Using the power of research to inform ICT integration in education

Archive for the ‘NETS Standard 1’ Category

What skills do students, teachers, and librarians need to build media literacy?

Jennifer M. Henson (2011) Media Literacy, Department of Educational Leadership and Human Development University of Central Missouri

An important aspect of application of media literacy for teaching and learning is for teachers to step back, support, and encourage students to be inventive and creative with such tools. Beginning media literacy education in early childhood and including parents is critical, as parents are their teachers at home. Young children are exposed to media literacy though television commercials, hand held games, the Internet, and even movies. Parents are the fist people to explain to children what they see, hear, and understand from these different types of media. An important aspect of application of media literacy for teaching and learning is for teachers to step back, support, and encourage students to be inventive and creative with such tools. Teachers should be knowledgeable in media literacy skills and how to integrate them into the curriculum. The librarian has a key role in supporting the integration of media literacy into the curriculum. School librarians partnering with other educators to identify and teach the media literacy will enable students to be effective digital learners.

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What does literacy with digital media look like?

Ola Erstad (2010) Educating the Digital Generation, Exploring Media Literacy for the 21st Century,  Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy

The concept of a digital generation has been dominating the public discourse on the role of digital media in young people’s lives. Issues concerning a digital generation is closely linked to questions about how we develop an education system that is able to face the challenges of the 21st Century. A growing field of research, inclined to raise awareness of present and future challenges for our education system, is ‘media/digital literacy’. This article examines research within ‘generation studies’ and public constructions of young people and digital media. Further the article presents some developments within ‘new literacy studies’ and different aspects of ‘competencies for the 21st Century’. Next, the article reflects different approaches to studying these competencies, based on different empirical data, both from my own research and that of colleagues. Towards the end the important question of inclusion and exclusion is raised. The objective is to explore some issues of importance for future development of media literacy, the educational use of digital tools and critical considerations of a digital generation. A key part of the article is the elaboration of five dimensions representing different focus areas of research on school-based studies of media literacy.

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Is Learning Analytics the most dramatic factor shaping the future of education?

Phil Long, George Siemens (2011) Penetrating the Fog: Analytics in Learning and Education, Educause Review Volume: 46, Issue: 5, Pages: 31-40

Attempts to imagine the future of education often emphasize new technologies ubiquitous computing devices, flexible classroom designs, and innovative visual displays. But the most dramatic factor shaping the future of higher education is something that we cant actually touch or see: big data and analytics. Basing decisions on data and evidence seems stunningly obvious, and indeed, research indicates that data-driven decision-making improves organizational output and productivity.

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How can information literacy impact social capital?

Stuart Ferguson (2010) Social capital, lifelong learning, information literacy and the role of libraries, ANZCA Conference

The role of libraries in lifelong learning is examined, with specific reference to information literacy. The paper discusses the concept of social capital and the significance of lifelong learning to theories of social capital, which address issues of democratic health and civic participation, as distinct from economic issues such as the need to reskill the workforce. It argues that information literacy is a strong component of the learning process and that, if lifelong learning is to be fostered, so too must information literacy, which is part of the mission of many libraries, especially in the educational sector. The paper examines some of the most relevant issues facing libraries, such as the increasing reliance of many clients on Google, the relative lack of information literacy skills, even among younger clients with strong digital literacies, and the uptake of Web 2.0 for information literacy instruction. It concludes with a discussion of areas of research, such as evaluation of information literacy programs and questions about the transferability of information literacy skills from one context to another.

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How can blogs be used to develop students’ Information Literacy?

Christopher Chan, Dianne Cmor (2009) Blogging toward Information Literacy: Engaging Students and Facilitating Peer Learning, Reference Services Review (2009) Volume: 37, Issue: 4, Pages: 395-407

The purpose of this paper is to describe how a course-integrated blog is used to facilitate the learning of information literacy skills. It also reports on how the effectiveness of the blog is evaluated.  The blog is made the centerpiece of library support offered to a first-year politics course. With the support of the faculty member involved, students are required to post answers to weekly library research skills questions posted to the blog. The quality of student responses is examined using a simple assessment rubric. Also, a survey is administered to students to determine perceived usefulness. Findings The evaluation of blog posts shows that the quality of answers is generally very good. Students put effort into their responses and most give accurate and thorough answers. The results of the survey indicate that most students feel the blog is useful to their learning, both in terms of general information skills, and in terms of helping research the term paper for the course. These results reflect just one course at a single university, therefore it is not possible to use the findings to make generalizations. The study could serve as a starting point for further inquiry into the evaluation of blogs as a support tool. While others have reported on using blogs in a similar manner, this study also attempts a thorough evaluation of the efficacy of the blog in helping students learn. Given the positive results of this evaluation, librarians could consider using blogs and other Web 2.0 tools to engage students in their own learning.

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Digital Literacy or Digital Literacies?

Colin Lankshear, Michele Knobel (2008) Digital Literacies—Concepts, Policies and Practices, Peter Lang Publishing

This book brings together a group of internationally-reputed authors in the field of digital literacy. Their essays explore a diverse range of the concepts, policies and practices of digital literacy, and discuss how digital literacy is related to similar ideas: information literacy, computer literacy, media literacy, functional literacy and digital competence. It is argued that in light of this diversity and complexity, it is useful to think of digital literacies the plural as well the singular. The first part of the book presents a rich mix of conceptual and policy perspectives; in the second part contributors explore social practices of digital remixing, blogging, online trading and social networking, and consider some legal issues associated with digital media.

