Using the power of research to inform ICT integration in education

Posts tagged ‘technology integration’

What does an integrated research-based model of technology planning in schools look like?

Ruben Vanderlinde and Johan van Braak (2013) Technology planning in schools: An integrated research-based model, British Journal of Educational Technology, Vol 44 No 1 2013

In this colloquium, an integrated research-based model on technology planning in schools (TPS) is described. This model integrates research results of several studies conducted during the past years on technology planning in primary schools. While all of these studies have their individual scientific merit, this colloquium brings them together in a well-organised and holistic model on technology planning. This overall model is intended for teachers and school leaders when developing their school technology plan, for researchers when investigating technology planning and for policy makers and educational developers when designing initiatives to support schools in the technology planning process.

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What do ICT teachers think about the introduction of ICT in Primary Education in Greece?

Tziafetas Konstantinos, Avgerinos Andreas, Tsampika Karakiza (2013) Views of ICT teachers about the introduction of ICT in Primary Education in Greece, The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

The difficulties in the effective integration of ICT in the classroom make the subject a constant challenge for modern educational systems. The “New School”, an innovative new curriculum applied experimentally in Greek schools, introduces the full and effective use of ICT in all aspects of school reality. Prominent in this effort is the role of ICT teachers. Given the vague framework which describes the integration of ICT in primary schools with reformed curriculum, it is important to investigate the views of ICT teachers in relation to the aims of the Ministry of Education and the obstacles they encounter in their teaching process. The research results reveal that on one hand, there is a considerable confusion among teachers with regard to their role and on the other hand, there are several external and internal barriers to effective teaching

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How can self-regulated learning (SRL) foster student-centred lifelong mobile learning?

L. Sha,  C.-K. Looi, W. Chen, & B.H. Zhang (2012) Understanding mobile learning from the perspective of self-regulated learning, Institute of Education, Nanjing University

This paper is an initial effort to expand and enrich the knowledge about mobile learning within the framework of self-regulated learning. One of the largest challenges will be how self-regulated learning (SRL) can be systematically and institutionally applied to curriculum development, instructional design, teacher professional development, and teaching and assessment practices in classrooms that foster student-centred lifelong learning. We propose an analytic SRL model of mobile learning as a conceptual framework for understanding mobile learning, in which the notion of self-regulation as agency is at the core. We draw on work in a 3-year research project in developing and implementing a mobile learning environment in elementary science classes in Singapore to illustrate the application of SRL theories and methodology to understand and analyse mobile learning.

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What Do Students Use Their Laptops for During Teacher Instruction?

Marte Blikstad-Balas (2012) Digital Literacy in Upper Secondary School – What Do Students Use Their Laptops for During Teacher Instruction? Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, Vol 7, 2012, Nr 02, 81-96

Many schools assume that the technology will fit into school practices, and thus use the computer as a supplement to the “regular” instruction. However, the students have their own vernacular practices concerning the use of the same technology, which they bring to school and wherever they go. This means that if schools fail to create the need of relevant educational Internet-based practices, the students will continue to use the Internet mainly for their personal vernacular practices, even at school. It goes without saying that banning Internet activity will not contribute to developing students’ literacy skills. What might need more explicit attention, is that neither will allowing unlimited Internet access without any guidance or clear educational purpose.

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How do Teachers Experience the Importance of ICT-Supportive School Leaders?

Ove Edvard Hatlevik & Hans Christian Arnseth (2012) ICT, Teaching and Leadership: How do Teachers Experience the Importance of ICT-Supportive School Leaders? Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy / 2012 / Nr 01

The purpose of this study was to explore the relations between teachers’ experiences with ICT-supportive school leaders, perceived usefulness of computers, perceived learning outcomes for students and teachers’ use of computers in their teaching. A total of 386 teachers from a nationwide sample of primary and lower secondary schools participated in the study. The correlation analysis revealed that teachers with higher levels of ICT-supportive leaders reported higher levels of perceived usefulness of computers, perceived learning outcomes for students and more frequent use of computers compared with teachers reporting lower levels of ICT-supportive leaders. Regression analysis indicated that two factors, ICT-supportive school leaders and perceived learning outcomes for students using computers, explained 25 percent of the variation in perceived usefulness of computers.

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What are the constraints of technology integration in the elementary school?

Mrs. M. Taylor (2012) School Improvement : Supporting Research for Technology Implementation, School Reform, & Teaching and Learning, University of NC at Greensboro

The purpose of this study was to investigate what facilitated and what hindered technology integration at a public elementary school. The school was chosen for study due to its excellent work with integrating technology. Using the constructs of school culture, institutional change, and teacher beliefs as lenses, this study found that a student-centered culture, the principal’s belief in what he called “freedom to fail” and a plethora of resources, including human resources, facilitated integration.

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How can 5th graders’ science content knowledge and self-efficacy be enhanced through game-based learning?

Angela Meluso, Meixun Zheng, Hiller A. Spires, James Lester (2012) Enhancing 5th graders’ science content knowledge and self-efficacy through game-based learning, Computers & Education 59 (2012) 497–504

Many argue that games can positively impact learning by providing an intrinsically motivating and engaging learning environment for students in ways that traditional school cannot. Recent research demonstrates that games have the potential to impact student learning in STEM content areas and that collaborative gameplay may be of particular importance for learning gains. This study investigated the effects of collaborative and single game player conditions on science content learning and science self- efficacy. Results indicated that there were no differences between the two playing conditions; however, when conditions were collapsed, science content learning and self-efficacy significantly increased. Future research should focus on the composition of collaboration interaction among game players to assess what types of collaborative tasks may yield positive learning gains.

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Can social media enhance learning through student and faculty collaboration?

Marianne McGarry Wolf, Mitch Wolf, Tom Frawley, Ann Torres (2012) Using Social Media to Enhance Learning through Collaboration in Higher Education: A Case Study, Selected paper prepared for presentation at the Applied and Agricultural Economics Association’s 2012 AAEA Annual Conference, Seattle, Washington, August 12 – 14, 2012

Bradley and McDonald in a Harvard Business Review Blog discuss the difference between knowledge management and social media. They indicate that knowledge management is when company management tells employees what they need to know. In higher education faculty practice knowledge management by telling the students what they need to know. Social media is a method peers use to show connections the content they think is important. Bradley and McDonald believe that organizations can gain value from social media through mass collaboration. Mass collaboration occurs with “social media technology, a compelling purpose, and a focus on forming communities” (Bradley and McDonald, 2011). Can social media be used in higher education to enhance learning through student and faculty collaboration?

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Why does the Island of Innovation Model fail to support Technology Innovation in Education?

Orit Avidov-Ungar and Yoram Eshet-Alkakay (2011) The Islands of Innovation Model: Opportunities and Threats for Effective Implementation of Technological Innovation in the Education System, Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology, Volume 8, 2011

In recent years, there have been an increasing number of educational technology-integration projects which employ the Islands of Innovation model. According to this model, technological innovation is implemented in small islands within an organization, in the hope that they will be imitated, permeate the whole organization with their values and lead to overall, comprehensive innovation and to a new organizational culture. Studies on technological innovation implementation in education systems show that for the most part, islands of innovation fail to generate overall, comprehensive innovation. The article warns against the stagnation that these islands of innovation may cause organization managements, which use them as an excuse to consider themselves innovative, and warns against unsupervised, poorly thoughtout use of this model for technological innovation implementation.

