Using the power of research to inform ICT integration in education

Archive for the ‘NETS Standard 2’ Category

Can there be a future for learning organisations that neglect Information Literacy?

Bruce, Christine S. (2008) Informed learning : realising the potential of the information society in our 21st century world. In: International Conference on Libraries, Information and Society, 18-19 November 2008, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.

Information literacy has captured the imagination of information professionals. In the last twenty years significant advocacy has occurred putting information literacy issues high on the international agenda. This paper proposes informed learning (the kind of learning made possible by information literacy) as the key to realising the potential of the information society. The paper extends the concept of informed learning in the academic environment, conceptualising its broader role in the information society.

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Do students need Information Literacy skills when they have Google?

Karl Kingsley, Gillian M Galbraith, Matthew Herring, Eva Stowers, Tanis Stewart, Karla V Kingsley (2011) Why not just Google it? An assessment of information literacy skills in a biomedical science curriculum, BMC Medical Education, Volume: 11, Issue: 1, Publisher: BioMed Central, Pages: 17

The emerging networked technologies comprising the participatory Web, also known as Web 2.0, have profoundly changed the way information is produced, distributed, and consumed. Wikis, blogs, pod casts, video sharing, social networking sites, and other online applications offer innumerable opportunities for user generated content (UGC) and information sharing through what has been called an “architecture of participation”. Although these new participatory technologies provide rich opportunities for information sharing, they also pose new challenges for information seekers. Torrents of unfiltered information are uploaded to, and downloaded from, the Internet every day. In addition, users generate, remix, repurpose, store, and then share this digital information. As a result, Web users must continually balance the need for easy to find, readily available, reliable information and to avoid questionable, inaccurate, incomplete or deceptive online information.

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Why do we need to move towards a Transformative Pedagogy for School Libraries 2.0?

Marlene Asselin,  Ray Doiron (2008) Towards a Transformative Pedagogy for School Libraries 2.0, School Libraries Worldwide – Volume 14, Number 2, July 2008, 1‐18

Today’s students are no longer the people our education system was designed to teach. (Prensky, 2001). As more and more educators face the impact of Web 2.0, and as we see emerging what could be called a Learning 2.0 environment, it becomes urgent to extend teaching to meet the literacy and learning needs of the Net Generation. These ‘new’ learners and their expanding literacy needs have major implications for current models of school library programs which are largely focused on reading promotion and information literacy skills. We join others in recognizing the need to critically question long held tenets of school libraries and to create a new research‐based vision that will accord with the current economic and social directions driving educational change. This paper contributes to that process by proposing a framework for the work of school libraries in new times based on research in new literacies, today’s learners, and emerging concepts of knowledge.

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How can Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences support the effective teaching of Information Literacy?

Intan Azura Mokhtar, Shaheen Majid and Schubert Foo (2008) Teaching information literacy through learning styles: The application of Gardner’s multiple intelligences, Journal of Librarianship and Information Science 2008; 40; 93

The key for students of today to become independent learners and knowledge workers of tomorrow lies in being information literate. However, existing information literacy (IL) teaching approaches have not always been successful in equipping students with these crucial skills to ensure deep erudition and long-lasting retention. Hence, sound pedagogical approaches become critical in IL education. This research hypothesizes that students grasp IL skills more effectively when their innate interests, such as that determined by their respective dominant intelligences, are stimulated and applied to their work. Consequently, they would produce work of better quality. To verify these postulations, an IL course was designed for students undertaking project work to equip them with the necessary IL skills, by using an established pedagogical approach – Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences. Subsequently the quality of students’ project work between the experimental and control groups were compared. It was found that the performance of students who had undergone IL training through the application of learning styles was superior in their project work.

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Why does society need media literacy?

Sonia Livingstone (2011) Media literacy: Ambitions, policies and measures, COST, September 2011

Theoretical and pedagogic ambitions for media literacy among audiences are often huge, with the promotion of media literacy heralding the promise of empowerment, critical literacy, democratic engagement and participatory culture in a thoroughly mediated world. But historically, these ambitions for media literacy have often foundered in the face of insufficient resources, policy commitment and problems of measurement. The measurement problems are attracting renewed interest now that Europe’s Digital Agenda demands a digitally literate citizenry, and now that the Audiovisual Media Services Directive demands three-yearly reporting on improvements in media literacy by all EU member states.

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How does IT support Social Capital?