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What lies behind the rather different yet now converging approaches of Media Literacy and Information Literacy?

Sonia Livingstone, Elizabeth Van Couvering, and Nancy Thumim (2008) Converging Traditions of Research on Media and Information Literacies: Disciplinary, Critical and Methodological Issues, Department of Media and Communications London School of Economics and Political Science.

As broadcast, audiovisual, and print media converge with telecommunications, computing, and information systems, research on media literacy and information literacy could hardly remain separate. Indeed, despite their contrasting disciplinary backgrounds, theories, and methods, these research traditions have an increasingly similar object of inquiry: the public’s understanding of and effective engagement with media, information and communication technologies of all kinds. We advocate a converged or at least dialogical concept of media and information “literacies”, arguing that each tradition has much to learn from the other, although we accept that some differences must remain. Our focus is on two dominant approaches, media literacy and information literacy. What can each tradition learn from the other? Are they compatible? What methods and directions should be prioritized? In what follows, we compare these approaches in terms of definitions, origins, focus, methods, findings and purposes, our aim being to sketch the agenda for research on these converging literacies.

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Why should we move from ICT skills to Digital Literacy to best support students’ inquiry learning?

Dr. Leo Casey, Professor B. C. Bruce, Allan Martin, Abigail Reynolds (2009) Digital Literacy: New Approaches to Participation and Inquiry Learning to Foster Literacy Skills among Primary School Children, Centre for Research and Innovation in Learning and Teaching, National College of Ireland

Our theoretical review points to two contrasting conceptual approaches to literacy and specifically, digital literacy. The traditional view is to regard digital literacy as a set of specific technical skills such as the ability to use software and to operate devices – this is often referred to as a skills model of literacy. In contrast, more recent and increasingly accepted theories conceive of digital literacy in terms of context and social practice – this is a situated approach to literacy. The starting point of the framework for digital literacy was to reference the practices and activities that take place in the classroom. Obviously, the goal of classroom activity is to bring about learning and as such, we grounded our digital literacy framework in a conception of learning centered on the Inquiry Cycle. The term digital literacy has been popularised by Paul Gilster, who, in his book of the same name defined it as: the ability to understand and use information in multiple formats from a wide range of sources when it is presented via computers. The concept of literacy goes beyond simply being able to read; it has always meant the ability to read with meaning, and to understand. It is the fundamental act of cognition. Based on our review of theory we established the following definition of digital literacy in primary school contexts: Digital literacy in primary schools involves students and teachers using digital technology to enable, sustain and enrich all aspects of the inquiry cycle of learning as: ask, investigate, create, discuss and reflect.

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What is the best way to Authentically Assess an Information Literacy Program?

Karen R Diller, Sue F Phelps (2008) Learning Outcomes, Portfolios, and Rubrics, Oh My! Authentic Assessment of an Information Literacy Program, portal Libraries and the Academy (2008) Volume: 8, Issue: 1, Publisher: John Hopkins University Press Journals Division,Pages: 75-89

Librarians at Washington State University Vancouver helped the campus develop a method of assessing its General Education Program, a program based on university learning goals, one of which is information literacy. The assessment method, which relies on an electronic portfolio (ePortfolio) along with rubrics to evaluate work in the ePortfolio, enables the librarians to evaluate their information literacy program based on ACRL best practices guidelines, authentic assessment techniques, and the tenets of phenomenography. This paper will describe the library’s use of this assessment method, while looking at the advantages and disadvantages of this process for assessment.

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Do we really need to improve schools to improve education?

Allan Collins, Richard Halverson (2009) Rethinking Education in the Age of Technology: The Digital Revolution and the Schools, Distance Education, Teachers College Press, Pages: 1-11

The digital revolution has hit education, with more and more classrooms plugged into the whole wired world. But are schools making the most of new technologies? Are they tapping into the learning potential of today’s Firefox/Facebook/cell phone generation? Have schools fallen through the crack of the digital divide? In Rethinking Education in the Age of Technology, Allan Collins and Richard Halverson argue that the knowledge revolution has transformed our jobs, our homes, our lives, and therefore must also transform our schools. Much like after the school-reform movement of the industrial revolution, our society is again poised at the edge of radical change. To keep pace with a globalized technological culture, we must rethink how we educate the next generation or America will be “left behind.” This article summarizes the arguments of their groundbreaking book and  offers a vision for the future of American education that goes well beyond the walls of the classroom to include online social networks, distance learning with “anytime, anywhere” access, digital home schooling models, video-game learning environments, and more.

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Is it possible to develop Information Literacy without Technological Competencies?

Sharkey Jennifer, Brandt D Scott (2008) Digital Literacy Tools and Methodologies for Information Society, Publisher: IGI Global

Sharkey and Brandt start on the analysis from the traditional difference between Technology and Information Literacy. The first one seems to be wider, referring to general skills in acting with and through technology; the second one, on the contrary, is more focused on computer, Internet, and the other digital devices. According to the authors, in the so called Information Age, it is necessary to develop both of these literacies. In fact, most of the technological skills are involved with information and, on the contrary, it seems really impossible to develop informational skills without technological competencies. The result of the mediation between them is an integrated solution of Technology and Information Literacy; this could be considered as the condition starting from which to imagine the space and the role of what in this book is named: Digital Literacy.