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How are YouTube Fridays providing students with open-ended problem solving practice?

Matthew W. Liberatore, Charles R. Vestal, Andrew M. Herring (2012) YouTube Fridays: Student led development of engineering estimate problems, Advances n Engineering Education, Winter 2012, Volume 3, Number 1

YouTube Fridays devotes a small fraction of class time to student-selected videos related to the course topic, e.g., thermodynamics. The students then write and solve a homework-like problem based on the events in the video. Three recent pilots involving over 300 students have developed a database of videos and questions that reinforce important class concepts like energy balances and phase behavior. Student evaluations found a vast majority (79%) of the students felt better at relating real world phenomena to thermodynamics from participating in YouTube Fridays. Overall, YouTube Fridays is a student led activity that provides practice of problem solving on open-ended, course related questions.

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How are music teachers using technology to assess learning?

Lance D. Nielsen (2011) A study of K‐12 music educators’ attitudes toward technology-assisted assessment tools, Presented to the Faculty of The Graduate College at the University of Nebraska In Partial Fulfillment of Requirements For the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

The purpose of this study was to examine K‐12 music educators’ attitudes regarding the use of technology in the assessment of music learning. There is a considerable range of musical behaviors with different levels of complexity that can be assessed (Boyle & Radocy, 1987). A variety of software and web‐based assessment tools are available for music educators. However, it is unclear how many teachers are taking advantage of incorporating these technological assessment tools into their instructional practice. This study provided current data about the demographics of teachers using technology to assess musical growth and the variables that might motivate a music teacher to use technology‐assisted assessment tools. A sample of 2,211 music educators, provided by MENC: The National Association of Music Education, was surveyed. The survey questions determined the number of teachers using technology‐assisted assessment tools and the types of assessment tools they use. The mean score from a series of belief statements suggested teachers’ attitudes towards assessment practices and technology was positive. However, it was discovered that specific school and teacher factors had a generally small influence on their perceptions of technology‐assisted assessment tools. It was evident that music teachers are utilizing technology for daily instruction more often than to assist with assessment strategies. The factors of time and resources are two important variables that affect teachers’ decisions regarding the use of technology for assessment in music settings.

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How can Google SketchUp support an inquiry-based approach to geometry?

Shafer, K. (2010). Prisms and Pyramids with Google SketchUp: A Classroom Activity. In D. Gibson & B. Dodge (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2010 (pp. 3505-3507)

Google SketchUp is a free program that was developed for the purpose of creating 3D models. SketchUp can be used to support student sense making through an inquiry approach. The authors first describe how elementary education majors were able to use specific tools in SketchUp to reconcile issues of perception when creating a prism and investigate the various dimensions within a given pyramid (height, slant heights(s) and edges).

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What makes the difference between success and failure in technology integration?

Berret, B., Murphy, J., & Sullivan, J. (2012). Administrator insights and reflections: Technology integration in schools. The Qualitative Report, 17(1), 200-221.

There are numerous technology tools that educators utilize to support student learning. Often, technology is mandated from the top down with school administrators’ responsible for overseeing the implementation. Innovative technological approaches to learning often meet resistance within schools. The pervasive culture in education is counteractive to technology integration, which may be useful to pedagogy and in the long run may help students deal with the ever growing level of technology present in today’s society. Characteristics are identified at two out of four schools as a way of assessing the progress of technology integration and locating individuals who will help move the process forward. This knowledge, combined with competent leadership, makes the difference between success and failure of an innovation implementation.

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How can Second Life enhance astronomy in education?

Adrienne J. Gauthier (2007) Astronomy in Second Life: A User’s Perspective,  CAP Vol. 1, No. 1, October 2007

Second Life (SL) is a multi-user virtual environment that is not limited to adult social entertainment. SL is also a 3D playground for innovative instructors and education/outreach professionals in the sciences. Astronomy and space science have a presence in SL, but it could be so much more. This paper describes some of the current astronomy themed spaces in SL and briefly discusses future innovations.

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Does 1:1 laptop computing positively impact student academic engagement and learning?

Jared Keengwe, Gary Schnellert, Chris Mills (2012) Laptop initiative: Impact on instructional technology integration and student learning,  EDUCATION AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES Volume 17, Number 2 (2012), 137-146,

The purpose of this study was to examine how 1:1 laptop initiative affected student learning at a selected rural Midwestern high school. A total of 105 high school students enrolled in 10th–12th grades during the 2008–2009 school year participated in the study. A survey instrument created by the Mitchell Institute was modified and used to collect data on student perceptions and faculty perceptions of the impact of 1:1 laptop computing on student learning and instructional integration of technology in education. Study findings suggest that integration of 1:1 laptop computing positively impacts student academic engagement and student learning. Therefore, there is need for teachers to implement appropriate computing practices to enhance student learning. Additionally, teachers need to collaborate with their students to learn and understand various instructional technology applications beyond basic Internet browsing and word processing.

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Does research overemphasize the need for technology in education?

M. Oliver (2011) Technological determinism in educational technology research: some alternative ways of thinking about the relationship between learning and technology, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning (2011), 27, 373–384

This paper argues that research on the educational uses of technology frequently overemphasizes the influence of technology. Research in the field is considered a form of critical perspective, and assumptions about technology are questioned. Technological determinism is introduced, and different positions on this concept are identified. These are used to discuss the ways in which work within the field might be described as technologically deterministic. Four theoretical perspectives (activity theory, communities of practice, actor–network theory, and the social construction of technology) are then briefly characterized, demonstrating that alternative positions are viable, and positioning each in relation to the earlier discussion of technological determinism. The paper concludes by arguing that research, building on such alternative conceptions of technology, is important in developing our understanding of the relationship between technology and learning, as well as identifying potential methodological implications.

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How do children influence their parents’ purchasing of high-technology products?

Justin Beneke, Grant Silverstone, Alastair Woods, Greg Schneider (2011) The influence of the youth on their parents’ purchasing decisions of high-technology products,  African Journal of Business Management Vol.5 (10), pp. 3807-3812, 18 May 2011

This paper examines the influence of children’s choices on parents’ purchasing decisions of high- technology products. Various demographic variables such as age, gender, race, family size and family type were considered to assess the significant impact of the magnitude of a child’s influence on his/her parent’s purchasing decisions during the ‘initiation’ and ‘search and decision’ phases. The study was conducted using two samples (youth and parent respondents) for each of the aforementioned phases. It was found that during the ‘initiation’ stage, the youth sample perceived gender and family structure to significantly affect the magnitude of influence that children wield over their parents when purchasing high-technology products. The sample from the parents group perceived gender, family structure and family type to significantly affect the magnitude of a child’s influence in this respect. Furthermore, during the ‘search and decision’ stage, the youth sample perceived gender, race, family type, child’s age, average age and family size to affect the magnitude of influence that children wield over their parents when purchasing high-technology products. Finally, the parent sample perceived race, income, family type, child’s age, average age and family size to significantly affect the magnitude of a child’s influence in this context.

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Does Second Life allow for a constructivist approach to learning?

Mallan, Kerry M. and Foth, Marcus and Greenaway, Ruth and Young, Greg T. (2010) Serious playground : using Second Life to engage high school students in urban planning. Journal of Learning, Media and Technology, 35(2).

