Using the power of research to inform ICT integration in education

Posts tagged ‘research’

How can Elementary School Children be better supported in their Web Searches at School?

Eickhoff, C., P. Dekker, and A. P. de Vries (2012) Supporting Children’s Web Search in School Environments, 4th Conference on Information Interaction in Context (IIiX)

Nowadays, the Internet represents a ubiquitous source of information and communication. Its central role in everyday life is reflected in the curricula of modern schools. Already in early grades, children are encouraged to search for information on-line. However, the way in which they interact with state-of-the-art search interfaces and how they explore and interpret the presented information, differs greatly from adult user behaviour. This work describes a qualitative user study in which the Web search behaviour of Dutch elementary school children was observed and classified into roles motivated by prior research in cognitive science. Building on the findings of this survey, we propose an automatic method of identifying struggling searchers in order to enable teaching personnel to provide appropriate and targeted guidance where needed.

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Can YouTube be an Effective Resource for Social Science Research?

Sun Hee Jang (2011) YouTube as an Innovative Resource for Social Science Research, AARE 2011 Conference Proceedings

This paper explains why YouTube can be used effectively as a research tool in the social sciences, and deals with challenges and uncertainties in Web 2.0 research as well as considering the potential benefits of investigations in this area. It concludes with a discussion of some of the key issues for ethical considerations, and as such will hopefully assist researchers, teachers and students who intend to use YouTube in their research work.

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How do online social networking skills condition the use of digital media for communication?

Yuli Patrick Hsieh (2012) Online social networking skills: The social affordances approach to digital inequality
by Yuli Patrick Hsieh, First Monday, Volume 17, Number 4 – 2 April 2012

This paper sets out to develop a theoretical framework for examining implications of digital media uses for digital inequality in the domain of social interaction. First, by drawing on the social affordances perspective, this paper seeks to establish an additional dimension of digital skills, namely, online social networking skills. Furthermore, to explore the implications of interactional ICT use for digital inequality, this paper theorizes how online social networking skills may condition uses of various digital media for communication (i.e., communication multiplexity) and proposes two propositions for future empirical examination.

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How does media multitasking impact children’s learning and development?

Wallis, C. (2010). The impacts of media multitasking on children’s learning and development: Report from a research seminar, New York, NY: The Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop.

New technology sometimes brings change that is so swift and so sweeping, that the impact and implications are hard to grasp. So it is with the rapid expansion of media use by children and adults—at work and at play, alone and in groups, for ever larger portions of their waking hours. Media multitasking—engaging in more than one media activity at a time—has rapidly become a way of life for American youth, accord- ing to a 2005 report from the Kaiser Family Foundation (Roberts, Foehr, & Rideout, 2005), and yet little is known about how this behavior affects their learning and development, their ability to attend, to plan, to think, and to relate to other people. The same may be said for adults, many of whom have taken to media multitasking to the point of “crackBerry” obsession. Aside from the recent alarming reports about the dangers of cell phone use while driving1 or the impact of web surfing on worker productivity, little is known about the larger implications of this now ubiquitous behavior. To begin to address this gap in knowledge and to frame a coherent research agenda, a multidisciplinary group of scholars in the emerging field of multitasking assembled for a one-day seminar on media multitasking and its impact on children’s learning and development at Stanford University on July 15, 2009.

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How can Google Maps-based tools collect spatial responses during online surveys?

Bearman, N. and Appleton, K. (2012), Using Google Maps to collect spatial responses in a survey environment. Area, 44: 160–169.

This paper examines the use of Google Maps-based tools to collect spatial responses from participants during academic research surveys conducted via the Internet. Using two recent examples from the University of East Anglia it discusses the online survey context and how Google Maps was used, issues surrounding the technical implementation of these tools, processing and use of the collected data, and concludes with considerations for future research that might employ similar methods.

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How Effective is Education Technology in Enhancing Reading Achievement?

Alan C. K. Cheung,  Robert E. Slavin (2011) The Effectiveness of Education Technology for Enhancing Reading Achievement: A Meta-Analysis, The Best Evidence Encyclopedia,  Johns Hopkins University School of Education’s Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (CDDRE)

The present review examines research on the effects of technology use on reading achievement in K-12 classrooms. Unlike previous reviews, this review applies consistent inclusion standards to focus on studies that met high methodological standards. In addition, methodological and substantive features of the studies are investigated to examine the relationship between education technology and study features. A total of 85 qualified studies based on over 60,000 K-12 participants were included in the final analysis. Consistent with previous reviews of similar focus, the findings suggest that education technology generally produced a positive, though small, effect (ES=+0.16) in comparison to traditional methods. However, the effects may vary by education technology type. In particular, the types of supplementary computer-assisted instruction programs that have dominated the classroom use of education technology in the past few decades are not producing educationally meaningful effects in reading for K-12 students. In contrast, innovative technology applications and integrated literacy interventions with the support of extensive professional development showed somewhat promising evidence. However, too few randomized studies for these promising approaches are available at this point for firm conclusions.

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Do video games effect the sleep and mental health of Czech and Japanese children?

Milada Krejci, Kai Wada, Miyo Nakade, Hitomi Takeuchi, Teruki Noji, Tetsuo Harada  (2011)  Effects of Video Game Playing on the Circadian Typology and Mental Health of Young Czech and Japanese Children, Psychology 2011. Vol.2, No.7, 674-680

The objective of this study is to examine the effects of video game playing on sleep-wake cycles and mental health of young Czech and Japan children. A cross-sectional survey with 497 Czech children (240 girls, 257 boys; mean age of 4.60 years; 49 ̊ – 51 ̊N) and 599 Japanese children (314 girls, 285 boys: 3.79 years; 33 ̊N) from 20 kindergartens and nursery schools. Habitual video game playing in the evening may make children more evening-typed and it may also be speculated to make them more aggressive in both countries.

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How do players manage moral concerns to make video game violence enjoyable?

Christoph Klimmt, Hannah Schmid, Andreas Nosper, Tilo Hartmann, Peter Vorderer (2006) How players manage moral concerns to make video game violence enjoyable, Communications Volume: 31, Issue: 3, Publisher: De Gruyter, Pages: 309-328

Research on video game violence has focused on the impact of aggression, but has so far neglected the processes and mechanisms underlying the enjoyment of video game violence. The present contribution examines a specific process in this context, namely players strategies to cope with moral concern that would (in real-life settings) arise from violent actions. Based on Banduras (2002) theory of moral disengagement, we argue that in order to maintain their enjoyment of game violence, players find effective strategies to avoid or cope with the moral conflict related to their violent behaviors in the game world (moral management). Exploratory interviews with ten players of violent video games revealed some relevance of moral reasoning to their game enjoyment, and several strategies that help players to manage moral concern. Most importantly, respondents referred to the game-reality distinction and their focus on winning the game when explaining how violent action is a by-product of good performance. Findings are discussed in light of further theorizing on moral management and potential links to the media violence debate.

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At what level does social capital impact workgroups?

Y. Connie Yuan (2011) Social Capital and Transactive Memory Systems in Workgroups: A Multilevel Approach, Cornell UniversityDepartment of Communication, Best Papers Proceedings of the Sixty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management

A multilevel, multi-theoretical model of transactive memory was developed by integrating the mergence model with social capital theories. Empirical tests showed that individual social capital significantly impacted the development of the micro-level component of transitive memories, but collective social capital did not significantly influence the development of macro-level transitive memories.

Is an unquestioning confidence in technology wise?

Mahon O‟Brien (2011) The Future of Humanity: Heidegger, Personhood and Technology, Comparative Philosophy Volume 2, No. 2 (2011): 23-49

This paper argues that a number of entrenched posthumanist positions are seriously flawed as a result of their dependence on a technical interpretive approach that creates more problems than it solves. During the course of our discussion we consider in particular the question of personhood. After all, until we can determine what it means to be a person we cannot really discuss what it means to improve a person. What kinds of enhancements would even constitute improvements? This in turn leads to an examination of the technical model of analysis and the recurring tendency to approach notions like personhood using this technical model. In looking to sketch a Heideggerian account of personhood, we are reaffirming what we take to be a Platonic skepticism concerning technical models of inquiry when it comes to certain subjects. Finally we examine the question as to whether the posthumanist looks to apply technology‟s benefits in ways that we have reflectively determined to be useful or desirable or whether it is technology itself (or to speak as Heidegger would – the “essence” of technology) which prompts many posthumanists to rely on an excessively reductionist view of the human being.