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How do teachers understand and develop information literacy skills?

Elizabeth Probert (2009) Information literacy skills: Teacher understandings and practice, Computers & Education 53 (2009) 24–33

This article reports on a project, involving three New Zealand schools, which investigated teachers’ understanding of information literacy and their associated classroom practices. Recently published work, while lamenting school students’ lack of information literacy skills, including working with online resources, provides little research investigating classroom teachers’ knowledge of information literacy skills and their related pedagogical practice. The findings of this project indicate that while some of the teachers in this project had a reasonably good understanding of the concept of information literacy, very few reported developing their students’ information literacy skills.

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How are librarians involved in guided inquiry?

Carol Collier Kuhlthau (2010) Guided Inquiry: School Libraries in the 21st Century, School Libraries Worldwide, January 2010, Volume 16, Number 1, 17-28

The 21st century calls for new skills, knowledge and ways of learning to prepare students with abilities and competencies to address the challenges of an uncertain, changing world. Some think that an Internet connection in the classroom is all that is needed to transform a 20th century school into a 21st century learning space. If only it were that simple. Some have assumed that the Internet makes school libraries obsolete. Research shows that this is definitely not the case. A new way of learning is needed that prepares students for living and working in a complex information environment. Our research shows that school libraries are an essential component of information age schools. School librarians are vital partners in creating schools that enable students to learn through vast resources and multiple communication channels. Teachers cannot do this alone. School librarianship has evolved from emphasis on library skills to information skills in the 1980s, to information literacy in the 1990s, to inquiry as a way of learning in the first decade of the 21st century.

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Can phenomenography be a conceptual framework for information literacy in education?

Susie Andretta (2007) Phenomenography: a conceptual framework for information literacy education, ASLIB Proceedings (2007) Volume: 59, Issue: 2

By exploring learning from the learners point of view, and by focusing on the relationship between user/learner and information, the relational model proposes an holistic evaluation of learning exemplified by the qualitative changes in the way a person conceives and interacts with the world, rather than the testing of the amount of knowledge, or measuring the set of skills a learner acquires. The relational model promoted by Bruce et al. (2006), explores the dynamic relationship between learner and information within the context of information literacy, although the conceptual framework of the six frames of information literacy could be applied to any subject-specific scenario. This perspective necessarily calls for a shift of emphasis in Higher Education provision away from a learning what approach and towards a learning how attitude. To facilitate this shift Bruce et al. (2006) suggest that the relational model can be used to moderate other approaches to information literacy, thus promoting a pedagogy based on variation of learning that fosters independent and lifelong learning attitudes.

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How can interviews demonstrate a lack of information skills among secondary students?

Heidi Julien, Susan Barker (2009) How high-school students find and evaluate scientific information: A basis for information literacy skills development, Library & Information Science Research xxx (2009)

This study examined the relationship between curricula in secondary-level science classrooms, which support development of information literacy skills, and actual student skills. A vast body of research reflects deep concern with the level of information literacy skill development among secondary and post-secondary students. But even when educational curricula mandate skill development, many students are unable to demonstrate sophisticated information searching and critical evaluation skills. The findings of this study, which we based on analyzing information seeking tasks and conducting interviews with students in three biology classes in a large urban high school, demonstrated a similar lack of skills. Pressure on teachers to “teach to examinations”—that is, to focus on substantive content rather than on information literacy skills and information literacy skills deficits among teachers themselves—is a possible explanation for these results. The study is of particular interest to teachers of the curriculum applicable in the study context, but the broader implications of repeated indications of gaps in students’ information literacy skills are a significant indicator that schools must assume a larger responsibility for information literacy instruction. Leaving skill development to the post-secondary environment will not ensure that citizens are sufficiently skilled to participate fully in 21st century life, in workplaces or in their personal life contexts.

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How can Bourdieu’s concepts help overcome the binary division of technology and society?

Jonathan Sterne (2003) Bourdieu, Technique and Technology, Cultural Studies 17(3/4) 2003, 367–389

This paper examines the place of technology in Pierre Bourdieu’s social theory, and argues for the relevance of Bourdieu’s thought to the study of technology. In moving from an examination of the status of technology in Bourdieu’s work through to his broad approach to social practice and his widely cited concept of habitus, it is argued that technologies are crystallizations of socially organized action. As such, they should be considered not as exceptional or special phenomena in a social theory, but rather as very much like other kinds of social practices that recur over time. Ultimately, through the use of Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus, field, and capital, we are able to overcome the binary divisions such as technology/society and subject/object that have plagued technology studies.

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How can Social Capital inform the actual and potential use of IT?

Marleen Huysman, Volker Wulf (2005) The role of Information Technology in building and sustaining the relational base of communities, The Information Society (TIS), Vol. 21, No. 2, 2005, pp. 81 – 89

One of the most important potential fallacies of the debate on IT enabled communities, is the over-enthusiasm towards technological possibilities. The trap lurks particularly in the assumption that IT can positively support and improve knowledge sharing while ignoring the social conditions that trigger or hinder people to share knowledge. As many scholars have already argued, the tendency to perceive IT as independent from the social environment of which it is part, has caused disappointing acceptance rates (e.g. Ciborra 1996, McDermott 1999). It is not the technology itself but the way people use it that influence whether or not and how IT will be used. Moreover, in case of communities of practice, it is not the technology itself that enables connecting people, it is the motivation for people to relate to each other (Lesser 2000). We postulated that social capital analysis of communities informs us better about the actual and potential use of IT. Based on theory we proposed that the higher the level of social capital, the more members are stimulated to connect and share knowledge. This implies that communities with high social capital will be more inclined to use – or continue using – ICT to share knowledge than in case of low social capital.