Huysman, M.; Wulf, V. (2004): Social Capital and Information Technology, MIT-Press, Cambridge, MA 2004, pp. 1- 16

The growth in attention in networks within and between organizations makes research into the relationship between IT and Social Capital even more important. Since social capital is about connected people, the question needs to be posed if and how social capital is influenced when these connections are supported by IT. Referring to the development of IT, one has to ask how to design specific functionality to support social capital and how to set up a design processes appropriately. Research is also needed into the other direction of the relationship, namely into the question whether and to what extent social capital is needed in order to develop, to customize and to appropriate IT?

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What are the discriminating variables between teachers who fully integrate IT and teachers with limited integration?

Julie Mueller, Eileen Wood, Teena Willoughby, Craig Ross, Jacqueline Spechtd (2008) Identifying discriminating variables between teachers who fully integrate computers and teachers with limited integration, Computers & Education 51(2008) 1523–1537

Given the prevalence of computers in education today, it is critical to understand teachers’ perspectives regarding computer integration in their classrooms. The current study surveyed a random sample of a heterogeneous group of 185 elementary and 204 secondary teachers in order to provide a comprehensive summary of teacher characteristics and variables that best discriminate between teachers who integrate computers and those who do not. Discriminant Function Analysis indicated seven variables for elementary teachers and six for secondary teachers (accounting for 74% and 68% of the variance, respectively) that discriminated between high and low integrators. Variables included positive teaching experiences with computers; teacher’s comfort with computers; beliefs supporting the use of computers as an instructional tool; training; motivation; support; and teaching efficacy. Implications for support of computer integration in the classroom are discussed.

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How effective was the North Carolina 1:1 program mid year?

Jenifer O. Corn, Jason W. Osborne (2009) Mid-Year Evaluation Report on the Progress of the North Carolina 1:1 Learning Technology Initiative, Friday Institute for Educational Innovation

This report focuses on the schools progress toward implementing the 1:1 environment and the barriers, successes, and lessons learned in the early stages of implementation. A combination of teacher and student surveys, focus groups and interviews, classroom observations, and analyses of existing school- level data was used. At the time of this report, the 2007-2008 School Year (SY) End-of-Course test and other student outcome data collected by NCDPI were not yet available. The intent of the evaluation is to provide information about the value of the initiative to enhance student learning, as well as to identify challenges to the successful implementation of 1:1 programs, strategies for meeting those challenges, and services and supports needed to enable successful programs throughout the State.

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How are Elementary Classroom Websites Supporting Literacy?

Elizabeth (Betsy) A. Baker (2007) Elementary Classroom Web Sites: Support for Literacy Within and Beyond the Classroom, JOURNAL OF LITERACY RESEARCH, 39(1), 1–36

The purpose of this study was to understand how elementary classroom Web sites support children’s literacy. From a sociocultural perspective of literacy and a transformative stance toward the integration of literacy and technology, and building on explorations of new literacies, I discuss opportunities provided by the Internet that can support literacy within and beyond classrooms. Using open and axial coding as well as typological analyses, I found 3 basic Web site features and consider how they support common instructional approaches, parental involvement, and notions of the invisible classroom. I conclude with a discussion of how these findings are encourag- ing and revealing. I offer a variety of suggestions to expand features that are currently available on elementary classroom Web sites.

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How does a 1:1 Learning Environment Support Special Needs?

Jenifer O. CornJennifer Tingen, Ruchi Patel (2011) Examining Issues Critical to a 1:1 Learning Environment: Special Needs, Friday Institute for Educational Innovation

In the spring of 2008, the North Carolina State Board of Education awarded a contract to the Friday Institute for Educational Innovation to conduct a three-year evaluation of the NC 1:1 LearningTechnology Initiative (NCLTI) pilot schools. The evaluation includes eight Early College high schools and ten traditional high schools, with a total across the 18 schools of approximately 9,500 students and 600 school staff.  In these schools, every teacher and student received a laptop computer, and wireless Internet access was provided throughout the school.  The overall goal of the initiative is to use the technology to improve teaching practices, increase student achievement, and better prepare students for work, citizenship, and life in the 21st century. The intent of the evaluation was to provide information about whether the initiative enhanced student learning, as well as to identify challenges to successful implementation of 1:1 programs, strategies for meeting those challenges, and services and supports needed to enable successful programs throughout the State.

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Does ICT peer coaching support teachers’ integration of ICT in their learning and teaching?