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What does evidence say about technology enhanced assessment and feedback?

Whitelock, Denise; Gilbert, Lester and Gale, Veronica (2011). Technology Enhanced Assessment and Feedback: How is evidence-based literature informing practice? In: 2011 International Computer Assisted Assessment (CAA) Conference, Research into e-Assessment, 05-06 July 2011, Southampton.

This desktop research commissioned by the Higher Education Academy set out to consult with the academic community about which references on assessment and feedback with technology enhancement were most useful to practitioners. While all the recommended publications may be characterised as reputable and the majority were peer-reviewed (67.7%), only a minority provided quantitative data (28.2%), of which relatively few provided appropriate experimental designs or statistical analysis (18.5%). The majority of publications were practitioner-led case studies. The references that were recommended to us are clearly having an impact on current practice and are found valuable by practitioners. The key messages from these sources are consistent and often give detailed and practical guidance for other academics. We found that most of the recommended literature focused on the goals that technology enhancement can enable assessment and feedback to meet and how assessment and feedback can be designed to make best use of the technology.

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Does research overemphasize the need for technology in education?

M. Oliver (2011) Technological determinism in educational technology research: some alternative ways of thinking about the relationship between learning and technology, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning (2011), 27, 373–384

This paper argues that research on the educational uses of technology frequently overemphasizes the influence of technology. Research in the field is considered a form of critical perspective, and assumptions about technology are questioned. Technological determinism is introduced, and different positions on this concept are identified. These are used to discuss the ways in which work within the field might be described as technologically deterministic. Four theoretical perspectives (activity theory, communities of practice, actor–network theory, and the social construction of technology) are then briefly characterized, demonstrating that alternative positions are viable, and positioning each in relation to the earlier discussion of technological determinism. The paper concludes by arguing that research, building on such alternative conceptions of technology, is important in developing our understanding of the relationship between technology and learning, as well as identifying potential methodological implications.

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What is the role of context on students’ performance on map tasks?

Lowrie, Tom, Diezmann, Carmel M., & Logan , Tracy (2011) Primary students’ performance on map tasks : the role of context. In Ubuz, Behiye (Ed.) Proceedings of the 35th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education: Developing Mathematical Thinking, PME, Cultural and Convention Center, Ankara, pp. 145-152.

Being numerate in today’s society requires increased demands on our capacity to represent, manipulate and decode information in various graphical forms (e.g., graphs, maps). New technologies allow data to be transformed into detailed and dynamic graphic displays (e.g., Google Earth) with increased complexity (and detail), and consequently, there is greater need for students to become proficient in decoding maps. At the same time, the tasks students are required to solve are becoming more authentic and realistic. The purpose of this paper is to  investigate the effect that students’ lived experiences (in terms of geographic locality) have on their ability to decode maps.

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How is knowledge elaborated?

Slava Kalyuga (2009) Knowledge elaboration: A cognitive load perspective, Learning and Instruction 19 (2009) 402-410

The process of knowledge elaboration is considered from the perspective of cognitive load theory. This theory assumes that the availableknowledge structures in long-term memory (LTM) are used to organize and guide cognitive processing in complex learning. Accordingly, therole of external instructional guidance in the process of knowledge elaboration could be described as providing a substitute for knowledgestructures missing from LTM. Thus, the executive guidance in complex learning environments is shared between the person (based on his/herLTM knowledge structures) and another expert or instructional means. This article analyzes instructional implications of this assumption.Adaptive learning environments are suggested for tailoring knowledge elaboration processes to changing characteristics of individual learners.Means for identifying and predicting the learner’s LTM-based executive guidance are proposed so that they can be utilized in the building of adaptive learning environments.

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Is Mobile Communication leading to a New Insularity?

Kenneth J. Gergen (2010) Mobile Communication and the New Insularity,  QWERTY 5, 1 (2010) 14-28

This paper focuses on the reverberations of mobile communication, and most particularly the mobile phone. It examines the role of mobile phone usage in bringing about transformations in communal life. It introduces the metaphor of the floating world, which will facilitate an understanding of a new form of communal life made possible by the mobile phone. The creation of floating worlds generates a new form of insularity. It is not an insularity of individuals, of organizations, or nations, but an informal, micro-social fragmentation. There are implications of this insularity for the socio-political landscape. Cell phone technology may effectively reduce political engagement. However, where political issues are highly salient, it may serve to both harden political divisions and reduce potentials for dialogue.

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What does a social and cultural archeology of the internet look like?

Geert Willem Lovink (2009) Dynamics of Critical Internet Culture (1994-2001), Submitted in total fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, November 2002 English Department University of Melbourne

Unlike much of the cultural studies literature and early media theory, I will not describe what an email is, what MUDs and MOOs are and compare the Internet with book culture or television. In my view the question of what the Internet is all about has been sufficiently dealt with. It is time for critical research to move on, away from the general level of functionality. It is no longer the technical possibilities that characterize the medium. Instead of, yet again, going through general possibilities my research is based on empirical data: emails, webpages, events and personal encounters with the players in the field—both real and virtual. Where possible and useful I have made references to other (online) literature. It is my aim to write a contemporary form of media archeology in which I map the social and cultural usages of the Internet. I am writing early histories of a selected group of techno-cultural networks.

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Do people collaborate more effectively using computers than face to face?

Wadhah Amer Hatem, Alan S Kwan & John C Miles (2012) A Comparison of Face to Face and Computer Mediated Collaboration, Advanced Engineering Informatics, February 2012

In the construction industry, the need for collaboration between people who are geographically remote is a reoccurring feature. The traditional way of dealing with this is collocation but this is expensive and disruptive and so increasingly, use has been made of remote collaboration using computational technology over networks. To assess whether or not such computer mediated collaboration is effective, a carefully controlled set of experiments has been undertaken using ten groups of two people who are required to work on a partially developed design task. The work is undertaken using computer mediated communication supported by a 3D CAD package. As a control, the same people have also undertaken a similar design task working face to face. The results show that, for the type of design task involved, people collaborating using computer mediated communication, at worst are as effective as people working face to face and probably are slightly more effective.

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What are the Opportunities in Human-centric Sensing?

Mani Srivastava, Tarek Abdelzaher, and Boleslaw Szymanski (2012) Human-centric Sensing, Philosophical Transactions of Royal Society, 370 ser. A (1958), 2012 pp. 176-197

The first decade of the century witnessed a proliferation of devices with sensing and communication capabilities in the possession of the average individual. Examples range from camera phones and wireless GPS units to sensor-equipped, networked fitness devices and entertainment platforms (such as Wii). Social networking platforms emerged, such as Twitter, that allow sharing information in real time. The unprecedented deployment scale of such sensors and connectivity options usher in an era of novel data-driven applications that rely on inputs collected by networks of humans or measured by sensors acting on their behalf. These applications will impact domains as diverse as health, transportation, energy, disaster recovery, intelligence, and warfare. This paper surveys the important opportunities in human-centric sensing, identifies challenges brought about by such opportunities, and describes emerging solutions to these challenges.

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How Significant is the Web as a Learning Resource?

Si Fan (2011) Significance of the Web as a Learning Resource in an Australian University Context, Submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University of Tasmania June 2011

This research involved the participation of 502 students and 100 teaching staff from seven faculties/disciplines at the University of Tasmania. The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of the Web as a learning resource in this university context. It examined the views of teaching staff and students toward the significance of the Web in teaching and learning practices, and identified the environment in which the Web was used to facilitate teaching and learning. The results of this study indicated a strong recognition of the role of the Web as a learning resource at the University of Tasmania. The Web was recognised as performing an essential role in the processes of communication, information retrieval, collaborative learning and assessment. Also, the Web and web-based technologies were seen as an important supplementary tool for face-to-face learning. However, there were differences between perceived expectations of web-based education by teaching staff and students, and the ways in which it was conducted and managed. By discussing the end-users‟ views and evaluations, recommendations are made on the further development and modification of the Web adoption. It suggests that taking student expectations and needs into consideration can help create a more supportive and meaningful web-based learning environment. Training for both staff and students is also desired to enhance their skills in using the Web as a learning resource and to provide standard web-based support in all courses.