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What is modern about technology?

Thomas J Misa (2003) The Compelling Tangle of Modernity and Technology, Publisher: MIT Press, Modernity and technology (2003) Pages: 1-30

The goals of this volume are: 1. To examine modernist icons such as clocks, railways and airports in the light of social theory 2. To understand technology as an embodiments of human needs and desires, the interactions of networks and systems. Modernity is charactarized following Weber by rationalization and following Marx, by concious change. Airports are brought as examplary complexes embodying modernity and technology. Modernity is bound with technology and every human experience in the modern world is mediated by technology.As much as we may desire to escape this nexus, we must confront it as humans and scholars and this is the task of this volume. What is the relation between modernity and technology? Proposal 1: The concepts “technology and “modeniry” have a complex and tengled history. So what is modern? In popular use it means the latest and necessarily the best, phase of an ongoing parade towards a better future. It is indeed bound with the idea of progress. This tie between modern technology and social progress was central to early 20th century thinkers. Modernist artists, influenced by American technology and managerial models, emphasized too, regularity, order and rationality. More recent recent traced the origins of the modern world to earlier revolutions, such as the sientific or industrial ones, or even to economic changes in the late middle ages. Others pointed to enlightenment as the touchstone of modernity due to its concern with rationality and social progress. To conclude, modernity as a multifaceted process is very hard to capture and define.It is the same with technology. The meanings of the term changed over time, assuming their contemporary meaning only after the mid 19th century. Proposal 2: Technology may be the truely distinctive feature of modernity There is a gap between social theories and empirical studies od technology, which this volume tries to bridge. Social theorists have described modern society as subjegated to technology, which was usually presented abstracly, without any reference to the messy, disorganized way by which problem solving technolgies are born and diffused. Technology in this writing is a unitary totalizing entity which is usually contrasted with “traditional” concepts such as the “self”, “lifeworld” etc.

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How can the diffusion of ICT in Schools be better Understood Using the Concept of Social Capital?

Kenneth A Frank, Yong Zhao, Kathryn Borman (2004) Social Capital and the Diffusion of Innovations Within Organizations: The Case of Computer Technology in Schools, Sociology of Education Volume: 77, Issue: 2, Publisher: American Sociological Association, Pages: 148-171

Although the educational community has learned much about better educational practices, less is known about processes for implementing new practices. The standard model of diffusion suggests that people change perceptions about the value of an innovation through communication, and these perceptions then drive implementation. But implementation can be affected by more instrumental forces. In particular, members of a school share the common fate of the organization and affiliate with the common social system of the organization. Thus, they are more able to gain access to each others’ expertise informally and are more likely to respond to social pressure to implement an innovation, regardless of their own perceptions of the value of the innovation. This article characterizes informal access to expertise and responses to social pressure as manifestations of social capital. Using longitudinal and network data in a study of the implementation of computer technology in six schools, the authors found that the effects of perceived social pressure and access to expertise through help and talk were at least as important as the effects of traditional constructs. By implication, change agents should attend to local social capital processes that are related to the implementation of educational innovations or reforms.

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Does the ICT PD Cluster Model developed in New Zealand work?

John Clayton (2010) The provision of professional development in ICT: a New Zealand perspective ,Waikato Institute of Technology, Hamilton, New Zealand, The 17th Association for Learning Technology Conference (ALT-C 2010). Association for Learning Technology (ALT), pp. 1-10

Over the last two decades there have been significant increases in the integration of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in New Zealand schools. Investment in infrastructure, equipment and applications has been supported by a corresponding increase in the funding for Professional Development (PD) provision for teachers in ICT. This is based on the assumption that the level of competence and confidence of teachers in ICT directly impacts on the capacity and capability of schools to positively engage their learners in ICT-supported learning environments. Influenced by the school reforms of the late 1980s (Tomorrow’s Schools) a school-administered model of professional development, the ICT PD Cluster Model, was conceived by the New Zealand Ministry of Education in 1996. This model encouraged groups of schools (clusters) to reflect upon the potential impact and influence of ICTs on their learning communities. The outcome of this process, combined with schools’ existing knowledge of their teachers’ capabilities and confidence in ICT, influenced decisions on the focus, design, delivery and assessment of professional development activities.  The dual purpose of this paper is to firstly, review the ICT PD cluster model and describe those key features that could be considered ‘best practice’ and secondly, identify those attributes that either enabled or impeded ICT PD Cluster implementations and the critical organisational and operational success factors which should be followed in any future model of ICT PD implementation.

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What conditions foster ICT implementation in the curriculum?