Virtual world platforms such as Second Life have been successfully used in educational contexts to motivate and engage learners. This article reports on an exploratory workshop involving a group of high school students using Second Life for an urban planning project. Young people are traditionally an under-represented demographic when it comes to participating in urban planning and decision making processes. The research team developed activities that combined technology with a constructivist approach to learning. Real world experiences and purposes ensured that the workshop enabled students to see the relevance of their learning. Our design also ensured that play remained an important part of the learning. By conceiving of the workshop as a ‘serious playground’ we investigated the ludic potential of learning in a virtual world.

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Can Google SketchUp Improve 8th Graders’ Spatial Thinking Abilities?

Veli Toptas, Serkan Ceclik, E. Tugce Karaca (2012) Improving 8th grades spatial thinking abilities through a 3D modeling program,  TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology – April 2012, volume 11 Issue 2

Implementation of emerging technology in sub disciplines of mathematics education provides a potential for educators to elaborate the capacity of digitized learning for human being. Spatial thinking is considered as a factor of scientific deduction from a multi disciplinary point of view. This paper reports a study aimed at exploring the effect of a 3D Modeling program on the spatial ability of the 8th grade students through an experimental research design. The study also focuses on the relation between the gender difference and spatial thinking. The study population was consisted of 82 8th grade students and divided into the control group (n=40) and the treatment group (n=42). The data in the study were collected through a qualitative research method. According to the findings of the research, the success rate of post test increased after the application in terms of differential aptitude, mental rotation and spatial visualization. On the other hand, irrespective of the relevant literature, female pupils were observed as better performers comparing to the males on post application of the measurement instruments.

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What should a touch keyboarding program look like?

Mark A. Ertl (2007) The Effects of Initial Touch Keyboarding Speed Achievement of Fifth Graders and Touch Keyboarding Skill Retention in Seventh Grade , A Paper Presented to the Faculty of Viterbo University In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Arts in Education

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of initial touch speed achievement of fifth grade keyboarding students on their touch keyboarding skill retention in seventh grade. The conclusion that can be drawn from this study is students keying 20 or more words per minute by touch were more likely to retain their skill 2 years later than students who initially keyed less than 20 words per minute by touch. Students who keyed less than 20 words and stated they had 2 or less hours of computer usage a week were highly unlikely to retain their keyboarding skill 2 years later. An implication of the findings is the importance of developing initial touch skill level above 20 words a minute. If the question were posed as to how long a training program should be this researcher would answer, “One that allows students to acquire a touch skill level of 20 words a minute or better.”

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Why should games have a place in formal education?

Thorkild Hanghøj (2008) Playful Knowledge: An Explorative Study of Educational Gaming, PhD Dissertation, Institute of Literature, Media and Cultural Studies University of Southern Denmark

This dissertation can be read as an attempt to explore the widespread assumption that games have educational value within the context of formal schooling. More specifically, this study tries to answer a number of questions related to this assumption: Why should games have a place in formal education? How should educational games support teaching and learning? And what characterises “good” educational game design? These questions are repeatedly being addressed by game designers, policy makers, educators, news media and researchers in an attempt to explore – and often promote – the assumed learning potential of games. To bring matters to a head, such questions are often driven by an attempt to legitimise the educational use of games instead of actually exploring whether this goal is desirable or how it can be achieved.

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Has the One Laptop per Child Program (OLPC) Made a Difference in Peru?

Julián P. Cristia Pablo Ibarrarán Santiago Cueto Ana Santiago Eugenio Severín (2012) Technology and Child Development: Evidence from the One Laptop Per Child Program,  IZA DP No. 6401

Although many countries are aggressively implementing the One Laptop per Child (OLPC) program, there is a lack of empirical evidence on its effects. This paper presents the impact of the first large-scale randomized evaluation of the OLPC program, using data collected after 15 months of implementation in 319 primary schools in rural Peru. The results indicate that the program increased the ratio of computers per student from 0.12 to 1.18 in treatment schools. This expansion in access translated into substantial increases in use both at school and at home. No evidence is found of effects on enrollment and test scores in Math and Language. Some positive effects are found, however, in general cognitive skills as measured by Raven’s Progressive Matrices, a verbal fluency test and a Coding test.

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What is the role of Principals in implementing ICT?

Mojgan Afshari, Simin Ghavifekr, Saedah Siraj and Rahmad Sukor Ab. Samad (2012) Transformational Leadership Role of Principals in Implementing Informational and Communication Technologies in Schools, Life Science Journal, 2012; 9(1)

The implementation of information and communication technologies is very important to schools. Transformational leaders provide greater contributions to implement technology in education. This paper examines the relationship between two independent variables (computer competence and computer use) and transformational leadership role of principals in implementing ICT in schools. This paper based on responses from 320 school leaders in Iran, reports that computer competence and ICT usage are key factors that influence technology leadership behaviors. It is suggested that decision makers should provide professional development for principals to become proficient in all the competency areas.

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How are ICT-rich learning environments changing teacher practice in India, Turkey, and Chile?

Daniel Light with Scott Strother and Deborah Keisch Polin (2009) Emerging 
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 Chile, Center for Children and Technology Education Development Center

Understanding how technology fits into the complex realities of classrooms was a critical factor in creating real change in the industrialized nations, yet little is known about how educational technology projects are impacting the classrooms of the developing world. This study looked at successful schools from the Intel® Teach Essentials Course in Chile, India and Turkey to explore how schools and teachers have been able to integrate ICT and the pedagogical approaches from the Essentials Course into their schools and how these changes are, in turn, changing what happens in the classroom. The teachers are developing new beliefs about teaching and improving their knowledge of new practices; their students are engaging with content in new ways; and the relationships between teachers and students are changing relationships. And, both groups are using new ICT tools to support learning.


Can the move to a Digital Library be Informed by the Technology Acceptance Model?

Jade Miller, Otto Khera (2010) “Digital Library Adoption and the Technology Acceptance Model: A cross-country analysis”, EJISDC (2010) 40, 6, 1-19

In this article, we examine, through the framework of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), some of the features that inform user acceptance of a digital library system implementation at agricultural universities in two developing countries: Kenya and Peru. This is a study not only examining factors contributing to adoption of this offline digital library, but also a cross-site comparison, meant to examine the functionality in the developing world of a theoretical model developed in and based on conditions in the developed world. As we unravel predictors of technological acceptance of a digital library implementation in the developing world, we simultaneously investigate a broader question: not just questions regarding improved research in the developing world, but on it as well.

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How can library resources be embedded into learning management systems?

Emily Daly (2010) “Embedding library resources into learning management systems: A way to reach Duke undergrads at their points of need”, College Research Libraries News (2010), Volume: 71, Issue: 4, Pages: 208-212

The article describes the effort of the library management at Duke University to make the university’s library easily accessible to students. Four librarians started to work in 2007 to add Library Links to Blackboard course sites, which received positive feedback from both faculty and students. The Subject Portals Task Force was created to create a more user-friendly template for the Libraries’ subject guides. Then, they decided to automate the inclusion of Library Guides. The author reveals that majority of students find the automatically and manually linked Library Guides to be useful to their research.

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How do librarians view innovation in academic libraries?