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Quantitative vs. qualitative – do different research methods give consistent information about Library users and their space needs?

Susan E. Montgomery  (2011) Quantitative vs. qualitative – do different research methods give us consistent information about our users and their library space needs? Library and Information Research Volume 35 Number 111 2011

Assessment of how library patrons use space and the evaluation of their needs has become a “hot” topic in library research. But determining the best way to obtain information about their activity can be a challenge. Two types of data collection are quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative data provides a numerical count of what activities students perform within the library and therefore can be measured. Qualitative data gives personal opinions, feedback and individual perspectives regarding a topic but is not measurable. In this study, we were interested to learn if we would get substantially different results from a user observation study, a quantitative method, than from the results of asking users about their library space needs, a qualitative method. Essentially, would the results from both methods provide complementary results enabling us to obtain a comprehensive picture about our patrons’ needs and redesign the space to improve their library experience?

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With Google Docs is it more effective for students to share or collaborate?

Ina Blau, Avner Caspi (2010) What Type of Collaboration Helps? Psychological Ownership, Perceived Learning and Outcome Quality of Collaboration Using Google Docs

One hundred and eighteen Open University of Israel undergraduate students participated in an experiment that was designed to test the differences between sharing and collaborating on a written assignment. Participants were randomly allocated to one of five groups that differ in types of collaboration: two groups share their draft with either an unknown audience or known peers, two other groups collaborated by either suggesting improvements to or editing each other’s draft, and an additional group in which the participants kept the draft for themselves served as a control group. Findings revealed differences between groups in psychological ownership, perceived quality of the document, but not in perceived learning. In addition, students believe that a document that was written collaboratively might have higher quality than a document written alone. Nonetheless, they reported that while their contribution improved a draft written by a colleague, the colleagues contribution deteriorated their own draft. Perceived quality of the document and the improvement from draft to final version predicted perceived learning. Thus, the present study implications are that collaboration is superior to sharing, that students prefer suggestion over editing.

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What are the risks of introducing new technologies to teachers?

Caroline Stockman, Fred Truyen (2011) The Danger of the Downward Spiral: Teachers and Digital Literacy, Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on e-Learning, Brighton 10-11 Nov 2011

The primary purpose of this paper is to provide anyone active in the field of education with a useful tool to assess risks during the integration of new technology in an educational setting, but especially to raise awareness of the danger of a downward spiral, which not only undermines our investment of time and money into these promising new technologies, but which also puts the learners at a great disadvantage when providing useful tools for their benefit which are, in the end, not fully or even wrongly used.

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How does online writing in ESL instruction encourage participation in public discourse?

Chan Mei Yuit & Yap Ngee Thai (2010) Encouraging participation in public discourse through online writing in ESL instruction, 3L The Southeast Asian Journal of English Language Studies Vol 16 (2) 2010

In recent years, writing instructors have started to adopt pedagogies that integrate classroom writing with happenings outside the classroom (see Weisser, 2001; Flower, 2008; Mathieu, 2005). The goal of writing instruction is no longer limited to competence in terms of language, style and techniques, but is expanded to encompass civic literacy. This orientation of writing especially at university level intertwines with the aim of higher education to produce individuals who are empowered to contribute towards a better world through participation in public discourse. In a study conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia, 1,400 students were required to write publicly in an online forum on issues that affect the lives of the students and the community in which they belong. This paper presents the results of the study and discusses the contribution of a public orientation in ESL writing instruction in fostering ability and motivation to participate in public discourse among university students.

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Can teachers be trusted to accurately assess their acceptance of educational technologies?

Bram PYNOO, Jo TONDEUR, Johan VAN BRAAK, Wouter DUYCK, Bart SIJNAVEd, Philippe DUYCK (2011) Assessing teachers’ acceptance of educational technologies: Beware for the congruency between user acceptance and actual use, T. Hirashima et al. (Eds.) (2011). Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computers in Education. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

In this study, we investigated the extent to which self-reported measures for user acceptance (attitude, behavioral intention, self-reported frequency of use), added to the prediction of several aspects of use of a portal for education. Data from 835 teachers was collected: questionnaire “acceptance” data on one occasion and five parameters for observed use (number of logins, downloads, uploads, page views, and reactions) were extracted on two occasions from the portal database. We found that the self-reported measures for acceptance primarily predicted search behavior (monthly number of logins, downloads and page views), and not share behavior (monthly number of uploads and reactions). So, researchers aiming to assess teachers’ acceptance of a technology to contribute information, should adjust their measures for user acceptance so that these correspond with the targeted actual behavior.

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How can Libraries use iPads to survey students?

Jennifer Link Jones, Bryan Sinclair (2011) Assessment on the Go: Surveying Students With an iPad, Library Innovation Volume 2, Issue 2, 2011

Ongoing assessment in academic libraries, particularly the measurement of student perceptions, preferences, and satisfaction, can be a challenge to schedule and execute. This paper describes a pilot project at Georgia State University Library that combined assessment with the portability of the tablet computer. A tablet computer–in this case, Apple’s iPad–loaded with survey software became a digital clipboard with the added benefit of automatic data compilation. Subjects were surveyed quickly in the library buildings, maximizing convenience for both subjects and researchers alike. The result was a model that other libraries, as well as campus student services divisions and classroom instructors, can easily adopt. Methodology, benefits, lessons learned, and ideas for future projects are discussed.

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How are students and teachers using Facebook?

Khe Foon Hew (2011) Students’ and teachers’ use of Facebook, Computers in Human Behavior 27 (2011) 662–676

The purpose of this article is to review current published research studies focusing on the use of Facebook by students and teachers. The aim of the review is not to solely discuss Facebook in relation to teaching or learning purposes, or about its educational value per se, but also to present a detailed account of the participants’ Facebook usage profile or the extent to which users are engaged in Facebook activities. The emphasis of this review will be upon empirical findings rather than opinion- or theoretical explanations. The conclusions overall suggest that Facebook thus far has very little educational use, that students use Facebook mainly to keep in touch with known individuals, and that students tend to disclose more personal information about themselves on Facebook.

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What could Computer Science look like in the Elementary School?

Katherine Gunion (2008) FUNdamentals of CS: Designing and Evaluating Computer Science Activities for Kids, University of British Columbia, A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE in the Department of Computer Science

Computer Science is not included in high school or middle school education in British Columbia. Young students are not exposed to Computer Science when they are learning their fundamentals. Given the correct abstractions like kinesthetic learn- ing activities and graphical programming languages, elementary school students can be exposed to computer science and can understand sophisticated topics like recursion and concurrency. This means that more students’ interest will be piqued and they will be exposed to sophisticated concepts before first year computer science.

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Can robotics change students’ beliefs and interest toward STEM?

Stephen H. Whitehead (2010) Relationship of Robotic Implementation On Changes In Middle School Students’ Beliefs and Interest Toward Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, A Dissertation Submitted to the School of Graduate Studies and Research in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Education, Indiana University of Pennsylvania

This quantitative study evaluates the impact of using robotics as a content organizer to teach a mathematic concept between math and technology education classes in a middle school of the students beliefs and interests toward STEM concepts. The analysis was based upon pre and post belief and interest survey responses by the participating middle school students. Ten schools from Pennsylvania participated in the study over the spring semester of school in 2010.

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What do 40 years of research say about the impact of technology on learning?

Rana M. Tamim, Robert M. Bernard, Eugene Borokhovski, Philip C. Abrami, and Richard F. Schmid (2011) What Forty Years of Research Says About the Impact of Technology on Learning: A Second-Order Meta-Analysis and Validation Study, Review of Educational Research March 2011, Vol. 81, No. 1, pp. 4–28

This research study employs a second-order meta-analysis procedure to sum- marize 40 years of research activity addressing the question, does computer technology use affect student achievement in formal face-to-face classrooms as compared to classrooms that do not use technology? A study-level meta- analytic validation was also conducted for purposes of comparison. An extensive literature search and a systematic review process resulted in the inclusion of 25 meta-analyses with minimal overlap in primary literature, encompassing 1,055 primary studies. The random effects mean effect size of 0.35 was significantly different from zero. The distribution was heterogeneous under the fixed effects model. To validate the second-order meta- analysis, 574 individual independent effect sizes were extracted from 13 out of the 25 meta-analyses. The mean effect size was 0.33 under the random effects model, and the distribution was heterogeneous. Insights about the state of the field, implications for technology use, and prospects for future research are discussed.