Rafi Nachmias, David Mioduser, Alona Forkosh-Baruch (2008) Innovative Pedagogical Practices Using Technology: The Curriculum Perspective, INTERNATIONAL HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, Springer International Handbooks of Education, 2008, Volume 20, 2, 163-179,

Information and communication technologies (ICT) have affected our lives for over half a century. Yet, the school’s curriculum is still perceived as traditional in its structure and implementation. Attempts to assimilate ICT into schools’ curricula are frequently supported by policymakers. However, significant change in content, teaching and learning processes and assessment methods can actually be detected mainly in focal innovative initiatives within schools. This chapter analyzes case studies of innovative IT-supported pedagogical practices from 28 countries. The analysis refers to conditions required for fostering ICT implementation in the curriculum, with regards to new demands for teaching and learning. This suggests analysis of ICT-related curricular issues in separate subject areas, as well as in integrated subject domains. Further, we discuss desired changes in existing curricula, which may lead to innovative ICT implementation within schools.

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How can an IT curriculum help schools best prepare for tech integration?

Amy Staples, Marleen C Pugach, D Himes (2005) Rethinking the technology integration challenge: Cases from three urban elementary schools, Journal of Research on Technology in Education (2005) Volume: 37, Issue: 3, Publisher: International Society for Technology in Education

Preparing a school well for technology integration appears to represent a special instance of professional development, one that has a unique identity requiring a unique kind of stewardship. To use technology effectively, principals and other technology leaders who contribute to decision making regarding how a school will invest in technology first need a solid understanding of the difference between technology use to enhance learning of the curriculum and technology use for productivity-as well as the ability to make distinctions in the various kinds of supports that will be required for each. We would argue that it is not a case of privileging professional development over acquisition, but rather that in planning for technology integration, professional development and acquisition considerations need to take place simultaneously. Curriculum needs to be the overriding framework for these deliberations. In other words, good planning for technology integration takes a special understanding of the acquisition of hardware and software specifically as it relates to the curriculum. This requires graduated staff development that anchors technology in the curriculum, but that also recognizes the need for teachers to have the opportunity to learn the technology well so that it can be used easily and transparently to support the curriculum. It goes without saying that teachers must be deeply informed about content and pedagogy in a particular content area to use technology to enhance learning effectively. Neither can be shortchanged.

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Are schools making the most of new technologies?

A Collins, R Halverson (2009) Rethinking Education in the Age of Technology: The Digital Revolution and the Schools, Distance Education (2009) Publisher: Teachers College Pres

Parents and citizens need to push for a more expansive view of education reform. School leaders and teachers need to understand how learning technologies work and how they change the basic interactions of teachers and learners. Technology leaders need to work together with educators, not as missionaries bearing magical gifts, but as collaborators in creating new opportunities to learn. It will take a concerted effort to bring about such a radical change in thinking. If a broader view develops in society, leaders will emerge who can bring about the political changes necessary to make the new educational resources available to everyone.

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Can Informational Self-determination on the Internet Improve Online Privacy?

Simone Fischer-Hübner1, Chris Hoofnagle, Ioannis Krontiris, Kai Rannenberg, and Michael Waidner (2011) Online Privacy: Towards Informational Self-Determination on the Internet, Manifesto from Dagstuhl Perspectives Workshop 11061

While the collection and monetization of user data has become a main source for funding “free” services like search engines, online social networks, news sites and blogs, neither privacy-enhancing technologies nor its regulations have kept up with user needs and privacy preferences. The aim of this Manifesto is to raise awareness for the actual state of the art of online privacy, especially in the international research community and in ongoing efforts to improve the respective legal frameworks, and to provide concrete recommendations to industry, regulators, and research agencies for improving online privacy. In particular we examine how the basic principle of informational self-determination, as promoted by European legal doctrines, could be applied to infrastructures like the internet, Web 2.0 and mobile telecommunication networks.

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Can there ever be a single unified metanarrative on the benefits of ICT in education?

Vinesh Chandra, Margaret Lloyd (2008) The methodological nettle: ICT and student achievement, British Journal of Educational Technology (2008)

A major challenge for researchers and educators has been to discern the effect of ICT use on student learning outcomes. This paper maps the achievements in Year 10 Science of two cohorts of students over two years where students in the first year studied in a traditional environment while students in the second took part in a blended or e-learning environment. Using both quantitative and qualitative methods, the authors have shown that ICT, through an e-learning intervention, did improve student performance in terms of test scores. They have also shown that this improvement was not global with the results for previously high-performing female students tending to fall while the results for lower-achieving boys rose. There was also a seeming mismatch between some students’ affective responses to the new environment and their test scores. This study shows the complexity of ICT-mediated environments through its identification and description of three core issues which beset the credibility of research in ICT in education. These are (1) ICT as an agent of learning, (b) site specificity, and (c) global improvement.

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What does a Curriculum 2.0 look like for Library/ Information Education?

David Bawden, Lyn Robinson, Theresa Anderson, Jessica Bates, Ugne Rutkauskiene, Polona Vilar (2007) Towards curriculum 2.0: Library/information education for a Web 2.0 world, Library and Information Research Vol 31 No 99 2007

This paper reports an international comparison of changes in library/information curricula, in response to the changing information environment in which graduates of such courses will work. It is based on a thematic analysis of five case-studies from Australia, Ireland, Lithuania, Slovenia and the United Kingdom. Specifically, it describes responses to an increasing proportion of e-content and the impact of the communication and social networking features of Web 2.0, and Library 2.0. It examines both changes in curriculum content, and in methods of teaching and learning. The latter involves pedagogy adapting and changing in the same way as the professional environment, with a greater emphasis on e-learning, and use of Web 2.0 tools. Students therefore learn about the issues by making use of these tools and systems in their studies. Specific issues arising from these case studies include: the best mode of introduction of Web 2.0 facilities, both as topics in the curriculum and as tools for teaching and learning; the set of topics to be covered; the relation between conventional e-learning and Web 2.0, problems and difficulties arising. Examples of particular courses and course units are given.