Ronald C. Jantz (2012) Innovation in academic libraries: An analysis of university librarians’ perspectives, Library & Information Science Research 34 (2012) 3–12

Through a series of structured interviews, university librarians at six institutions provided their perspectives on innovation in academic libraries. The literature on leadership styles and organizational change provides insight into the roles of these leaders in the innovation process. Leadership was cited by many researchers as being a critical factor for organizations to innovate. University librarians revealed a commitment to innovation, some distinctively nontraditional innovations, and a concern for how to encourage risk-taking behavior. Further insight into the innovation process was sought by interpreting the interview data within a larger theoretical context. Although leadership and management can foster innovation in a library, researchers have reported other factors that can influence the ability to innovate, including organizational aspects – size and complexity – and environmental factors. Beyond the organizational aspects, the individual and the norms of the profession appear to create a framework with certain boundaries, some of which may impact the ability to innovate.

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Do Libraries need to move to fully mobile websites?

Bridges, Laurie; Rempel, Hannah Gascho; Griggs, Kimberly (2010) Making the case for a fully mobile library web site: from floor maps to the catalog, Reference Services Review, Volume 38, Number 2, 2010 , pp. 309-320(12)

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the current state of worldwide mobile usage; mobile technologies; libraries’ use of mobile technologies including a review of library mobile catalog options, both vendor-suplied and in-house created; perspectives from current library leaders and innovators on the importance of incorporating the libraries’ resources into the mobile environment; and future directions for mobile library services. The paper presents a useful source of information for both libraries wishing to create a proposal for a mobile library site, and for libraries that simply want an overview of the current state of mobile use and technologies.

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How can Libraries use iPads to survey students?

Jennifer Link Jones, Bryan Sinclair (2011) Assessment on the Go: Surveying Students With an iPad, Library Innovation Volume 2, Issue 2, 2011

Ongoing assessment in academic libraries, particularly the measurement of student perceptions, preferences, and satisfaction, can be a challenge to schedule and execute. This paper describes a pilot project at Georgia State University Library that combined assessment with the portability of the tablet computer. A tablet computer–in this case, Apple’s iPad–loaded with survey software became a digital clipboard with the added benefit of automatic data compilation. Subjects were surveyed quickly in the library buildings, maximizing convenience for both subjects and researchers alike. The result was a model that other libraries, as well as campus student services divisions and classroom instructors, can easily adopt. Methodology, benefits, lessons learned, and ideas for future projects are discussed.

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What do 40 years of research say about the impact of technology on learning?

Rana M. Tamim, Robert M. Bernard, Eugene Borokhovski, Philip C. Abrami, and Richard F. Schmid (2011) What Forty Years of Research Says About the Impact of Technology on Learning: A Second-Order Meta-Analysis and Validation Study, Review of Educational Research March 2011, Vol. 81, No. 1, pp. 4–28

This research study employs a second-order meta-analysis procedure to sum- marize 40 years of research activity addressing the question, does computer technology use affect student achievement in formal face-to-face classrooms as compared to classrooms that do not use technology? A study-level meta- analytic validation was also conducted for purposes of comparison. An extensive literature search and a systematic review process resulted in the inclusion of 25 meta-analyses with minimal overlap in primary literature, encompassing 1,055 primary studies. The random effects mean effect size of 0.35 was significantly different from zero. The distribution was heterogeneous under the fixed effects model. To validate the second-order meta- analysis, 574 individual independent effect sizes were extracted from 13 out of the 25 meta-analyses. The mean effect size was 0.33 under the random effects model, and the distribution was heterogeneous. Insights about the state of the field, implications for technology use, and prospects for future research are discussed.

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How can Librarians prepare for mobile technology?

Angela Dresselhaus and Flora Shrode (2012) “Mobile Technologies & Academics: Do Students Use Mobile Technology in their Academic Lives and are Librarians Ready to Meet this New Challenge?” Information Technology and Libraries Forthcoming (2012)

In this paper we report on two surveys and offer an introductory plan that librarians may use to begin implementing mobile access to selected library databases and services. Results from the first survey helped us to gain insight into where students at Utah State University (USU) in Logan, Utah stands regarding their use of mobile devices for academic activities in general and their desire for access to library services and resources in particular. A second survey that we conducted with librarians gave us an idea of the extent to which responding libraries offer mobile access, their future plans for mobile implementation, and librarians’ opinions about whether and how mobile technologies may be useful to library patrons. In the last segment of the paper, we outline steps librarians can take as they “go mobile.”

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Can Scratch be used to teach Computer Science Concepts?

Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Michal Armoni, Mordechai (Moti) Ben-Ari (2010) Learning Computer Science Concepts with Scratch, ICER 2010, August 9–10, 2010

We investigated the use of Scratch to teach concepts of computer science. We developed new learning materials based upon the constructionist philosophy of Scratch, and evaluated their use in middle-school classrooms. The results showed that most students are able to understand CS concepts, thus supporting the claims of Scratch to be a viable platform for teaching CS.

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How can School Librarians be Technology Integration Leaders?

Melissa P. Johnston (2011) School Librarians as Technology Integration Leaders: Enablers and Barriers To Leadership Enactment, Florida State University, A dissertation submitted to the School of Library & Information Studies in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Degree Awarded: Summer Semester, 2011

The highly technological environment of 21st century schools has significantly redefined the role of school librarians by presenting the opportunity to assume leadership through technology integration. School librarians are continually directed to evolve as leaders in order to address the needs of today’s learners and ensure that they are equipped with the knowledge and skills they need to succeed in the 21st century. The purpose of this study is to identify the enablers and barriers that accomplished practicing school librarians, or those who are National Board Certified, experience in relation to crafting a leadership role in technology integration.

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What is the Relationship Between Principals’ Technological Leadership and Effective Use of Technology in Classrooms?

Andrea Burns Jackson (2009) The Relationship Between Principals’ Technological Leadership and Their School’s Implementation of Instructional Technology, A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of Georgia Southern University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Education

Despite the importance of technology, many principals ignore technology integration within their schools. Administrators commonly are proficient in technology for administrative purposes; however, they are deficient in areas of instructional technology. A technologically competent leader has a greater tendency to pass on technology-related characteristics within his or her school. The transformation of integrating technology within the curriculum is everyone’s responsibility but the primary responsibility resides with the school’s principal being receptive and competent in the area of technology before its consistent implementation is visible within the school. Principal leadership is a vital factor that affects the effective use of technology in classrooms. When used properly, technology becomes an accelerator of momentum and makes learning more interactive and captivating for the average student.

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How can Wikis be used in the 21st-century literacy classroom?

Sanden, S., & Darragh, J. (2011). Wiki use in the 21st-century literacy classroom: A framework for evaluation. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 11(1), 6-20.

In today’s Web 2.0 world, teachers are perpetually struggling with how to incorporate technology into the classroom effectively in order to meet the diverse literacy needs of 21st-century learners. Utilizing the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE, 2008) Position Statement addressing these needs, the theoretical framework of Lankshear and Knobel (2006), and work by Cummins, Brown, and Sayers (2007) emphasizing the possibilities of technology in achieving literacy goals, a framework by which to assess the incorporation of technologies in classrooms as a means to build students’ new literacies was created. Finally, as a specific example, the framework was applied to the use of wikis to illustrate the literacy learning potential of both wikis and other new technologies.

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What support do teachers need to use ICT meaningfully?

Anne-Grete Nøhr Elliot (2011) From Preservice Teacher Education to the Primary Classroom: An Investigation into Beginning Teachers’ Experiences with Information and Communication Technology, A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education at Massey University, Palmerston North New Zealand

The findings suggest the meaningful use of ICT requires beginning teachers to possess a high level of complex knowledge, including pedagogical content knowledge. They also highlight the importance of a supportive school culture, strong leadership and induction systems for beginning teachers’ development. Notably, participants report relatively fragile conceptions of the potential of ICT for learning and lack knowledge of national and school policies in this area. Most of the beginning teachers were unable to make connections between their work as teachers and the broader policy goals for education. Overall the study offers valuable insights into the experiences of a group of beginning teachers over their first year of teaching, which has implications for tutor teachers, principals, teacher educators and policy makers. Through a new line of research, the thesis reveals the complexity of learning to be an ICT-using teacher and the type of factors that contribute to teacher development.