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Why is the UK banning ICT from schools?

The Royal Society (2012) Shut down or restart? The way forward for computing in UK schools, The Royal Academy of Engineering, January 2012

This report analyses the current state of Computing education in UK schools and sets out a way forward for improving on the present situation. The report states that the term ICT as a brand should be reviewed and the possibility considered of disaggregating this into clearly defined areas such as digital literacy, Information Technology and Computer Science. There is an analogy here with how English is structured at school, with reading and writing (basic literacy), English Language (how the language works) and English Literature (how it is used). The term ‘ICT’ should no longer be used as it has attracted too many negative connotations.

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Why is it more difficult for students to conduct research in the digital age?

Head, A.J. & Eisenberg, M.B. (2009). Finding context: What today’s college students say about conducting research in the digital age, Project Information Literacy Progress Report, February 2009

So far, we have found that no matter where students are enrolled, no matter what information resources they may have at their disposal, and no matter how much time they have, the abundance of information technology and the proliferation of digital information resources make conducting research uniquely paradoxical: Research seems to be far more difficult to conduct in the digital age than it did in previous times. In this progress report we share some of the perceptions that led to this conclusion and several of the trends in problem-solving strategies that have emerged. The findings and analysis presented here should not be viewed as complete, but rather as part of our ongoing research that will be explored further and tested more rigorously.

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What is the effect of multitasking on students’ grades?

Yvonne Ellis, Bobbie Daniels, Andres Jauregui (2010) The effect of multitasking on the grade performance of business students, Research in Higher Education Journal (2010) Volume: 8, Issue: 1, Pages: 1-11

Multitasking refers to the concurrent processing of two or more tasks through a process of context switching. However, research by neuroscientists show that multitasking reduces the brain’s ability to effectively retrieve information. The purpose of this study is to empirically examine whether multitasking in class affects the grade performance of business students. Our findings indicate that the exam scores of students who text in class are significantly lower than the exam scores of students who do not text in class. Thus, multitasking during class is considered a distraction that is likely to result in lower grade performance.

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Why is Research in Educational Technology Essential to Inform Improved Learning in Schools?

Steven M Ross, Gary R Morrison, Deborah L Lowther (2010) Educational Technology Research Past and Present: Balancing Rigor and Relevance to Impact School LearningCONTEMPORARY EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY, 2010, 1(1), 17-35

Today, the exponential growth of technology usage in education, via such applications of distance education, Internet access, simulations, and educational games, has raised substantially the focus and importance of educational technology research. In this paper, we examine the past and present research trends, with emphasis on the role and contribution of research evidence for informing instructional practices and policies to improve learning in schools. Specific topics addressed include: (a) varied conceptions of effective technology uses in classroom instruction as topics for research, (b) historical trends in research approaches and topics of inquiry; (c) alternative research designs for balancing internal (rigor) and external (relevance) validity; and (d) suggested directions for future research. Attention is devoted to describing varied experimental designs as options for achieving appropriate rigor and relevance of research evidence, and using mixed-methods research for investigating and understanding technology applications in complex real-life settings.

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Can screen time be connected to increased psychological distress in young children?

Mark Hamer, Emmanuel Stamatakis and Gita Mishra (2009) Psychological Distress, Television Viewing, and Physical Activity in Children Aged 4 to 12 Years, Pediatrics 2009;123;1263

Sedentary behavior and physical activity may be independent risk factors for psychological distress in adolescents, although there is no existing information for children. We examined the cross-sectional association between psychological dis- tress, television and screen entertainment time, and physical activity levels among a representative sample of children aged 4 to 12 years from the 2003 Scottish Health Survey. Conclusion: Higher levels of television and screen entertainment time and low physical activity levels interact to increase psychological distress in young children.

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How are rich, technology-enhanced learning environments changing student learning?

Grainne Conole, Maarten De Laat, Teresa Dillon, Jonathan Darby (2008) ‘Disruptive technologies’, ‘pedagogical innovation’: What’s new? Findings from an in-depth study of students’ use and perception of technology, Computers & Education, Volume: 50, Issue: 2,

The paper describes the findings from a study of students use and experience of technologies. A series of in-depth case studies were carried out across four subject disciplines, with data collected via survey, audio logs and interviews. The findings indicate that students are immersed in a rich, technology-enhanced learning environment and that they select and appropriate technologies to their own personal learning needs. The paper concludes by suggesting that the findings have profound implications for the way in which educational institutions design and support learning activities.

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How can digital backchannels support student participation?

François Bry, Vera Gehlen-Baum, Alexander Pohl (2011) Promoting Awareness and  Participation in Large Class Lectures: The Digital Backchannel Backstage, Proceedings of the IADIS

This article reports on the conception of a novel digital backchannel, code name Backstage, dedicated to large classes aiming at empowering not only the audience but also the speaker, at promoting the awareness of both audience and speaker, and at promoting an active participation of students in the lecture. The backchannel supports different forms of inter-student communication via short microblog messages, social evaluation and ranking of messages by the students themselves, and aggregation of student’s opinions aiming at increasing the students’ community feeling, strengthening the students’ awareness of and co-responsibility for the class work aiming at promoting the students’ participation in the lecture. The backchannel further supports immediate concise feedback to the lecturer of selected and aggregated students’ opinions aiming at strengthening the lecturer’s awareness for students’ difficulties.

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How do high-school students use information literacy skills to find and evaluate scientific information?

Heidi Julien , Susan Barker (2009) How high-school students find and evaluate scientific information: A basis for information literacy skills development, Library & Information Science Research

This study examined the relationship between curricula in secondary-level science classrooms, which support development of information literacy skills, and actual student skills. A vast body of research reflects deep concern with the level of information literacy skill development among secondary and post-secondary students. But even when educational curricula mandate skill development, many students are unable to demonstrate sophisticated information searching and critical evaluation skills. The findings of this study, which we based on analyzing information seeking tasks and conducting interviews with students in three biology classes in a large urban high school, demonstrated a similar lack of skills. Pressure on teachers to “teach to examinations”—that is, to focus on substantive content rather than on information literacy skills and information literacy skills deficits among teachers themselves—is a possible explanation for these results. The study is of particular interest to teachers of the curriculum applicable in the study context, but the broader implications of repeated indications of gaps in students’ information literacy skills are a significant indicator that schools must assume a larger responsibility for information literacy instruction. Leaving skill development to the post-secondary environment will not ensure that citizens are sufficiently skilled to participate fully in 21st century life, in workplaces or in their personal life contexts.

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How is the explosion of online social media a new opportunity to measure social capital?

Matthew S. Smith (2011) A Computational Framework for Social Capital in Online Communities, A dissertation submitted to the faculty of Brigham Young University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

The explosion of online social media means that it is now possible to collect rich data about people’s connections and interactions, in a completely ubiquitous, non-intrusive manner. Such dynamic social data opens the door to the more accurate measuring and tracking of social capital. Similarly, online data is replete with additional personal data, such as topics discussed in blogs or hobbies listed in personal profiles, that is difficult to obtain through standard surveys. Such information can be used to discover similarities, or implicit affinities, among individuals, which in turn leads to finer measures of social capital, including the often useful distinction between bonding and bridging social capital.

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How can the value of information technology in organisations be evaluated?

Janne Laine (2009) Evaluating the Business Value of Information Technology, HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Abstract of the Master’s Thesis

The effect and role of IT in organisations is complex. On the one hand, IT affects virtually every part of corporations and is crucial and integral part of organisations core assets and capabilities, and on the other hand, IT is nothing more than a tool, an enabler, which can be utilised to accomplish certain tasks. To make matters worse, the approach differs in every organisation and also in different situations. Vast technology investments should not be justified based on instinct and opportunistic value propositions. Information technology, just as any other corporate asset, must be planned, implemented and utilised with care. Proper level of systematic analysis and planning is required to make wise information technology investment decisions. Fortunately, there are tools and techniques that can help an organisation to govern manage and operate IT effectively. This study focuses on the concept of value of information technology in its different forms and tries to help looking at technology from the reasonable perspective. Similar to successful companies in IT sector is their ability to align IT investments and IT management with corporate business strategy and to be able to look at IT investments intangible benefits and their affect on different sides of corporation’s portfolio of assets.

