: time and pace. Time is an issue because presenting concepts, showing examples, and modeling problem solving decreases the time available for mentored practice. Pace is an issue because some students arrive with confidence and prior experience and are thus bored, while other students struggle and become overwhelmed. To address these problems, we propose creating on-line videos for introductory programming courses to present concepts, show examples, and model the problem solving process. As a result, our students will spend every class session entirely in active learning activities with expert coaching, receive more individual attention, and set their own pace.

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How does a Flipped Classroom Compare with a Traditional Classroom?

Strayer, J. F. (2007) The Effects of the Classroom Flip on the Learning Environment: A Comparison of Learning Activity in a Traditional Classroom and a Flip Classroom that used an Intelligent Tutoring System, Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy in the Graduate School of The Ohio State University

Based on the conclusions of this study, I recommend that teachers who plan to implement the classroom flip consider the following suggestions. First, the flip structure seems to be more productive when students have a choice between multiple ways of interacting with the content of the course outside of class. When the focus of the flip is on giving students the freedom to interact with the content according to their own learning style preferences, the flip seems to be more successful. Second, if the flip is used in an introductory course, the in-class activities should be less open ended and more “step by step” in structure. If some activities are open ended, try to keep them brief: one to two class periods. Students in introductory courses will often have little tolerance for prolonged uncertainty in the course content and the course structure. In more advanced classes, students will be more willing to push through prolonged investigations, but the structure of the classroom must support their meaning making in the activity. This leads to the third recommendation. A flip classroom is structured so differently that students will become more aware of their own learning process than students in more traditional settings. Students will therefore need to have more space to reflect on their learning activities so they can make the necessary connections to course content. The teacher must structure a major component into the course structure that will allow for this reflection to take place and for the teacher to be able to see and comment on specific aspects of student reflection. This feedback cycle will be crucial for student learning.

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How can schools develop their own ICT curriculum?

Vanderlinde, B. R., Braak, J. V., Windt, V. D., Tondeur, J., Hermans, R., & Sinnaeve, I. (2008). Technology Curriculum and Planning for Technology in Schools: The Flemish case. TechTrends52(2), 23-26.

As a significant step in the consolidation of the importance of technology in education, the Flemish Government recently (September 2007) introduced a formal technology curriculum for schools. This compulsory curriculum replaces already existing but non-binding technology guidelines and is an important action in the Flemish policy of educational technology support. The introduction of a technology curriculum brings educational technology in schools to a turning point: Technology is no longer considered as being dependent on teachers’ individual efforts or willingness, but is becoming compulsory at the school level. The Flemish educational technology curriculum is written in terms of attainment targets. These targets are minimum objectives concerning the knowledge, insight, skills, and attitudes the government regards as necessary for and attainable by pupils at different educational levels. The formulation of a compulsory technology curriculum opens new perspectives for Flemish schools when working on putting technology into practice. Schools are challenged to translate the technology curriculum into concrete teaching and learning activities. For this purpose, they can use the online tool PICTOS (Planning for ICT on School) to establish their school-based technology plan. This article discusses the five design principles which, at the same time, act as characteristics of PICTOS

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How does pedagogy determine effective technology integration in the classroom?

Mabel C P O Okojie, Anthony A Olinzock, Tinukwa C Okojie-Boulder (2006) The Pedagogy of Technology Integration, Journal of Technology Studies (2006) Volume: 32, Issue: 2

The problem of integrating technology into teaching and learning process has become a perennial one. Common excuses for the limited use of technology to support instruction include shortage of computers, lack of computer skill and computer intimidation. While these could affect the success of technology integration, it should be acknowledged that the degree of success teachers have in using technology for instruction could depend in part on their ability to explore the relationship between pedagogy and technology. The article shows that technology integration is narrowly perceived and that such a perception might hinder teachers’ understanding of the scope of technology in education. Technology integration should be considered along with issues involved in teaching and learning. Such issues include developing learning objectives, selecting methods of instruction, feedback, and evaluation and assessment strategies including follow-up activities. Technology used for teaching and learning should be considered an integral part of instruction and not as an object exclusive to itself. Viewing technology integration from a wide perspective will provide teachers with the necessary foundation to implement technology into the classroom more successfully.

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What does literature say about the barriers to the successful integration of ICT?

Khalid Bingimlas (2009) Barriers to the Successful Integration of ICT in Teaching and Learning Environments: A Review of the Literature, Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education

The use of ICT in the classroom is very important for providing opportunities for students to learn to operate in an information age. Studying the obstacles to the use of ICT in education may assist educators to overcome these barriers and become successful technology adopters in the future. This paper provides a meta-analysis of the relevant literature that aims to present the perceived barriers to technology integration in science education. The findings indicate that teachers had a strong desire for to integrate ICT into education; but that, they encountered many barriers. The major barriers were lack of confidence, lack of competence, and lack of access to resources. Since confidence, competence and accessibility have been found to be the critical components of technology integration in schools, ICT resources including software and hardware, effective professional development, sufficient time, and technical support need to be provided to teachers. No one component in itself is sufficient to provide good teaching. However, the presence of all components increases the possibility of excellent integration of ICT in learning and teaching opportunities. Generally, this paper provides information and recommendation to those responsible for the integration of new technologies into science education.
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Are Teacher Pedagogical Beliefs The Final Frontier in Our Quest for Technology Integration?