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How can the value of information technology in organisations be evaluated?

Janne Laine (2009) Evaluating the Business Value of Information Technology, HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Abstract of the Master’s Thesis

The effect and role of IT in organisations is complex. On the one hand, IT affects virtually every part of corporations and is crucial and integral part of organisations core assets and capabilities, and on the other hand, IT is nothing more than a tool, an enabler, which can be utilised to accomplish certain tasks. To make matters worse, the approach differs in every organisation and also in different situations. Vast technology investments should not be justified based on instinct and opportunistic value propositions. Information technology, just as any other corporate asset, must be planned, implemented and utilised with care. Proper level of systematic analysis and planning is required to make wise information technology investment decisions. Fortunately, there are tools and techniques that can help an organisation to govern manage and operate IT effectively. This study focuses on the concept of value of information technology in its different forms and tries to help looking at technology from the reasonable perspective. Similar to successful companies in IT sector is their ability to align IT investments and IT management with corporate business strategy and to be able to look at IT investments intangible benefits and their affect on different sides of corporation’s portfolio of assets.

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Is it possible to develop Information Literacy without Technological Competencies?

Sharkey Jennifer, Brandt D Scott (2008) Digital Literacy Tools and Methodologies for Information Society, Publisher: IGI Global

Sharkey and Brandt start on the analysis from the traditional difference between Technology and Information Literacy. The first one seems to be wider, referring to general skills in acting with and through technology; the second one, on the contrary, is more focused on computer, Internet, and the other digital devices. According to the authors, in the so called Information Age, it is necessary to develop both of these literacies. In fact, most of the technological skills are involved with information and, on the contrary, it seems really impossible to develop informational skills without technological competencies. The result of the mediation between them is an integrated solution of Technology and Information Literacy; this could be considered as the condition starting from which to imagine the space and the role of what in this book is named: Digital Literacy.

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How can interviews demonstrate a lack of information skills among secondary students?

Heidi Julien, Susan Barker (2009) How high-school students find and evaluate scientific information: A basis for information literacy skills development, Library & Information Science Research xxx (2009)

This study examined the relationship between curricula in secondary-level science classrooms, which support development of information literacy skills, and actual student skills. A vast body of research reflects deep concern with the level of information literacy skill development among secondary and post-secondary students. But even when educational curricula mandate skill development, many students are unable to demonstrate sophisticated information searching and critical evaluation skills. The findings of this study, which we based on analyzing information seeking tasks and conducting interviews with students in three biology classes in a large urban high school, demonstrated a similar lack of skills. Pressure on teachers to “teach to examinations”—that is, to focus on substantive content rather than on information literacy skills and information literacy skills deficits among teachers themselves—is a possible explanation for these results. The study is of particular interest to teachers of the curriculum applicable in the study context, but the broader implications of repeated indications of gaps in students’ information literacy skills are a significant indicator that schools must assume a larger responsibility for information literacy instruction. Leaving skill development to the post-secondary environment will not ensure that citizens are sufficiently skilled to participate fully in 21st century life, in workplaces or in their personal life contexts.

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What conditions foster ICT implementation in the curriculum?

Rafi Nachmias, David Mioduser, Alona Forkosh-Baruch (2008) Innovative Pedagogical Practices Using Technology: The Curriculum Perspective, INTERNATIONAL HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, Springer International Handbooks of Education, 2008, Volume 20, 2, 163-179,

Information and communication technologies (ICT) have affected our lives for over half a century. Yet, the school’s curriculum is still perceived as traditional in its structure and implementation. Attempts to assimilate ICT into schools’ curricula are frequently supported by policymakers. However, significant change in content, teaching and learning processes and assessment methods can actually be detected mainly in focal innovative initiatives within schools. This chapter analyzes case studies of innovative IT-supported pedagogical practices from 28 countries. The analysis refers to conditions required for fostering ICT implementation in the curriculum, with regards to new demands for teaching and learning. This suggests analysis of ICT-related curricular issues in separate subject areas, as well as in integrated subject domains. Further, we discuss desired changes in existing curricula, which may lead to innovative ICT implementation within schools.

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How does the iPad Contribute to Mobile Learning?

Melhuish, K. & Falloon, G. (2010). Looking to the future: M-learning with the iPad. Computers in New Zealand Schools: Learning, Leading, Technology , 22 (3).

This paper explores the potential affordances and limitations of the Apple iPad in the wider context of emergent mobile learning theory, and the social and economic drivers that fuel technology development. Against the background of effective teaching and learning, the functionality offered by the iPad, and its potential uses for learning, are discussed. A critical review of the way the iPad may support learning, that draws on learning theory, contemporary articles and e-learning literature, suggests that the device may offer an exciting platform for consuming and creating content in a collaborative, interactive way. However, of greater importance is that effective, evidence-driven, innovative practices, combined with a clear-sighted assessment of the advantages and limitations of any product, should take priority over the device itself.

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What is the potential of the iPad in schools?

Henrik Valstad (2010) iPad as a pedagogical device, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, TDT4520, Program and Information Systems, Specialization Project

This research paper dwelves into what kind of experiences exists with using the iPad in an educational setting, what can be learned from these experiences, and how the educational sector may benefit from bringing the iPad into the classroom. Chapter 2 considers the iPad’s technological features together with the iTunes App Store and its own educational app category. Then, Chapter 3 turns to the issue of app distribution among students and how to setup iPad configuration profiles. After this, Chapter 4 demonstrates the iPad’s pedagogical potential with examples, lists samples of apps that can be used for note taking and educational purposes and important success factors which should be read carefully if the iPad is to be used as a pedagogical device in a classroom

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How can podcasts support inverted classrooms?

Gannod, G. C. (2007) Work in progress — Using podcasting in an inverted classroom, Frontiers in education conference global engineering knowledge without borders opportunities without passports 2007 FIE07 37th annual (2007)

An inverted classroom is a teaching environment that mixes the use of technology with hands on activities. In an inverted classroom, typical in-class lecture time is replaced with laboratory and in-class activities. Outside of class, lectures are delivered over some other medium such as video on-demand. As such, learning activities, which typically are done outside of class, are done in-class in the presence of the instructor. Passive activities, such as listening to lectures, are performed outside of class. In this paper, we describe the use of podcasting in an inverted classroom environment with the explicit goal of reclaiming lecture time for in-class laboratories and learning activities. This Work-in- Progress paper focuses primarily upon the description of the approach being piloted, technologies being utilized, and the characteristics of the pilot course.

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How can Youtube help Flipping a Classroom?

Carlisle, M. C., (2010) Using YouTube to Enhance Student Class Preparation in an Introductory Java Course, Proceedings of the 41st ACM technical symposium on Computer science education

We provided 21 short YouTube videos for an Introduction to Programming in Java course. Students were surveyed on how often they watched the videos and did the readings, and how much these activites contributed to their learning. When professors reduced lecture time and increased lab time, students watched videos and read significantly more. Their test scores were at least as high and they indicated they would prefer to not have more lecture. The YouTube videos also provided a source of outreach for the university, drawing a large number of views, including the 13-17 year-old demographic.