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What do recent studies show about literacy and technology in primary classrooms?

BURNETT, C. (2009). Research into literacy and technology in primary classrooms: an exploration of understandings generated by recent studies. Journal of research in reading (special issue: New developments in literacy and technology), 32 (1), 22-37.

Whilst much has been written about the implications for ‘literacy’ for practices surrounding digital technologies (Gee, 2000a; Luke and Carrington, 2002; Snyder, 1998), there has been surprisingly little research investigating new literacies in primary classrooms (Andrews, 2003; Labbo and Reinking, 2003: Lankshear and Knobel, 2003). This review examines the kinds of understandings that have been generated through studies of primary literacy and technology reported during the period 2000-2006. It uses Green’s distinction between ‘operational’, ‘cultural’ and ‘critical’ dimensions of primary literacy (Lankshear and Bigum, 1999; Snyder, 2001) to investigate the focus and methodology of 38 empirical studies. It explores ways in which research may be informed by assumptions and practices associated with print literacy, but also highlights the kinds of studies which are beginning to investigate the implications of digital texts for primary education. The paper concludes by arguing for further ethnographic and phenomenological studies of classroom literacy practices in order to explore the complex contexts which surround and are mediated by digital texts.

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How can Systemic Functional Grammar be used to construct a powerful online identity?

Victor Ho (2010Constructing Identities In The Workplace Through Request E-Mail Discourse – How Does One Benefit From It? GEMA OnlineTM Journal of Language Studies 3 Volume 10(2) 2010

This paper discusses the construction of personal identities through the request e-mail discourse by a group of professional English language teachers of a public education institution in Hong Kong. Facing the downsizing of the civil service, the revised appraisal system, and the tighter budget of the Hong Kong SAR government following the Asian financial crisis, teachers working in Hong Kong public schools have less chances of getting promotion and pay rises. To put themselves in an advantageous position in relation to get a promotion and a pay rise, as argued in this paper, the teachers constructed two personal identities online before their peers and superiors in their workplace. A total of 50 e-mails met the two criteria that follow and formed the corpus of the present study: containing at least one request, and having teachers of the same rank as the author and recipients. The request e-mail discourse is analyzed at the clause level with respect to transitivity, mood and modality by drawing upon systemic functional linguistics. It is found that the teachers, using the resources available in the English language grammar, constructed for themselves the identity of a responsible, hardworking member, and of a member with authority and power. This paper hopes to achieve three aims – (1) to contribute to the understanding of the constitutive effect of discourse; (2) to illustrate how such effect could be manipulated by discourse producers in order to achieve both their communicative and political aims; and (3) to enhance people’s e-mail communication competency in the workplace.

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How can Blogs be used to maximize students’ collaborative writing?

Zaini Amir, Kemboja Ismail, Supyan Hussin (2011) Blogs in Language Learning: Maximizing Students’ Collaborative Writing, Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences (2011) Volume: 18, Pages: 537-543

Educators have engaged with Web 2.0 technologies such as blogs or podcasts, to make learning more personalized, more interactive and more dynamic. Blogging has emerged as one of the most popular forms of online discourse. Blogging is seen as a learning platform in providing opportunities for learning English which can improve the students’ knowledge about their language performance in writing. The unique nature of the blog’s architecture and the low cost have not only affected how students can publish and distribute their work to a wider audience but also how the students see themselves as authors. This paper focuses on the use of blogs in a language and IT course which can help to maximize students’ collaborative writing. Findings from the blogs include the perceptions of ESL students of how blogging can contribute to the development of the students’ writing.

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What skills do students, teachers, and librarians need to build media literacy?

Jennifer M. Henson (2011) Media Literacy, Department of Educational Leadership and Human Development University of Central Missouri

An important aspect of application of media literacy for teaching and learning is for teachers to step back, support, and encourage students to be inventive and creative with such tools. Beginning media literacy education in early childhood and including parents is critical, as parents are their teachers at home. Young children are exposed to media literacy though television commercials, hand held games, the Internet, and even movies. Parents are the fist people to explain to children what they see, hear, and understand from these different types of media. An important aspect of application of media literacy for teaching and learning is for teachers to step back, support, and encourage students to be inventive and creative with such tools. Teachers should be knowledgeable in media literacy skills and how to integrate them into the curriculum. The librarian has a key role in supporting the integration of media literacy into the curriculum. School librarians partnering with other educators to identify and teach the media literacy will enable students to be effective digital learners.

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What does literacy with digital media look like?

Ola Erstad (2010) Educating the Digital Generation, Exploring Media Literacy for the 21st Century,  Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy

The concept of a digital generation has been dominating the public discourse on the role of digital media in young people’s lives. Issues concerning a digital generation is closely linked to questions about how we develop an education system that is able to face the challenges of the 21st Century. A growing field of research, inclined to raise awareness of present and future challenges for our education system, is ‘media/digital literacy’. This article examines research within ‘generation studies’ and public constructions of young people and digital media. Further the article presents some developments within ‘new literacy studies’ and different aspects of ‘competencies for the 21st Century’. Next, the article reflects different approaches to studying these competencies, based on different empirical data, both from my own research and that of colleagues. Towards the end the important question of inclusion and exclusion is raised. The objective is to explore some issues of importance for future development of media literacy, the educational use of digital tools and critical considerations of a digital generation. A key part of the article is the elaboration of five dimensions representing different focus areas of research on school-based studies of media literacy.

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Is Learning Analytics the most dramatic factor shaping the future of education?

Phil Long, George Siemens (2011) Penetrating the Fog: Analytics in Learning and Education, Educause Review Volume: 46, Issue: 5, Pages: 31-40

Attempts to imagine the future of education often emphasize new technologies ubiquitous computing devices, flexible classroom designs, and innovative visual displays. But the most dramatic factor shaping the future of higher education is something that we cant actually touch or see: big data and analytics. Basing decisions on data and evidence seems stunningly obvious, and indeed, research indicates that data-driven decision-making improves organizational output and productivity.

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How can blogs be used to develop students’ Information Literacy?

Christopher Chan, Dianne Cmor (2009) Blogging toward Information Literacy: Engaging Students and Facilitating Peer Learning, Reference Services Review (2009) Volume: 37, Issue: 4, Pages: 395-407

The purpose of this paper is to describe how a course-integrated blog is used to facilitate the learning of information literacy skills. It also reports on how the effectiveness of the blog is evaluated.  The blog is made the centerpiece of library support offered to a first-year politics course. With the support of the faculty member involved, students are required to post answers to weekly library research skills questions posted to the blog. The quality of student responses is examined using a simple assessment rubric. Also, a survey is administered to students to determine perceived usefulness. Findings The evaluation of blog posts shows that the quality of answers is generally very good. Students put effort into their responses and most give accurate and thorough answers. The results of the survey indicate that most students feel the blog is useful to their learning, both in terms of general information skills, and in terms of helping research the term paper for the course. These results reflect just one course at a single university, therefore it is not possible to use the findings to make generalizations. The study could serve as a starting point for further inquiry into the evaluation of blogs as a support tool. While others have reported on using blogs in a similar manner, this study also attempts a thorough evaluation of the efficacy of the blog in helping students learn. Given the positive results of this evaluation, librarians could consider using blogs and other Web 2.0 tools to engage students in their own learning.

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How can Digital Literacies make learning and teaching more effective?

Julia Gillen, David Barton (2010) Digital Literacies: A Research Briefing by the Technology Enhanced Learning phase of the Teaching and Learning Research Programme, English

The concept of digital literacies is fascinating both in its definition and its application. The term captures an arena of rapidly developing practices, as humans interact with technologies in new ways and for innovative purposes. Many time-honoured distinctions such as between producer and consumer, writer and reader blur or virtually disappear as new syntheses emerge. There are a number of valuable approaches to digital literacies that overlap with one another. Rather than look for clear distinctions to demarcate them, it is perhaps more helpful to look for continuities and commonalities.