Ellul, R (2010ICT peer coaches: Techno-pedagogues of the twenty-first century, PhD Thesis, School of Education, RMIT University

This PhD by project investigates the ICT peer coaching programmes in place in three government schools in Victoria, Australia. Teacher professional learning is essential in supporting teachers to improve their practice and support a culture of continuous improvement across the school. The literature review highlighted that past methods of professional learning such as one-off workshops and off-site events are less effective to enable teachers to develop both ICT skills and pedagogical knowledge needed for 21st century teaching and learning. While peer coaching is increasingly offered as a professional learning strategy in schools, very little is available which focuses on peer coaching in an ICT context and whether it effectively supports teachers to integrate ICT into their classroom practice. This research examines whether ICT peer coaching as a professional learning strategy supports teachers’ integration of ICT into their learning and teaching programme. It uses a constructivist (naturalistic) inquiry methodology and a collective case study approach. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews, observations and an analysis of artefacts such as school strategic plans and policies.

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Are collaborative teaching and inquiry PjBL the best way to develop Information Literacy and IT skills?

Chu, S. K. W., Chow, K. & Tse, S. K. (2011). Developing Hong Kong primary school students‘ information literacy and IT skills through collaborative teaching and inquiry PjBL. Library & Information Science Research

Information literacy and information technology (IT) skills have become increasingly important in today’s knowledge society. However, many studies have shown that students across different educational levels from primary to postgraduate level actually lack crucial information literacy and IT skills, thus the need for an effective pedagogical approach that will develop these skills. This study investigated the effect of combining a collaborative teaching approach with inquiry project-based learning (PjBL) on the development of primary students’ information literacy and IT skills. Students in a Hong Kong primary school completed two inquiry-based group projects. A collaborative teaching approach involving three teachers in different subject areas (General Studies, Chinese, and IT) and the school librarian was adopted in guiding students through the two projects. Results indicated the positive impact of collaborative teaching and inquiry PjBL on the development of students’ information literacy and IT skills.

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Does the Structure of Your Brain Reflect the Size of Your Online Social Network?

Kanai, R., Bahrami, B., Roylance, R., Rees, G. (2011) Online social network size is reflected in human brain structure, Proceedings of the Royal Society

The increasing ubiquity of web-based social networking services is a striking feature of modern human society. The degree to which individuals participate in these networks varies substantially for reasons that are unclear. Here, we show a biological basis for such variability by demonstrating that quantitative variation in the number of friends an individual declares on a web-based social networking service reliably predicted grey matter density in the right superior temporal sulcus, left middle temporal gyrus and entorhinal cortex. Such regions have been previously implicated in social perception and associative memory, respectively. We further show that variability in the size of such online friendship networks was significantly correlated with the size of more intimate real-world social groups. However, the brain regions we identified were specifically associated with online social network size, whereas the grey matter density of the amygdala was correlated both with online and real-world social network sizes. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the size of an individual’s online social network is closely linked to focal brain structure implicated in social cognition.

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How relevant is information literacy in a digital environment?

R N Mishra (2010) Relevance of information literacy in digital environment, Journal of emerging trends in computing and information science (2010) Volume: 1, Issue: 1, Pages: 48-54

Information Literacy (IL) along with information and communication technology has become significant in library environment. Information literacy in library services is required not only to optimize the use of library resources in teaching, learning and research but also train the users to make them aware about information sources and access authentic information from vast array of electronic information sources, etc. Librarians have to impart skills on web searching techniques, evaluation and establishing authenticity and reliability of information retrieved from internet domain to the users. The paper focuses some of the major areas for the relevance of information literacy in contemporary library and information services. Methodology followed for the study is based on the documents available library including on internet. Library professionals need to be aware of using the skills involved in acquiring e-resources from a wide range of information resources including organization and proper dissemination to the users. Further, they require creating awareness among the users about the adaptability of new technologies, capability of information building etc.

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How is Information Literacy Integrated in Laptop Classrooms?

Mark Warschauer (2007) Information Literacy in the Laptop Classroom, Teachers College Record

Technological and economic changes have put a high premium on developing students information literacy and research skills. Previous attempts to deploy educational technology toward these ends have proved disappointing because K12 teachers have difficulty integrating shared computers into instruction. In response, numerous schools and districts have piloted one-to-one programs, in which each student has access to a laptop computer connected wirelessly to the Internet throughout the school day. Purpose/Objective: This paper analyzes the information literacy and research practice in a purposely stratified selection of 10 one-to-one laptop K12 schools in California and Maine. Research Design/Data Collection and Analysis: Sources of data in this multisite case study include observations, interviews, surveys, and teacher- and student-produced materials. Findings/Results: The study found that students in all the laptop schools learned to access information, manage it, and incorporate in into their written and multimedia products. However, the focus on evaluating information, understanding the social issues surround- ing it, and analyzing it for the purpose of knowledge production varied widely across schools. Some schools succeeded in promoting scholarly approaches to working with informa- tion, whereas other schools mostly limited themselves to teaching procedural functions of computer and Internet use. Examples of these differences are given through a comparison of three diverse schools in Maine. Conclusions/Recommendations: The study concludes that one-to-one wireless laptops offer important affordances for promoting information literacy and research skills but that socioe- conomic context, visions, values, and beliefs all play a critical role in shaping how laptop programs are implemented and what benefits are thus achieved.