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How does a Flipped Classroom Compare with a Traditional Classroom?

Strayer, J. F. (2007) The Effects of the Classroom Flip on the Learning Environment: A Comparison of Learning Activity in a Traditional Classroom and a Flip Classroom that used an Intelligent Tutoring System, Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy in the Graduate School of The Ohio State University

Based on the conclusions of this study, I recommend that teachers who plan to implement the classroom flip consider the following suggestions. First, the flip structure seems to be more productive when students have a choice between multiple ways of interacting with the content of the course outside of class. When the focus of the flip is on giving students the freedom to interact with the content according to their own learning style preferences, the flip seems to be more successful. Second, if the flip is used in an introductory course, the in-class activities should be less open ended and more “step by step” in structure. If some activities are open ended, try to keep them brief: one to two class periods. Students in introductory courses will often have little tolerance for prolonged uncertainty in the course content and the course structure. In more advanced classes, students will be more willing to push through prolonged investigations, but the structure of the classroom must support their meaning making in the activity. This leads to the third recommendation. A flip classroom is structured so differently that students will become more aware of their own learning process than students in more traditional settings. Students will therefore need to have more space to reflect on their learning activities so they can make the necessary connections to course content. The teacher must structure a major component into the course structure that will allow for this reflection to take place and for the teacher to be able to see and comment on specific aspects of student reflection. This feedback cycle will be crucial for student learning.

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How can Flipping the Classroom support Active Learning?

Zappe, S., Leicht, R., Messner, J., Litzinger, T., and Lee, H.W., (2009) “’Flipping’ the Classroom to Explore Active Learning in a Large Undergraduate Course,” Proceedings, American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exhibition, 2009.

In traditional approaches to teaching engineering classes, the instructor plays the role of information conveyor, while the students assume a receiver role with primary responsibilities of listening and note-taking. Research into how students learn suggests that students need to be more actively engaged with the course material to maximize their understanding. The literature contains many examples of active learning strategies, such as teams solving problems in class and the use of student response systems with conceptual questions. Incorporating active learning strategies into a class means that there will be less time for delivering material via lecture. Therefore, instructors who choose to utilize active learning strategies must find ways to ensure that all required course content is still addressed. This paper discusses an instructional technique called the “classroom flip” model which was assessed in a larger, undergraduate architectural engineering class. In this model, lecture content is removed from the classroom to allow time for active learning, and the content that was removed is delivered to students via on-line video. This approach ‘flips’ the traditional use of lecture and more active learning approaches. Lecture occurs outside of class, and more active learning, such as problem solving, happens during class. Assessment data was collected to examine students’ use of the video lectures and perceptions of the classroom flip. The students’ feedback suggests that while the active learning and additional project time available in class improved their understanding, they would prefer that only about half the classes be flipped and some use of traditional lectures should be maintained.

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What does a Curriculum 2.0 look like for Library/ Information Education?

David Bawden, Lyn Robinson, Theresa Anderson, Jessica Bates, Ugne Rutkauskiene, Polona Vilar (2007) Towards curriculum 2.0: Library/information education for a Web 2.0 world, Library and Information Research Vol 31 No 99 2007

This paper reports an international comparison of changes in library/information curricula, in response to the changing information environment in which graduates of such courses will work. It is based on a thematic analysis of five case-studies from Australia, Ireland, Lithuania, Slovenia and the United Kingdom. Specifically, it describes responses to an increasing proportion of e-content and the impact of the communication and social networking features of Web 2.0, and Library 2.0. It examines both changes in curriculum content, and in methods of teaching and learning. The latter involves pedagogy adapting and changing in the same way as the professional environment, with a greater emphasis on e-learning, and use of Web 2.0 tools. Students therefore learn about the issues by making use of these tools and systems in their studies. Specific issues arising from these case studies include: the best mode of introduction of Web 2.0 facilities, both as topics in the curriculum and as tools for teaching and learning; the set of topics to be covered; the relation between conventional e-learning and Web 2.0, problems and difficulties arising. Examples of particular courses and course units are given.

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A Systemic Approach to Technology-Based School Innovations

(2010). Educational Research and Innovation Inspired by Technology, Driven by Pedagogy: A Systemic Approach to Technology-Based School Innovations. SourceOECD Education Skills2010(27), 164. OECD – Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

This report highlights key issues to facilitate understanding of how a systemic approach to technology-based school innovations can contribute to quality education for all while promoting a more equal and effective education system. It focuses on the novel concept of systemic innovation, as well as presenting the emerging opportunities to generate innovations that stem from Web 2.0 and the important investments and efforts that have gone into the development and promotion of digital resources. It also shows alternative ways to monitor, assess and scale up technology-based innovations. Some country cases, as well as fresh and alternative research frameworks, are presented.Today, sufficient return on public investments in education and the ability to innovate are more important than ever. This was the conclusion of the international conference on “The School of Tomorrow, Today” organised by the OECD Centre for Educational Research and Innovation with the support of the Secretariat of Education of the State Santa Catarina (Brazil), in November 2009. The conference and this resulting report share the overall goal of addressing the issue of how education systems achieve technology-based innovations.

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How does pedagogy determine effective technology integration in the classroom?

Mabel C P O Okojie, Anthony A Olinzock, Tinukwa C Okojie-Boulder (2006) The Pedagogy of Technology Integration, Journal of Technology Studies (2006) Volume: 32, Issue: 2

The problem of integrating technology into teaching and learning process has become a perennial one. Common excuses for the limited use of technology to support instruction include shortage of computers, lack of computer skill and computer intimidation. While these could affect the success of technology integration, it should be acknowledged that the degree of success teachers have in using technology for instruction could depend in part on their ability to explore the relationship between pedagogy and technology. The article shows that technology integration is narrowly perceived and that such a perception might hinder teachers’ understanding of the scope of technology in education. Technology integration should be considered along with issues involved in teaching and learning. Such issues include developing learning objectives, selecting methods of instruction, feedback, and evaluation and assessment strategies including follow-up activities. Technology used for teaching and learning should be considered an integral part of instruction and not as an object exclusive to itself. Viewing technology integration from a wide perspective will provide teachers with the necessary foundation to implement technology into the classroom more successfully.

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Are Teacher Pedagogical Beliefs The Final Frontier in Our Quest for Technology Integration?

Ertmer, P. A, (2005) Teacher Pedagogical Beliefs: The Final Frontier in Our Quest for Technology Integration? Educational Technology Research & Development (2005) Volume: 53, Issue: 4

Although the conditions for successful technology integration finally appear to be in place, including ready access to technology, increased training for teachers, and a favorable policy environment, high-level technology use is still surprisingly low. This suggests that additional barriers, specifically related to teachers pedagogical beliefs, may be at work. Previous researchers have noted the influence of teachers beliefs on classroom instruction specifically in math, reading, and science, yet little research has been done to establish a similar link to teachers classroom uses of technology. In this article, I argue for the importance of such research and present a conceptual overview of teacher pedagogical beliefs as a vital first step. After defining and describing the nature of teacher beliefs, including how they are likely to impact teachers classroom practice, I describe important implications for teacher professional development and offer suggestions for future research.

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How can 21st century skills be measured?