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Digital Literacy or Digital Literacies?

Colin Lankshear, Michele Knobel (2008) Digital Literacies—Concepts, Policies and Practices, Peter Lang Publishing

This book brings together a group of internationally-reputed authors in the field of digital literacy. Their essays explore a diverse range of the concepts, policies and practices of digital literacy, and discuss how digital literacy is related to similar ideas: information literacy, computer literacy, media literacy, functional literacy and digital competence. It is argued that in light of this diversity and complexity, it is useful to think of digital literacies the plural as well the singular. The first part of the book presents a rich mix of conceptual and policy perspectives; in the second part contributors explore social practices of digital remixing, blogging, online trading and social networking, and consider some legal issues associated with digital media.

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What is the best way to Authentically Assess an Information Literacy Program?

Karen R Diller, Sue F Phelps (2008) Learning Outcomes, Portfolios, and Rubrics, Oh My! Authentic Assessment of an Information Literacy Program, portal Libraries and the Academy (2008) Volume: 8, Issue: 1, Publisher: John Hopkins University Press Journals Division,Pages: 75-89

Librarians at Washington State University Vancouver helped the campus develop a method of assessing its General Education Program, a program based on university learning goals, one of which is information literacy. The assessment method, which relies on an electronic portfolio (ePortfolio) along with rubrics to evaluate work in the ePortfolio, enables the librarians to evaluate their information literacy program based on ACRL best practices guidelines, authentic assessment techniques, and the tenets of phenomenography. This paper will describe the library’s use of this assessment method, while looking at the advantages and disadvantages of this process for assessment.

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Can there be a future for learning organisations that neglect Information Literacy?

Bruce, Christine S. (2008) Informed learning : realising the potential of the information society in our 21st century world. In: International Conference on Libraries, Information and Society, 18-19 November 2008, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.

Information literacy has captured the imagination of information professionals. In the last twenty years significant advocacy has occurred putting information literacy issues high on the international agenda. This paper proposes informed learning (the kind of learning made possible by information literacy) as the key to realising the potential of the information society. The paper extends the concept of informed learning in the academic environment, conceptualising its broader role in the information society.

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How can Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences support the effective teaching of Information Literacy?

Intan Azura Mokhtar, Shaheen Majid and Schubert Foo (2008) Teaching information literacy through learning styles: The application of Gardner’s multiple intelligences, Journal of Librarianship and Information Science 2008; 40; 93

The key for students of today to become independent learners and knowledge workers of tomorrow lies in being information literate. However, existing information literacy (IL) teaching approaches have not always been successful in equipping students with these crucial skills to ensure deep erudition and long-lasting retention. Hence, sound pedagogical approaches become critical in IL education. This research hypothesizes that students grasp IL skills more effectively when their innate interests, such as that determined by their respective dominant intelligences, are stimulated and applied to their work. Consequently, they would produce work of better quality. To verify these postulations, an IL course was designed for students undertaking project work to equip them with the necessary IL skills, by using an established pedagogical approach – Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences. Subsequently the quality of students’ project work between the experimental and control groups were compared. It was found that the performance of students who had undergone IL training through the application of learning styles was superior in their project work.

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How can librarians use audience response technology to teach academic integrity

Christine Bombaro (2007) Using audience response technology to teach academic integrity, Reference Services Review Vol. 35 No. 2, 2007 pp. 296-309

Purpose – This paper seeks to explore the successes and challenges associated with teaching first-year students a session on plagiarism avoidance through the use of an audience response system. Design/methodology/approach – An audience response system was used to test first-year students’ knowledge of plagiarism. Quiz questions about academic honesty and plagiarism were administered, and were answered anonymously with hand-held remote control devices. The reporting feature of the technology was used to gather results of the answers to these questions, which will be used to improve the session in future years. Findings – Data gathered from the sessions indicated that this session helped students retain knowledge of plagiarism rules. Comments solicited about the session indicated that the students enjoyed the lesson, that they were better able to recognize problem areas in their own writing, and that the interactivity kept them focused on the lesson. Research limitations/implications – The session will have to be repeated over a number of years to determine whether there is a link between it and the number of plagiarism incidents on campus. Practical implications – This paper provides a practical and relatively inexpensive approach for teaching academic integrity to large groups of students.

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Why does society need media literacy?

Sonia Livingstone (2011) Media literacy: Ambitions, policies and measures, COST, September 2011

Theoretical and pedagogic ambitions for media literacy among audiences are often huge, with the promotion of media literacy heralding the promise of empowerment, critical literacy, democratic engagement and participatory culture in a thoroughly mediated world. But historically, these ambitions for media literacy have often foundered in the face of insufficient resources, policy commitment and problems of measurement. The measurement problems are attracting renewed interest now that Europe’s Digital Agenda demands a digitally literate citizenry, and now that the Audiovisual Media Services Directive demands three-yearly reporting on improvements in media literacy by all EU member states.

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Where are the ethical fault lines in the digital media?

Carrie James with Katie Davis, Andrea Flores, John M. Francis (2008) Young people, ethics, and the new digital media: A synthesis from the GoodPlay Project, White paper for the MacArthur Foundation Digital Media & Learning Initiative, The MIT Press Cambridge, Massachusetts

In late 2006, our research team at Harvard Project Zero launched a three-year project funded by the MacArthur Foundation. The goals of the GoodPlay Project are twofold—(1) to investigate the ethical contours of the new digital media and (2) to create interventions to promote ethical thinking and, ideally, conduct. In the first year of the project, we conducted background research to determine the state of knowledge about digital ethics and youth and to prepare ourselves for our empirical study. This report describes our thinking in advance of beginning our empirical work. We expect to revisit the framework and arguments that are presented here after our empirical study is complete.

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Do we really need to improve schools to improve education?

Allan Collins, Richard Halverson (2009) Rethinking Education in the Age of Technology: The Digital Revolution and the Schools, Distance Education, Teachers College Press, Pages: 1-11

The digital revolution has hit education, with more and more classrooms plugged into the whole wired world. But are schools making the most of new technologies? Are they tapping into the learning potential of today’s Firefox/Facebook/cell phone generation? Have schools fallen through the crack of the digital divide? In Rethinking Education in the Age of Technology, Allan Collins and Richard Halverson argue that the knowledge revolution has transformed our jobs, our homes, our lives, and therefore must also transform our schools. Much like after the school-reform movement of the industrial revolution, our society is again poised at the edge of radical change. To keep pace with a globalized technological culture, we must rethink how we educate the next generation or America will be “left behind.” This article summarizes the arguments of their groundbreaking book and  offers a vision for the future of American education that goes well beyond the walls of the classroom to include online social networks, distance learning with “anytime, anywhere” access, digital home schooling models, video-game learning environments, and more.

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Is it possible to develop Information Literacy without Technological Competencies?

Sharkey Jennifer, Brandt D Scott (2008) Digital Literacy Tools and Methodologies for Information Society, Publisher: IGI Global

Sharkey and Brandt start on the analysis from the traditional difference between Technology and Information Literacy. The first one seems to be wider, referring to general skills in acting with and through technology; the second one, on the contrary, is more focused on computer, Internet, and the other digital devices. According to the authors, in the so called Information Age, it is necessary to develop both of these literacies. In fact, most of the technological skills are involved with information and, on the contrary, it seems really impossible to develop informational skills without technological competencies. The result of the mediation between them is an integrated solution of Technology and Information Literacy; this could be considered as the condition starting from which to imagine the space and the role of what in this book is named: Digital Literacy.

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How do teachers understand and develop information literacy skills?

Elizabeth Probert (2009) Information literacy skills: Teacher understandings and practice, Computers & Education 53 (2009) 24–33

This article reports on a project, involving three New Zealand schools, which investigated teachers’ understanding of information literacy and their associated classroom practices. Recently published work, while lamenting school students’ lack of information literacy skills, including working with online resources, provides little research investigating classroom teachers’ knowledge of information literacy skills and their related pedagogical practice. The findings of this project indicate that while some of the teachers in this project had a reasonably good understanding of the concept of information literacy, very few reported developing their students’ information literacy skills.

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How are librarians involved in guided inquiry?