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How can schools develop their own ICT curriculum?

Vanderlinde, B. R., Braak, J. V., Windt, V. D., Tondeur, J., Hermans, R., & Sinnaeve, I. (2008). Technology Curriculum and Planning for Technology in Schools: The Flemish case. TechTrends52(2), 23-26.

As a significant step in the consolidation of the importance of technology in education, the Flemish Government recently (September 2007) introduced a formal technology curriculum for schools. This compulsory curriculum replaces already existing but non-binding technology guidelines and is an important action in the Flemish policy of educational technology support. The introduction of a technology curriculum brings educational technology in schools to a turning point: Technology is no longer considered as being dependent on teachers’ individual efforts or willingness, but is becoming compulsory at the school level. The Flemish educational technology curriculum is written in terms of attainment targets. These targets are minimum objectives concerning the knowledge, insight, skills, and attitudes the government regards as necessary for and attainable by pupils at different educational levels. The formulation of a compulsory technology curriculum opens new perspectives for Flemish schools when working on putting technology into practice. Schools are challenged to translate the technology curriculum into concrete teaching and learning activities. For this purpose, they can use the online tool PICTOS (Planning for ICT on School) to establish their school-based technology plan. This article discusses the five design principles which, at the same time, act as characteristics of PICTOS

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What is the connection between ICT and cultural capital?

Jo Tondeur, Ilse Sinnaeve, Mieke van Houtte, & Johan van Braak (2011) ICT as cultural capital: The relationship between socioeconomic status and the computer-use profile of young people; Published in ‘New Media & Society’

This study explores the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and the computer-use profile of 1241 school students in Flanders, the northern region of Belgium. More specifically, the article examines whether varying patterns of computer access, attitudes, competencies and uses can be seen as constituting differences in cultural capital. Additionally, gender was included in the survey as an important background characteristic in digital divide research. Path analysis was used to model the complex relationships between the influencing factors upon the ICT-related variables. What emerged from the analyses was that SES affects the computer-use profile only moderately. No relationship between SES and computer ownership was found. Moreover, the acquisition of ICT competencies can no longer be attributed to computer ownership. Apart from a small effect on ICT use (a higher SES tends to be associated with more ICT use), SES does not seem to affect the computer-use profile of young people in Flanders. The results of this study indicate that the existing differences in SES on computer-use profile are not sufficiently marked to deduce that ICT can be seen as an indicator of differing cultural capital.

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What can Social Capital and ICT do for Inclusion?

Dieter Zinnbauer (2007) What can Social Capital and ICT do for Inclusion? Institute for Prospective Technological Studies

Social capital facilitates learning and the acquisition of skills. Learning is a social process and social networks and communities of practices are indispensable spaces for informal learning, providing opportunities for individuals to seek advice, discuss ideas and upgrade their work-related and other skills. A social capital approach aligns itself very closely with the European eInclusion agenda, which aims not only to combat social exclusion in its various dimensions with the help of ICT but also seeks to prevent new generations of ICT from generating new socio-economic disparities.

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How can 21st century skills be measured?

David L Silvernail, Dorothy Small, Leanne Walker, Richard L Wilson, Sarah E Wintle (2008) Using Technology in Helping Students Achieve 21st Century Skills: A Pilot Study, Center for Education Policy Applied Research and Evaluation (2008) Publisher: Center for Education Policy, Applied Research, and Evaluation. University of Southern Maine.

As everyone enters the 21st Century there is a great deal of discussion in business and education circles alike about the type of skills the youth will need to survive and thrive in this century. At the same time, there is little known today about the level of 21st Century skills students currently have. Educational Testing Service (ETS) has begun to address this issue by developing a 75-minute scenario-based test to measure high school senior and college freshmen students’ Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Literacy skills; skills defined by ETS as, “the ability of post-secondary students to: define, access, manage, integrate, evaluate, create, and communicate information in a technological environment”. During the spring of 2006, ETS offered high schools and universities across the country the opportunity to take an early version of the assessment. One of those high schools was Skowhegan Area High School (SAHS) in Maine School Administrative District 54 (MSAD 54). The results suggested that the work Skowhegan has been doing preparing students for the 21st Century is showing some progress. The pilot study presented in this paper demonstrates the potential impact of interventions specifically designed to address 21st Century Skills. It also demonstrates the importance and feasibility of systematically developing curriculum interventions and collecting and analyzing impact data.

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What is the Perspective of Early Childhood Professionals on Assistive Technology User Groups?

Parette, H., & Stoner, J., Watts, E. (2009). Assistive Technology User Group Perspectives of Early Childhood Professionals, Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 2009, 44(2), 257–270

With the increasing usage of assistive technology (AT) usage in early childhood education settings serving children who are at-risk or who have developmental disabilities, there is a corresponding need for effective professional development experiences such as user groups to develop skills in using AT. Using a collective case study approach, 10 teachers who had participated in AT user groups and who were using an AT toolkit in their classrooms were interviewed and provided responses regarding (a) perspectives of user groups, (b) use of the toolkit, (c) benefits of user groups, (d) concerns regarding user groups, (e) perceived effects of AT on teaching and decision-making, and (f) perceived effects of AT on the classroom. Themes of interviews are presented, supported by statements from teachers.