David L Silvernail, Dorothy Small, Leanne Walker, Richard L Wilson, Sarah E Wintle (2008) Using Technology in Helping Students Achieve 21st Century Skills: A Pilot Study, Center for Education Policy Applied Research and Evaluation (2008) Publisher: Center for Education Policy, Applied Research, and Evaluation. University of Southern Maine.

As everyone enters the 21st Century there is a great deal of discussion in business and education circles alike about the type of skills the youth will need to survive and thrive in this century. At the same time, there is little known today about the level of 21st Century skills students currently have. Educational Testing Service (ETS) has begun to address this issue by developing a 75-minute scenario-based test to measure high school senior and college freshmen students’ Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Literacy skills; skills defined by ETS as, “the ability of post-secondary students to: define, access, manage, integrate, evaluate, create, and communicate information in a technological environment”. During the spring of 2006, ETS offered high schools and universities across the country the opportunity to take an early version of the assessment. One of those high schools was Skowhegan Area High School (SAHS) in Maine School Administrative District 54 (MSAD 54). The results suggested that the work Skowhegan has been doing preparing students for the 21st Century is showing some progress. The pilot study presented in this paper demonstrates the potential impact of interventions specifically designed to address 21st Century Skills. It also demonstrates the importance and feasibility of systematically developing curriculum interventions and collecting and analyzing impact data.

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Does ICT contribute to powerful learning environments in primary education?

Smeets, E. (2005)  Does ICT contribute to powerful learning environments in primary education? Computers & Education  Volume: 44, Issue: 3, Pages: 343-355

In powerful learning environments, rich contexts and authentic tasks are presented to pupils. Active, autonomous and co-operative learning is stimulated, and the curriculum is adapted to the needs and capabilities of individual pupils. In this study, the characteristics of learning environments and the contribution of ICT to learning environments were investigated. A questionnaire was completed by 331 teachers in the highest grade of primary education. Results show that many teachers apply several elements of powerful learning environments in their classes. This especially goes for the presentation of authentic tasks and the fostering of active and autonomous learning. However, the methods employed by teachers to adapt education to the needs and abilities of individual pupils proved quite limited. The use of ICT in general merely showed characteristics of traditional approaches to learning. Chances of using open-ended ICT applications, which are expected to contribute to the power of learning environments, were greater with teachers who created powerful learning environments for their pupils, and when there were more computers available to pupils. In addition, teachers’ views with regard to the contribution of ICT to active and autonomous learning, teachers’ skills in using ICT, and the teacher’s gender appeared to be relevant background variables in this respect.

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What does research say about integrating technology into K-12 teaching and learning?

Hew, K. F., & Brush, T. (2006). Integrating technology into K-12 teaching and learning: current knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research.Educational Technology Research & Development55(3), 223-252.

Although research studies in education show that use of technology can help student learning, its use is generally affected by certain barriers. In this paper, we first identify the general barriers typically faced by K-12 schools, both in the United States as well as other countries, when integrating technology into the curriculum for instructional purposes, namely: (a) resources, (b) institution, (c) subject culture, (d) attitudes and beliefs, (e) knowledge and skills, and (f) assessment. We then describe the strategies to overcome such barriers: (a) having a shared vision and technology integration plan, (b) overcoming the scarcity of resources, (c) changing attitudes and beliefs, (d) conducting professional development, and (e) reconsidering assessments. Finally, we identify several current knowledge gaps pertaining to the barriers and strategies of technology integration, and offer pertinent recommendations for future research.

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How can HOT blogging promote Higher Order Thinking?

Zawilinski, L. (2009). HOT Blogging: A Framework for Blogging to Promote Higher Order Thinking. The Reading Teacher62(8), 650-661. International Reading Association.

The article focuses on the use of educational blogs by elementary school teachers and students to encourage computer learning and literacy. The most commonly used blogs (also known as weblogs) in the classroom are: News blogs which report information about classroom schedules and homework; Mirror blogs in which the writers reflect on new ideas; Literature response blogs where teachers and students consider reading assignments; and Showcase blogs which post student work such as podcasts and art work. The article also discusses classroom and Internet resources available to help implement such technologies into a lesson plan.

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Is there any point in trying to integrate technology in our antiquated school system?

Albirini, A. (2007). The Crisis of Educational Technology, and the Prospect of Reinventing Education. Educational Technology & Society10(1), 227-236.

With the fading monopoly of the industrial mode of production and the emergence of the “information revolution, ” modern technology has pervaded almost every aspect of human life. In education, however, information technology has yet to find a place, despite the unceasing attempts to “fit ” it into the existing educational system. The paper argues that the industrial mode of production was successful in inventing “education ” as a new paradigm, institutionalizing it in schools, and implementing it through a number of tools, such as “certified ” teachers, curricula, and textbooks. By contrast, the information mode of production has created the tools, namely “educational technology, ” before developing a corresponding paradigm or institution. This crisis of educational technology is therefore a corollary of its misplacement, and subsequent malfunction, in the still-in-use industrial paradigm and institution (education and school). The paper suggests that, in order to ensure a proper functionality of modern technology, we need to resolve this theoretical inadequacy. A possible solution would be to thoroughly restructure “education ” and schools, as remnants of the industrial age, into a new paradigm and institution.

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How has Facebook transformed the online habits of young Italians?

Cavalli, N.,Costa, E. I., Ferri, P., Mangiatordi, A., Micheli, M., Pozzali, A., Scenini, F., and Serenelli, F. (2011). Facebook influence on university students’ media habits: qualitative results from a field research, MIT7

Facebook has significantly transformed the online habits of young Italians. Our research assesses this change through a two-year survey conducted among undergraduate students. The data we collected in 2008 (N=1088) and 2009 (N=1123) allowed us to define profiles of media use based on indicators such as time spent online, consumption or creation of content, and familiarity with digital technologies as compared to analog media. Results have also shown the quick adoption of Facebook: in 2008, half of the students were completely unfamiliar with Facebook, while in 2009 all our respondents were aware of it and 59% of them were also using it on a regular basis. To grasp the magnitude of this change, we conducted a qualitative research study based on 30 semi-structured interviews with randomly selected university students (aged 19-24). Our research questions whether the massive adoption of Facebook, both in terms of frequency and time spent online, is really producing a change in how Italian students are using the Internet, or whether it is merely reproducing old forms of media consumption. To explore this issue, we will focus on how students are appropriating Facebook – in terms of uses and meanings they attach to it – and on the transformation of the relationship between more traditional forms of media consumption (like television) and digital media.

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Why do students (not) blog?

Andergassen, M., Behringer, R., Finlay, J., & Gorra, A. (2009). Weblogs in Higher Education – why do Students ( not ) Blog ? Higher Education7(3), 203-214.

Positive impacts on learning through blogging, such as active knowledge construction and reflective writing, have been reported. However, not many students use weblogs in informal contexts, even when appropriate facilities are offered by their universities. While motivations for blogging have been subject to empirical studies, little research has addressed the issue of why students choose not to blog. This paper presents an empirical study undertaken to gain insights into the decision making process of students when deciding whether to keep a blog or not. A better understanding of students’ motivations for (not) blogging may help decision makers at universities in the process of selecting, introducing, and maintaining similar services. As informal learning gains increased recognition, results of this study can help to advance appropriate designs of informal learning contexts in Higher Education. The method of ethnographic decision tree modelling was applied in an empirical study conducted at the Vienna University of Technology, Austria. Since 2004, the university has been offering free weblog accounts for all students and staff members upon entering school, not bound to any course or exam. Qualitative, open interviews were held with 3 active bloggers, 3 former bloggers, and 3 non-bloggers to elicit their decision criteria. Decision tree models were developed out of the interviews. It turned out that the modelling worked best when splitting the decision process into two parts: one model representing decisions on whether to start a weblog at all, and a second model representing criteria on whether to continue with a weblog once it was set up. The models were tested for their validity through questionnaires developed out of the decision tree models. 30 questionnaires have been distributed to bloggers, former bloggers and non-bloggers. Results show that the main reasons for students not to keep a weblog include a preference for direct (online) communication, and concerns about the loss of privacy through blogging. Furthermore, the results indicate that intrinsic motivation factors keep students blogging, whereas stopping a weblog is mostly attributable to external factors.