Ertmer, P. A, (2005) Teacher Pedagogical Beliefs: The Final Frontier in Our Quest for Technology Integration? Educational Technology Research & Development (2005) Volume: 53, Issue: 4

Although the conditions for successful technology integration finally appear to be in place, including ready access to technology, increased training for teachers, and a favorable policy environment, high-level technology use is still surprisingly low. This suggests that additional barriers, specifically related to teachers pedagogical beliefs, may be at work. Previous researchers have noted the influence of teachers beliefs on classroom instruction specifically in math, reading, and science, yet little research has been done to establish a similar link to teachers classroom uses of technology. In this article, I argue for the importance of such research and present a conceptual overview of teacher pedagogical beliefs as a vital first step. After defining and describing the nature of teacher beliefs, including how they are likely to impact teachers classroom practice, I describe important implications for teacher professional development and offer suggestions for future research.

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How can the beliefs of teachers impact the way computer technology enhances learning of reading and writing for preschool students?

Ihmeideh, Fathi (2010) The role of computer technology in teaching reading and writing: preschool teachers’ beliefs and practices,  Journal of Research in Childhood Education, Jan-March, 2010 Source Volume: 24 Source Issue: 1

This study investigated preschool teachers’ beliefs and practices regarding the use of computer technology in teaching reading and writing in Jordan. The researcher developed a questionnaire consisting of two scales–Teachers’ Beliefs Scale (TB Scale) and Teachers’ Practices Scale (TP Scale)–to examine the role of computer technology in teaching reading and writing to preschoolers. A random sample of 154 preschool teachers participated in the study by completing the questionnaire; 12 teachers were later interviewed. Results indicated that the preschool teachers’ beliefs about the use of computer technology were aligned with their perceptions of their teaching practices, although teachers’ beliefs and their perceptions of their practices were fairly moderate. The results also revealed significant differences between kindergartens in favor of public kindergartens, and the training programs in favor of trained teachers, whereas there was no difference due to area of certification. Directions for further research and recommendations for policy and practice are discussed.

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What are effective models to enhance student achievement with laptops?

S, F., Strahl, J. D., & Ross, S. M. (2007). ENHANCING EDUCATION Leveraging Laptops : Effective Models for. 20062007 Evaluation Report Classroom Practices, 1-33.

This report summarizes the 2006-2007 evaluation that was focused toward investigating one primary question: What changes in tool-based, student-centered teaching happen as a result of the infusion of technology and professional development? The research methodology involved the use of trained external researchers from Florida EETT schools conducting multi-class and targeted classroom observations in each participating school during two time periods: baseline (fall 2006) and end of year one (spring 2007). A total of 381 hours of direct classroom observations were conducted in 845 FL EETT classrooms in 41 schools representing 11 districts. Observation data were collected with the School Observation Measure (SOM) and the Survey of Computer Use (SCU). The SOM was used to collect data regarding overall classroom activities and the SCU was used to assess student use of computers. Both descriptive and inferential analyses were conducted. The Mantel-Haentzel procedure was used to infer statistical differences between the fall and spring classroom observations. Both the SOM and SCU Multi-Class and Targeted observations revealed significant fall to spring increases in the use of teacher-centered practices. For the SOM, significant increases were found for both the Multi-Class and Targeted observations for student engagement in Projectbased learning, Independent inquiry/research on the part of students, and student use of Technology as a learning tool or resource. The SCU results from both the Multi-Class and Targeted observations yielded significant increases in students overall use of newer and more upto- date computers (laptops) and positive trends toward increased uses of production tools and Internet/research tools to support learning. A key finding that emerged from the results was the significant increase in the frequency with which teachers implemented meaningful computer activities that engaged students in higher-order thinking and problem solving through effective use of laptop-based technology tools. These first year results show promising trends in that the Florida EETT program seems to be serving as a catalyst for positive changes from traditional teaching environments to ones that are student-centered and engage learners in meaningful use of computers to enhance learning. However, the data also reveal room for continued growth due to the modest frequency with which most of these changed practices occurred. An additional consideration when reviewing the evaluation results is the possible bias that may occur due to observer involvement in the Florida EETT program.

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How can technology help create student-centred learning experiences in physical education ?

Lin Wang (2010) “Creating student-centered learning experience through the assistance of high-end technology in physical education: a case study”. Journal of Instructional Psychology.

Student-centered learning is an approach in education focusing on the needs of the students, rather than those of others involved in the educational process, such as teachers and administrators (Blumberg, 2009). This approach has many implications for the design of curriculum, course content, and interactivity of courses (O’Neil & McMahon, 2005). Major tenets of student-centered learning include understanding of the material, active learning on the student part and increased responsibilities on the student’ part, increased instructor responsibilities on creating an environment that facilitates the learning process, assessment process is intergraded with feedback providing, and both parties (the instructor and the students) share some of the decision making responsibilities (Blumberg, 2009; Lea, Stephenson, & Troy, 2003).

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