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What is the impact of technology and transactive memory systems on knowledge sharing, application, and team performance?

Choi, S. Y., Lee, H., & Yoo, Y. (2010). THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND TRANSACTIVE MEMORY SYSTEMS ON KNOWLEDGE SHARING, APPLICATION, AND TEAM PERFORMANCE: A FIELD STUDY. MIS Quarterly34(4), 855-870. MIS Quarterly & The Society for Information Management.

In contemporary knowledge-based organizations, teams often play an essential role in leveraging knowledge resources. Organizations make significant investments in information technology to support knowledge management practices in teams. At the same time, recent studies show that the transactive memory system (TMS) the specialized division of cognitive labor among team members that relates to the encoding, storage, and retrieval of knowledge is an important factor that affects a team’s performance. Yet little is known of how IT support for knowledge management practices in organizations affects the development of TMS. Furthermore, the precise role of TMS on knowledge sharing and knowledge application, which in turn influences team performance, has not been fully explored. In order to close this gap in the literature, we conducted a field study that involved 139 on-going teams of 743 individuals from two major firms in South Korea. Our results show that IT support in organizations has a positive impact on the development of TMS in teams, and that both TMS and IT support have a positive impact on knowledge sharing and knowledge application. Furthermore, we found that knowledge sharing has a positive impact on knowledge application, which in turn has a direct impact on team performance. However, contrary to our expectation, knowledge sharing does not have a direct impact on team performance and its impact on team performance was fully mediated by knowledge application. Our research shows that organizations can improve team members’ meta-knowledge of who knows what through the careful investment in information technology. Finally, our results show that sharing knowledge alone is not enough. Organizations must ensure that shared knowledge is in fact applied in order to improve team performance.

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How can a cognitive lens help us think about technical change?

Kaplan, S.,  Tripsas, M., (2008) THINKING ABOUT TECHNOLOGY: APPLYING A COGNITIVE LENS TO TECHNICAL CHANGE

We apply a cognitive lens to understanding technology trajectories across the life cycle by developing a coevolutionary model of technological frames and technology. Applying that model to each stage of the technology life cycle, we identify conditions under which a cognitive lens might change the expected technological outcome predicted by purely economic or organizational models. We also show that interactions of producers, users and institutions shape the development of collective frames around the meaning of new technologies. We thus deepen our understanding of sources of variation in the era of ferment, conditions under which a dominant design may be achieved, the underlying architecture of the era of incremental change and the dynamics associated with discontinuities.

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What do pianos tell us about computers and cultural capital?

Seiter, E. (2008). Practicing at Home: Computers, Pianos, and Cultural Capital. Digital youth innovation and the unexpected (pp. 27-52). The MIT Press.

Bourdieu focused attention on the role of education and the influence of status distinctions on the selection and valorization of particular forms of cultural capital. Although Bourdieu did not write about digital media, he was a keen observer of status distinctions in education and how these translate into job markets. Through an extended analogy between learning the piano and learning the computer, I demonstrate Bourdieu’s relevance for an expanded vision of digital literacy one that would forefront the material and social inequalities in U.S. domestic Internet access and in public education. High Tech High School, supported by the Gates Foundation, provides a case of why it is important to examine current digital pedagogy in terms of unarticulated and implicit models of entrepreneurial labor, both because these set up unrealistic expectations and because they can express corporate norms rather than critical pedagogy.

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Are structures located in organizations and technology or enacted by the users?

Orlikowski, W. J. (2000). Using Technology and Constituting Structures: A Practice Lens for Studying Technology in Organizations. Organization Science,11(4), 404-428.

As both technologies and organizations undergo dramatic changes in form and function, organizational researchers are increasingly turning to concepts of innovation, emergence, and improvisation to help explain the new ways of organizing and using technology evident in practice. With a similar intent, I propose an extension to the structurational perspective on technology that develops a practice lens to examine how people, as they interact with a technology in their ongoing practices, enact structures which shape their emergent and situated use of that technology. Viewing the use of technology as a process of enactment enables a deeper understanding of the constitutive role of social practices in the ongoing use and change of technologies in the workplace. After developing this lens, I offer an example of its use in research, and then suggest some implications for the study of technology in organizations.

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Why should we see technology as neither a neutral tool nor a determined outcome but a scene of struggle between social forces?

Warschauer, M. (2007). The paradoxical future of digital learning. Learning Inquiry1(1), 41-49.

What constitutes learning in the 21st century will be contested terrain as our society strives toward post-industrial forms of knowledge acquisition and production without having yet overcome the educational contradictions and failings of the industrial age. Educational reformers suggest that the advent of new technologies will radically transform what people learn, how they learn, and where they learn, yet studies of diverse learners use of new media cast doubt on the speed and extent of change. Drawing on recent empirical and theoretical work, this essay critically examines beliefs about the nature of digital learning and points to the role of social, culture, and economic factors in shaping and constraining educational transformation in the digital era.

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Is there any point in trying to integrate technology in our antiquated school system?

Albirini, A. (2007). The Crisis of Educational Technology, and the Prospect of Reinventing Education. Educational Technology & Society10(1), 227-236.