Carol Collier Kuhlthau (2010) Guided Inquiry: School Libraries in the 21st Century, School Libraries Worldwide, January 2010, Volume 16, Number 1, 17-28

The 21st century calls for new skills, knowledge and ways of learning to prepare students with abilities and competencies to address the challenges of an uncertain, changing world. Some think that an Internet connection in the classroom is all that is needed to transform a 20th century school into a 21st century learning space. If only it were that simple. Some have assumed that the Internet makes school libraries obsolete. Research shows that this is definitely not the case. A new way of learning is needed that prepares students for living and working in a complex information environment. Our research shows that school libraries are an essential component of information age schools. School librarians are vital partners in creating schools that enable students to learn through vast resources and multiple communication channels. Teachers cannot do this alone. School librarianship has evolved from emphasis on library skills to information skills in the 1980s, to information literacy in the 1990s, to inquiry as a way of learning in the first decade of the 21st century.

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Can phenomenography be a conceptual framework for information literacy in education?

Susie Andretta (2007) Phenomenography: a conceptual framework for information literacy education, ASLIB Proceedings (2007) Volume: 59, Issue: 2

By exploring learning from the learners point of view, and by focusing on the relationship between user/learner and information, the relational model proposes an holistic evaluation of learning exemplified by the qualitative changes in the way a person conceives and interacts with the world, rather than the testing of the amount of knowledge, or measuring the set of skills a learner acquires. The relational model promoted by Bruce et al. (2006), explores the dynamic relationship between learner and information within the context of information literacy, although the conceptual framework of the six frames of information literacy could be applied to any subject-specific scenario. This perspective necessarily calls for a shift of emphasis in Higher Education provision away from a learning what approach and towards a learning how attitude. To facilitate this shift Bruce et al. (2006) suggest that the relational model can be used to moderate other approaches to information literacy, thus promoting a pedagogy based on variation of learning that fosters independent and lifelong learning attitudes.

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How can interviews demonstrate a lack of information skills among secondary students?

Heidi Julien, Susan Barker (2009) How high-school students find and evaluate scientific information: A basis for information literacy skills development, Library & Information Science Research xxx (2009)

This study examined the relationship between curricula in secondary-level science classrooms, which support development of information literacy skills, and actual student skills. A vast body of research reflects deep concern with the level of information literacy skill development among secondary and post-secondary students. But even when educational curricula mandate skill development, many students are unable to demonstrate sophisticated information searching and critical evaluation skills. The findings of this study, which we based on analyzing information seeking tasks and conducting interviews with students in three biology classes in a large urban high school, demonstrated a similar lack of skills. Pressure on teachers to “teach to examinations”—that is, to focus on substantive content rather than on information literacy skills and information literacy skills deficits among teachers themselves—is a possible explanation for these results. The study is of particular interest to teachers of the curriculum applicable in the study context, but the broader implications of repeated indications of gaps in students’ information literacy skills are a significant indicator that schools must assume a larger responsibility for information literacy instruction. Leaving skill development to the post-secondary environment will not ensure that citizens are sufficiently skilled to participate fully in 21st century life, in workplaces or in their personal life contexts.

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How does IT support Social Capital?

Huysman, M.; Wulf, V. (2004): Social Capital and Information Technology, MIT-Press, Cambridge, MA 2004, pp. 1- 16

The growth in attention in networks within and between organizations makes research into the relationship between IT and Social Capital even more important. Since social capital is about connected people, the question needs to be posed if and how social capital is influenced when these connections are supported by IT. Referring to the development of IT, one has to ask how to design specific functionality to support social capital and how to set up a design processes appropriately. Research is also needed into the other direction of the relationship, namely into the question whether and to what extent social capital is needed in order to develop, to customize and to appropriate IT?

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Does the Structure of Your Brain Reflect the Size of Your Online Social Network?

Kanai, R., Bahrami, B., Roylance, R., Rees, G. (2011) Online social network size is reflected in human brain structure, Proceedings of the Royal Society

The increasing ubiquity of web-based social networking services is a striking feature of modern human society. The degree to which individuals participate in these networks varies substantially for reasons that are unclear. Here, we show a biological basis for such variability by demonstrating that quantitative variation in the number of friends an individual declares on a web-based social networking service reliably predicted grey matter density in the right superior temporal sulcus, left middle temporal gyrus and entorhinal cortex. Such regions have been previously implicated in social perception and associative memory, respectively. We further show that variability in the size of such online friendship networks was significantly correlated with the size of more intimate real-world social groups. However, the brain regions we identified were specifically associated with online social network size, whereas the grey matter density of the amygdala was correlated both with online and real-world social network sizes. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the size of an individual’s online social network is closely linked to focal brain structure implicated in social cognition.

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How is ICT impacting Thai Education?

Pote Sapianchai, Paul TJ James (2005) ICT in Thai Education: Ideological and Structural Determinants that Support its Development, Introduction and Use

Educational technology – in its many forms, guises and usage’s – is considered to be central to assisting the application and management of quality within the classroom and that to improve attainment levels using ICT, the Thai education system needs to support institutions as learning organizations, by employing new ways of working in which informed choices are exercised by capable professionals (based on Kinder, 2002) and scholarly parents. Attitudes to technology appear to affect how technology is viewed and used. This is also a management issue, as a more positive attitude to ICT makes it easier to accept and experiment with. The development of access to facilities requires a managerial strategy that reflects the various uses the technology is used for, priority in resourcing needs, and school managerial and structural strategies. All these elements have to work together in order to ensure a variety of access conditions for both staff and students. Thai Classrooms are not passive environments and technology can enhance these environments by helping to develop interactive teaching and learning strategies. However, acceptance of the use such technology appears to reflect a set of ideological, political and cultural biases that narrows the field of socialisation to that invested in the technology. Technology-rich classrooms could help deliver more flexible learning strategies and make it easier for Thai educational institutions to assist in the development of both learners and staff.

 

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How does the iPad Contribute to Mobile Learning?

Melhuish, K. & Falloon, G. (2010). Looking to the future: M-learning with the iPad. Computers in New Zealand Schools: Learning, Leading, Technology , 22 (3).

This paper explores the potential affordances and limitations of the Apple iPad in the wider context of emergent mobile learning theory, and the social and economic drivers that fuel technology development. Against the background of effective teaching and learning, the functionality offered by the iPad, and its potential uses for learning, are discussed. A critical review of the way the iPad may support learning, that draws on learning theory, contemporary articles and e-learning literature, suggests that the device may offer an exciting platform for consuming and creating content in a collaborative, interactive way. However, of greater importance is that effective, evidence-driven, innovative practices, combined with a clear-sighted assessment of the advantages and limitations of any product, should take priority over the device itself.

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How does the iPad perform at college level?

Trina Marmarelli, Martin Ringle (2011), The Reed College iPad Study, The Reed Institute

When Apple announced the release of its iPad tablet in late January 2010, Reed College had just completed a semester-long study of the Amazon Kindle DX eReader in which students and faculty in three upper-division seminars used the Kindle to read, annotate, and discuss books and articles for the courses.1 While the Kindle DX failed to meet faculty and student needs in several important ways, most notably highlighting, annotation, and manipulation of texts, the study participants were optimistic enough about the long-term potential of eReader technology to prompt the College to continue its evaluation of emerging products. Consequently, during the fall semester of 2010, we undertook a study parallel in structure to the 2009 Kindle DX study. Students in one upper-division seminar, Political Science 422: Nuclear Politics — The origins and effects of the spread of nuclear weapons, used the iPad for all of their assigned readings. Since this was one of the courses included in the Kindle study and much of the reading list was unchanged, comparisons between student reactions were easy to make. We anticipated that a multipurpose device like the iPad would have different strengths and weaknesses than the Kindle DX, a dedicated eReader, and we were particularly interested in examining these differences.

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How do institutional forces shape ICT in education?

Jonathan Ezer (2005) The Interplay of Institutional Forces Behind Higher ICT Education in India, Submitted in Fulfilment of the Full Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Department of Information Systems, London School of Economics and Political Sciences

For several years, academics have debated the extent to which ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) can help poor people in developing countries. The conversation contains diverse views, yet education is always given a prominent role. Education helps shape how people think about technology and in turn, how the technology is used. This dissertation examines how the idea of ICTs is constructed at Indian universities, and how this process is impacted by institutional forces. The research findings indicate that for a variety of reasons, higher ICT education in India is markedly Western-focused, instrumental and technocratic. These characteristics of higher ICT education in India are impacted by a process that can be described as institutional collaboration – several diverse institutional forces are acting in ways that a re coherent and mutually reinforcing.