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Is it ICT or the ICT supported tasks that foster student engagement?

Sue Gregory, Ian Lloyd (2010) Accepting Choices: To ICT or Not to ICT: Engagement!!!, ACEC2010: DIGITAL DIVERSITY CONFERENCE

Over a period of several weeks 16 male students in a middle school were required to complete a project to measure their level of engagement using Information Communication Technology (ICT). During the lessons students were observed by the classroom teacher, two pre-service teachers and an ICT education lecturer, who assisted, photographed, videoed and interviewed students. Students were also requested to complete survey questions on three occasions throughout the project. The project required student to use anything they desired, technology or otherwise, to research and present their findings in order persuade the observers to choose their group’s project. The tasks of the onlookers were to observe whether students were engaged, or otherwise, in the production and presentation of their project. The degree of engagement when using ICT is dependant on a student’s ability to choose how and when to implement ICT. Engagement is the combination of feelings (emotional), observable actions or performance (behavioural) and perceptions and beliefs (cognitive). Many observations were made about the students’ choice of whether to use ICT or not and this paper addresses the results of their engagement in the task.

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How is ICT impacting Thai Education?

Pote Sapianchai, Paul TJ James (2005) ICT in Thai Education: Ideological and Structural Determinants that Support its Development, Introduction and Use

Educational technology – in its many forms, guises and usage’s – is considered to be central to assisting the application and management of quality within the classroom and that to improve attainment levels using ICT, the Thai education system needs to support institutions as learning organizations, by employing new ways of working in which informed choices are exercised by capable professionals (based on Kinder, 2002) and scholarly parents. Attitudes to technology appear to affect how technology is viewed and used. This is also a management issue, as a more positive attitude to ICT makes it easier to accept and experiment with. The development of access to facilities requires a managerial strategy that reflects the various uses the technology is used for, priority in resourcing needs, and school managerial and structural strategies. All these elements have to work together in order to ensure a variety of access conditions for both staff and students. Thai Classrooms are not passive environments and technology can enhance these environments by helping to develop interactive teaching and learning strategies. However, acceptance of the use such technology appears to reflect a set of ideological, political and cultural biases that narrows the field of socialisation to that invested in the technology. Technology-rich classrooms could help deliver more flexible learning strategies and make it easier for Thai educational institutions to assist in the development of both learners and staff.

 

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How can the iPad support EFL Digital Literacy?

Robert C Meurant (2010) The iPad and EFL Digital Literacy, Signal Processing and Multimedia (2010) Volume: 123

In future, the uses of English by non-native speakers will predominantly be online, using English language digital resources, and in computer mediated communication with other non-native speakers of English. Thus for Korea to be competitive in the global economy, its EFL should develop L2 Digital Literacy in English. With its fast Internet connections, Korea is the most wired nation on Earth; but ICT facilities in educational institutions need reorganization. Opportunities for computer-mediated second language learning need to be increased, providing multimedia-capable, mobile web solutions that put the Internet into the hands of all students and teachers. Wi-Fi networked campuses allow any campus space to act as a wireless classroom. Every classroom should have a teacher’s computer console. All students should be provided with adequate computing facilities, that are available anywhere, anytime. Ubiquitous computing has now become feasible by providing every student on enrollment with a tablet: a Wi-Fi+3G enabled Apple iPad.

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How does the iPad Contribute to Mobile Learning?

Melhuish, K. & Falloon, G. (2010). Looking to the future: M-learning with the iPad. Computers in New Zealand Schools: Learning, Leading, Technology , 22 (3).

This paper explores the potential affordances and limitations of the Apple iPad in the wider context of emergent mobile learning theory, and the social and economic drivers that fuel technology development. Against the background of effective teaching and learning, the functionality offered by the iPad, and its potential uses for learning, are discussed. A critical review of the way the iPad may support learning, that draws on learning theory, contemporary articles and e-learning literature, suggests that the device may offer an exciting platform for consuming and creating content in a collaborative, interactive way. However, of greater importance is that effective, evidence-driven, innovative practices, combined with a clear-sighted assessment of the advantages and limitations of any product, should take priority over the device itself.

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What is the potential of the iPad in schools?