With the fading monopoly of the industrial mode of production and the emergence of the “information revolution, ” modern technology has pervaded almost every aspect of human life. In education, however, information technology has yet to find a place, despite the unceasing attempts to “fit ” it into the existing educational system. The paper argues that the industrial mode of production was successful in inventing “education ” as a new paradigm, institutionalizing it in schools, and implementing it through a number of tools, such as “certified ” teachers, curricula, and textbooks. By contrast, the information mode of production has created the tools, namely “educational technology, ” before developing a corresponding paradigm or institution. This crisis of educational technology is therefore a corollary of its misplacement, and subsequent malfunction, in the still-in-use industrial paradigm and institution (education and school). The paper suggests that, in order to ensure a proper functionality of modern technology, we need to resolve this theoretical inadequacy. A possible solution would be to thoroughly restructure “education ” and schools, as remnants of the industrial age, into a new paradigm and institution.

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How has Facebook transformed the online habits of young Italians?

Cavalli, N.,Costa, E. I., Ferri, P., Mangiatordi, A., Micheli, M., Pozzali, A., Scenini, F., and Serenelli, F. (2011). Facebook influence on university students’ media habits: qualitative results from a field research, MIT7

Facebook has significantly transformed the online habits of young Italians. Our research assesses this change through a two-year survey conducted among undergraduate students. The data we collected in 2008 (N=1088) and 2009 (N=1123) allowed us to define profiles of media use based on indicators such as time spent online, consumption or creation of content, and familiarity with digital technologies as compared to analog media. Results have also shown the quick adoption of Facebook: in 2008, half of the students were completely unfamiliar with Facebook, while in 2009 all our respondents were aware of it and 59% of them were also using it on a regular basis. To grasp the magnitude of this change, we conducted a qualitative research study based on 30 semi-structured interviews with randomly selected university students (aged 19-24). Our research questions whether the massive adoption of Facebook, both in terms of frequency and time spent online, is really producing a change in how Italian students are using the Internet, or whether it is merely reproducing old forms of media consumption. To explore this issue, we will focus on how students are appropriating Facebook – in terms of uses and meanings they attach to it – and on the transformation of the relationship between more traditional forms of media consumption (like television) and digital media.

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How do university students spend their time on Facebook?

Aghazamani, A. (2010). How Do University Students Spend Their Time On Facebook ? An Exploratory Study. Journal of American Science6(12), 730-735.

Despite major productive uses of Internet technology in today’s digital world, users prefer to spend much more time on social networking sites (SNSs) like Facebook. The objective of this study is to determine student motives for using Facebook. A close-ended questionnaire was administered to 595 University students who were recognized as users of the site at Karlstad University in Sweden. Male users spend more time on the site than female users during both weekdays (p-value=0.9238) and weekends (p-value=0.9953). The survey showed that undergraduate students login more times per day than graduate students (p-value=0.2138). In addition, friendship was named the most favorite activity among male users (p-value=0.8883) and also among undergraduate students comparing with graduate students (p-value=0.2045). If users were asked to pay a membership fee to use the site, the results showed that male users (p-value=0.9991) and undergraduate students (p-value=0.9884) were more likely to pay the charge than other groups (females and graduate students). It is apparent that using Facebook can be seen as an  important  part of daily life among University students and its phenomenon spread out inevitably.

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Why do TELE need effective assessments to be viable pedagogic reengineering options?

Andrade, D., & Ferreira, S. (2011). Models and instruments for assessing Technology Enhanced Learning Environments in higher education. Quality,24(April), 1-10. eLearning Papers

Technology Enhanced Learning Environments (TELE) are seen as a fundamental support in teaching reengineering, and may support a more effective approach to constructive educational philosophies. The evaluation of TELE, as a means of certifying its quality, is giving rise to several initiatives and European experiences. However, the mechanisms for defining quality parameters vary according to different contexts. If assessment aims to function as a management tool, it should seek specific criteria and indicators that would allow it to respond to questions of well-defined contexts. In this study, which stems from a literature review, we present basic guidelines for TELE continuous assessment (as a management tool). Throughout this article the importance of ongoing, in-context evaluation is emphasized. Models, methods and tools to collect data that permit institutions to develop a properly contextualized assessment process are presented.

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What is really expected of a technology coordinator?

Sugar, William; Holloman, Harold. Technology Leaders Wanted: Acknowledging the Leadership Role of a Technology Coordinator
TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning
, v53 n6 p66-75 Nov 2009.

Technology currently plays a crucial role in impacting teaching practices within schools. Similarly, a technology coordinator performs several tasks within a school environment and plays multiple roles that influence teaching and learning each day. Described as a “position with a protocol,” Frazier and Bailey (2004) noted that effective technology coordinators “need to be comfortable wearing many hats” (p. 2). A technology coordinator exhibits an assortment of activities in interactions with teachers, including: instructing teachers on a particular set of skills in learning about a new technology; solving teachers’ technical problems; providing access to existingtechnology resources; and collaborating with teachers to develop curricular materials for their classrooms; and other similar activities (Sugar, 2005). If well-prepared and fully comprehending their role within a particular school or school district, “multi-hat”technology coordinators also play a crucial role in leading teachers in developing effective K-12 school environments. This article analyzes this crucial role by proposing four main responsibilities of a technology coordinator and concentrates on examining possible leadership characteristics of a technology coordinator within a particular school. The four responsibilities of a technology coordinator, namely: (1) Instruction; (2) Technical; (3) Analysis; and (4) Leadership, are discussed.

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