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Why do TELE need effective assessments to be viable pedagogic reengineering options?

Andrade, D., & Ferreira, S. (2011). Models and instruments for assessing Technology Enhanced Learning Environments in higher education. Quality,24(April), 1-10. eLearning Papers

Technology Enhanced Learning Environments (TELE) are seen as a fundamental support in teaching reengineering, and may support a more effective approach to constructive educational philosophies. The evaluation of TELE, as a means of certifying its quality, is giving rise to several initiatives and European experiences. However, the mechanisms for defining quality parameters vary according to different contexts. If assessment aims to function as a management tool, it should seek specific criteria and indicators that would allow it to respond to questions of well-defined contexts. In this study, which stems from a literature review, we present basic guidelines for TELE continuous assessment (as a management tool). Throughout this article the importance of ongoing, in-context evaluation is emphasized. Models, methods and tools to collect data that permit institutions to develop a properly contextualized assessment process are presented.

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Can blogs help ESL students develop their language skills?

De Almeida Soares, D. (2008). Understanding class blogs as a tool for language development. Language Teaching Research12(4), 517-533

Web 2.0 has allowed for the development of cyber spaces where any computer user can create their own public pages to share knowledge, feelings and thoughts inviting linguistic interactions with people around the globe. This innovation has caught the attention of language practitioners who wish to experiment with blogging to enhance the teaching and learning experience. In 2007 I set up a class blog with my nine pre-intermediate EFL students in a language school in Brazil. This experience gave rise to two central questions: a) did my students see our blog as a learning tool? and b) what was blogging like in other language teaching contexts? To answer the first question I carried out some Exploratory Practice for three months. As for the second question, I designed an online survey which was answered by 16 members of a community of practice called the Webheads. Ultimately I learned that my students saw our blog as a learning tool and that blogs are being used in different ways around the world. This article presents the rationale behind using blogs in language classes, describes my research process and discusses the understanding my students and I have gained from exploring our own practices.

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Is there evidence that using an IT curriculum based on the NETS makes a significant difference in student learning?

Ching, G. S. (2009). Implications of an experimental information technology curriculum for elementary students. Computers & Education53(2), 419-428.

The information technology (IT) of today forms an integral part of everyday living, thus the nurture of children’s IT awareness early in life is crucial. Young children have an innate curiosity for IT which suggests that in the school environment it can easily be integrated with other subjects in thematic and interdisciplinary curriculum. This quasi-experimental study used the Technology Foundation Standards for Students of the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) project on National Educational Technology Standards (NETS) as the basis to design a thematic and interdisciplinary IT curriculum for elementary students. A total of 1273 elementary students and 12 computer teachers were separated into either a control or experimental group. After one academic year, students’ final scores in English, mathematics, science, social studies, and art were gathered and compared. Statistical analysis indicated that there were significant differences in the experimental group’s academic scores. Findings also suggested that an interdisciplinary curriculum design opened opportunity for collaborative work and cohesiveness among faculty. Further longitudinal studies are recommended to examine the long-term implications of a thematic and interdisciplinary IT curriculum design.

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Is technology leadership about teaching technology or reorganizing teaching?

Davies, P. M. (2010). On school educational technology leadership. Management in Education, 24(2), 55-61.
This analysis of the literatures on school educational technology leadership addresses definitions of school technology leaders and leadership, their role in educational change, and why schools are now changing as a result of 21st century advancements in technology. The literatures disagree over the definition of educational technology leadership. Further examination revealed that technology leadership is about the reorganization of teaching rather than the process of teaching itself. Several gaps relating to who is doing research on technology leadership are identified, and an attempt is made to assemble a model showing how schools can organize technology leadership so that teaching and learning remain the central focus.

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What is really expected of a technology coordinator?

Sugar, William; Holloman, Harold. Technology Leaders Wanted: Acknowledging the Leadership Role of a Technology Coordinator
TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning
, v53 n6 p66-75 Nov 2009.

Technology currently plays a crucial role in impacting teaching practices within schools. Similarly, a technology coordinator performs several tasks within a school environment and plays multiple roles that influence teaching and learning each day. Described as a “position with a protocol,” Frazier and Bailey (2004) noted that effective technology coordinators “need to be comfortable wearing many hats” (p. 2). A technology coordinator exhibits an assortment of activities in interactions with teachers, including: instructing teachers on a particular set of skills in learning about a new technology; solving teachers’ technical problems; providing access to existingtechnology resources; and collaborating with teachers to develop curricular materials for their classrooms; and other similar activities (Sugar, 2005). If well-prepared and fully comprehending their role within a particular school or school district, “multi-hat”technology coordinators also play a crucial role in leading teachers in developing effective K-12 school environments. This article analyzes this crucial role by proposing four main responsibilities of a technology coordinator and concentrates on examining possible leadership characteristics of a technology coordinator within a particular school. The four responsibilities of a technology coordinator, namely: (1) Instruction; (2) Technical; (3) Analysis; and (4) Leadership, are discussed.

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How can technology help students acquire 21st Century skills?

Dede, C., & Hall, L. (2010). Technological Supports for Acquiring 21 st Century Skills International Encyclopedia of Education. Education.

The 21st century seems quite different than the 20th in the capabilities people need for work, citizenship, and self-actualization.  In response, society’s educational systems must transform their objectives, curricula, pedagogies, and assessments to help all students attain the sophisticated outcomes requisite for a prosperous, attractive lifestyle based on effective contributions in work and citizenship. This article describes an innovative strategy by which new pedagogies based on emerging immersive media can aid all students in attaining sophisticated 21st century skills and knowledge.

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What works best in upper elementary classrooms: shared carts or 1: 1 laptops?

Russell, M., Bebell, D., & Higgins, J. (2004). Laptop learning: A comparison of teaching and learning in upper elementary classrooms equipped with shared carts of laptops and permanent 1: 1 laptops. Journal of Educational Computing Research30(4), 313-330. Technology and Assessment Study Collaborative, Boston College.

This study compares teaching and learning activities in 4th and 5th grade classrooms that were permanently equipped with one laptop for each student and classrooms that share a cart of laptops that create a 1:1 laptop environment on a temporary basis. The study originated from a question posed to us by Andover Public Schools (MA): “How does teaching and learning differ when upper elementary students (4th and 5th graders) are provided with their own laptop computers?” In response to this question, we undertook an intensive two month study that employed a mixed methodology that included student surveys, student drawings, teacher interviews, and 56 structured classroom observations. The findings summarized in this article provide evidence of several differences in teaching and learning activities between the two settings. Classrooms that were fully equipped with 1:1 laptops showed more technology use across the curriculum, more use of technology at home for academic purposes, less large group instruction, and nearly universal use of technology for writing.

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