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What is the true prevalence of sexting?

K A I T L I N LOUNSBURY , KIMBE R LY J . MI TCHE L L & DAVID F I N K E LHOR (2011) The True Prevalence of Sexting, University of New Hampshire

This factsheet presents and critiques the findings of recent studies estimating the prevalence of youth “sexting.” The authors contend that research findings to date have been inconsistent and many widely‐publicized studies have been flawed in their design. It is difficult to compare findings and draw clear conclusions due to inconsistent terminology between studies and the inclusion of material not of primary concern to the public and law enforcement, such as text‐only messages, images of adults, or images of youth that do not constitute child pornography under legal statutes. These findings are then often reported in distorted or exaggerated ways by the media, leading to public misperception. The authors present a number of suggestions to future researchers and to journalists wishing to cite statistics on sexting.

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Are structures located in organizations and technology or enacted by the users?

Orlikowski, W. J. (2000). Using Technology and Constituting Structures: A Practice Lens for Studying Technology in Organizations. Organization Science,11(4), 404-428.

As both technologies and organizations undergo dramatic changes in form and function, organizational researchers are increasingly turning to concepts of innovation, emergence, and improvisation to help explain the new ways of organizing and using technology evident in practice. With a similar intent, I propose an extension to the structurational perspective on technology that develops a practice lens to examine how people, as they interact with a technology in their ongoing practices, enact structures which shape their emergent and situated use of that technology. Viewing the use of technology as a process of enactment enables a deeper understanding of the constitutive role of social practices in the ongoing use and change of technologies in the workplace. After developing this lens, I offer an example of its use in research, and then suggest some implications for the study of technology in organizations.

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What does research say about integrating technology into K-12 teaching and learning?

Hew, K. F., & Brush, T. (2006). Integrating technology into K-12 teaching and learning: current knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research.Educational Technology Research & Development55(3), 223-252.

Although research studies in education show that use of technology can help student learning, its use is generally affected by certain barriers. In this paper, we first identify the general barriers typically faced by K-12 schools, both in the United States as well as other countries, when integrating technology into the curriculum for instructional purposes, namely: (a) resources, (b) institution, (c) subject culture, (d) attitudes and beliefs, (e) knowledge and skills, and (f) assessment. We then describe the strategies to overcome such barriers: (a) having a shared vision and technology integration plan, (b) overcoming the scarcity of resources, (c) changing attitudes and beliefs, (d) conducting professional development, and (e) reconsidering assessments. Finally, we identify several current knowledge gaps pertaining to the barriers and strategies of technology integration, and offer pertinent recommendations for future research.

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How is ICT used to integrate content and language in specialized language teaching and learning?

Gaballo, V. (2010). Integrating content and language in specialized language teaching and learning with the help of ICT. ICT for Language Learning Conference Proceeedings (pp. 29-24).

In recent times globalization has had a significant impact on content-teaching methodologies. Mobility in Europe is also a major issue that stimulated the implementation of such practice. David Marsh and Peeter Mehisto have pointed out that many governments have adopted some form of second-language-medium instruction. But reading in a second language per se does not make an example of language teaching, as the focus is primarily on content, not language. The instrumental use of a vehicular language generally a second or foreign language to learners does not imply analyzing and practicing the communicative structures of the vehicular language itself. Conversely, as Andy Kirkpatrick argued, all good language teaching needs to be based on content that engages the learner, but this is meant to provide useful contexts of use which will enhance the learning experience. Integration of content and language can only be achieved through the combination of professional expertise and linguistic competence provided by subject teachers and language teachers. Yet, although team teaching would seem to be the ideal solution, this is very difficult to achieve in practice for a number of reasons. Drawing on the successful experience of Canadian immersion programmes, where teachers are trained to teach French, and the subject through French, we believe that a second-language medium of instruction should ideally use teachers trained in both language and content pedagogy. ICT plays a fundamental role in achieving this dual goal as the case study presented in this paper proves. By analyzing a scenario of content and language integrated learning based on the use of e-learning technologies, the paper points out the relevance of involving students in ICT-based activities which give them a combination of professional expertise and linguistic competence.

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Do experienced middle-aged teachers integrate more ICT into their teaching than younger teachers with a more positive attitude toward computers?

Hung, Y.,  and  Hsu, Y., (2007) Examining Teachers’ CBT Use in the Classroom: A Study in Secondary schools in Taiwan, Journal of Educational Technology & Society Volume 10 Number 3 2007

The purpose of this study was to analyze the current status of computer-based technology (CBT) use in secondary schools in Taiwan. A questionnaire was developed to investigate teachers’ attitudes toward computers and their application of CBT in instruction. We randomly sampled 100 secondary school science teachers and found that in general they did use CBT for accessing the internet and other teaching-related work. The surveyed teachers had a very positive attitude toward computers, yet we found their attitude was significantly correlated with their age and seniority. The older and more senior teachers generally held a less positive attitude toward computers. As for the application of computer-based technology in classroom instruction, most teachers claimed at least a moderate degree of implementation of CBT in the classroom. In gender difference, male teachers in general used more CBT in their instructional strategies than did female teachers. As far as age was concerned, middle-aged and more experienced teachers tended to integrate more CBT into their instruction than younger and novice teachers, even though the latter group held a more positive attitude toward computers. In correlation analysis we discovered that with male but not with female teachers, there was a direct correlation between degree of positive attitude toward computers and degree of application of CBT in classroom instruction.

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Why should we see technology as neither a neutral tool nor a determined outcome but a scene of struggle between social forces?

Warschauer, M. (2007). The paradoxical future of digital learning. Learning Inquiry1(1), 41-49.

What constitutes learning in the 21st century will be contested terrain as our society strives toward post-industrial forms of knowledge acquisition and production without having yet overcome the educational contradictions and failings of the industrial age. Educational reformers suggest that the advent of new technologies will radically transform what people learn, how they learn, and where they learn, yet studies of diverse learners use of new media cast doubt on the speed and extent of change. Drawing on recent empirical and theoretical work, this essay critically examines beliefs about the nature of digital learning and points to the role of social, culture, and economic factors in shaping and constraining educational transformation in the digital era.

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How do university students spend their time on Facebook?

Aghazamani, A. (2010). How Do University Students Spend Their Time On Facebook ? An Exploratory Study. Journal of American Science6(12), 730-735.

Despite major productive uses of Internet technology in today’s digital world, users prefer to spend much more time on social networking sites (SNSs) like Facebook. The objective of this study is to determine student motives for using Facebook. A close-ended questionnaire was administered to 595 University students who were recognized as users of the site at Karlstad University in Sweden. Male users spend more time on the site than female users during both weekdays (p-value=0.9238) and weekends (p-value=0.9953). The survey showed that undergraduate students login more times per day than graduate students (p-value=0.2138). In addition, friendship was named the most favorite activity among male users (p-value=0.8883) and also among undergraduate students comparing with graduate students (p-value=0.2045). If users were asked to pay a membership fee to use the site, the results showed that male users (p-value=0.9991) and undergraduate students (p-value=0.9884) were more likely to pay the charge than other groups (females and graduate students). It is apparent that using Facebook can be seen as an  important  part of daily life among University students and its phenomenon spread out inevitably.

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How can teachers be supported to use individualized instructional technology?

Proscia, M., Ulrich, F., Morote, E.S. & Nicolino, P. (2010). The relationship among level of knowledge, and comfort with both differentiated instruction and instructional technology and teachers’ attitude toward the use of computers. In Z. Abas et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of Global Learn Asia Pacific 2010 (pp. 925-932). AACE.

One hundred twenty-three (123) teachers were surveyed in 35 Long Island schools and 7 school districts that were selected for the quality of instructional software available in the districts. We found that knowledge and comfort of using technology are the major predictors of teacher willingness to use individualized instructional technology. Findings suggest that major training of teachers in instructional technology will be necessary to reach NCLB requirements for differentiated instruction.

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