Henrik Valstad (2010) iPad as a pedagogical device, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, TDT4520, Program and Information Systems, Specialization Project

This research paper dwelves into what kind of experiences exists with using the iPad in an educational setting, what can be learned from these experiences, and how the educational sector may benefit from bringing the iPad into the classroom. Chapter 2 considers the iPad’s technological features together with the iTunes App Store and its own educational app category. Then, Chapter 3 turns to the issue of app distribution among students and how to setup iPad configuration profiles. After this, Chapter 4 demonstrates the iPad’s pedagogical potential with examples, lists samples of apps that can be used for note taking and educational purposes and important success factors which should be read carefully if the iPad is to be used as a pedagogical device in a classroom

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How does the iPad perform at college level?

Trina Marmarelli, Martin Ringle (2011), The Reed College iPad Study, The Reed Institute

When Apple announced the release of its iPad tablet in late January 2010, Reed College had just completed a semester-long study of the Amazon Kindle DX eReader in which students and faculty in three upper-division seminars used the Kindle to read, annotate, and discuss books and articles for the courses.1 While the Kindle DX failed to meet faculty and student needs in several important ways, most notably highlighting, annotation, and manipulation of texts, the study participants were optimistic enough about the long-term potential of eReader technology to prompt the College to continue its evaluation of emerging products. Consequently, during the fall semester of 2010, we undertook a study parallel in structure to the 2009 Kindle DX study. Students in one upper-division seminar, Political Science 422: Nuclear Politics — The origins and effects of the spread of nuclear weapons, used the iPad for all of their assigned readings. Since this was one of the courses included in the Kindle study and much of the reading list was unchanged, comparisons between student reactions were easy to make. We anticipated that a multipurpose device like the iPad would have different strengths and weaknesses than the Kindle DX, a dedicated eReader, and we were particularly interested in examining these differences.

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Is there evidence that using an IT curriculum based on the NETS makes a significant difference in student learning?

Ching, G. S. (2009). Implications of an experimental information technology curriculum for elementary students. Computers & Education53(2), 419-428.

The information technology (IT) of today forms an integral part of everyday living, thus the nurture of children’s IT awareness early in life is crucial. Young children have an innate curiosity for IT which suggests that in the school environment it can easily be integrated with other subjects in thematic and interdisciplinary curriculum. This quasi-experimental study used the Technology Foundation Standards for Students of the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) project on National Educational Technology Standards (NETS) as the basis to design a thematic and interdisciplinary IT curriculum for elementary students. A total of 1273 elementary students and 12 computer teachers were separated into either a control or experimental group. After one academic year, students’ final scores in English, mathematics, science, social studies, and art were gathered and compared. Statistical analysis indicated that there were significant differences in the experimental group’s academic scores. Findings also suggested that an interdisciplinary curriculum design opened opportunity for collaborative work and cohesiveness among faculty. Further longitudinal studies are recommended to examine the long-term implications of a thematic and interdisciplinary IT curriculum design.

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How can technology help students acquire 21st Century skills?

Dede, C., & Hall, L. (2010). Technological Supports for Acquiring 21 st Century Skills International Encyclopedia of Education. Education.

The 21st century seems quite different than the 20th in the capabilities people need for work, citizenship, and self-actualization.  In response, society’s educational systems must transform their objectives, curricula, pedagogies, and assessments to help all students attain the sophisticated outcomes requisite for a prosperous, attractive lifestyle based on effective contributions in work and citizenship. This article describes an innovative strategy by which new pedagogies based on emerging immersive media can aid all students in attaining sophisticated 21st century skills and knowledge.

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What works best in upper elementary classrooms: shared carts or 1: 1 laptops?

Russell, M., Bebell, D., & Higgins, J. (2004). Laptop learning: A comparison of teaching and learning in upper elementary classrooms equipped with shared carts of laptops and permanent 1: 1 laptops. Journal of Educational Computing Research30(4), 313-330. Technology and Assessment Study Collaborative, Boston College.

This study compares teaching and learning activities in 4th and 5th grade classrooms that were permanently equipped with one laptop for each student and classrooms that share a cart of laptops that create a 1:1 laptop environment on a temporary basis. The study originated from a question posed to us by Andover Public Schools (MA): “How does teaching and learning differ when upper elementary students (4th and 5th graders) are provided with their own laptop computers?” In response to this question, we undertook an intensive two month study that employed a mixed methodology that included student surveys, student drawings, teacher interviews, and 56 structured classroom observations. The findings summarized in this article provide evidence of several differences in teaching and learning activities between the two settings. Classrooms that were fully equipped with 1:1 laptops showed more technology use across the curriculum, more use of technology at home for academic purposes, less large group instruction, and nearly universal use of technology for writing.

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