Using the power of research to inform ICT integration in education

Posts tagged ‘digital literacy’

What Do Students Use Their Laptops for During Teacher Instruction?

Blikstad-Balas, Marte. “Digital Literacy in Upper Secondary School-What Do Students Use Their Laptops for During Teacher Instruction.” Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy 2 (2012): 2012.

The present study uses video recordings and qualitative interviews to examine the digital literacy practices of Norwegian students who have a personal laptop for school use. It uses the dichotomy between dominant school texts and vernacular out-of-school texts to examine the new school literacy practices. Findings indicate that the teachers’ use of visual technologies such as Power Point presentations in whole-class settings generates a variety of individual digital literacy practices among the students.

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How is ICT making us rethink the way we assess Understanding?

Christine Redecker & Øystein Johannessen (2013) Changing Assessment — Towards a New Assessment Paradigm Using ICT, European Journal of Education, Vol. 48, No. 1, 2013

This article argues for a paradigm shift in the use and deployment of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in assessment. While there is still a need to advance in the development of emerging technological solutions to support embedded assessment, such as Learning Analytics, and integrated assessment formats, the more pressing task is to make the conceptual shift between traditional and 21st century testing and develop (e-)Assessment pedagogies, frameworks, formats and approaches that reflect the core competences needed for life in the 21st century, supported by coherent policies for embedding and implementing eAssessment in daily educational practice.

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What do ICT teachers think about the introduction of ICT in Primary Education in Greece?

Tziafetas Konstantinos, Avgerinos Andreas, Tsampika Karakiza (2013) Views of ICT teachers about the introduction of ICT in Primary Education in Greece, The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

The difficulties in the effective integration of ICT in the classroom make the subject a constant challenge for modern educational systems. The “New School”, an innovative new curriculum applied experimentally in Greek schools, introduces the full and effective use of ICT in all aspects of school reality. Prominent in this effort is the role of ICT teachers. Given the vague framework which describes the integration of ICT in primary schools with reformed curriculum, it is important to investigate the views of ICT teachers in relation to the aims of the Ministry of Education and the obstacles they encounter in their teaching process. The research results reveal that on one hand, there is a considerable confusion among teachers with regard to their role and on the other hand, there are several external and internal barriers to effective teaching

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New Media Use in Brazil: Digital Inclusion or Digital Divide?

Sueila Pedrozo, University of Turku, Finland (2013) New Media Use in Brazil: Digital Inclusion or Digital Divide?, Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, Volume: 3 – Issue: 1 – January – 2013

The emergence of ICTs brought economic growth and development for many countries, but brought the digital divide as well. In Brazil, there was a democratization effect with the adoption of mobile phones reaching all social classes but the internet still lags behind. No doubt there is a correlation between digital exclusion and other forms of inequalities – social, economic, educational, and demographic. Technology access is just the first step to digital inclusion but digital literacy is even more important and has to follow it; the full inclusion for all depend not only on public policies but mainly on quality education and teachers’ training, to enable underprivileged youth to learn and use ICT resources and potential.

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How do iPads impact language learning in Kindergarten?

Margareth Sandvik, Ole Smørdal & Svein Østerud (2012) Exploring iPads in Practitioners’ Repertoires for Language Learning and Literacy Practices in Kindergarten, Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, 03/2012

We have explored the role of a tablet computer (the Apple iPad) and a shared display as extensions of a practitioner’s repertoire for language learning and literacy practices in a multicultural kindergarten. In collaboration with a practitioner, an intervention was designed that included the use of two iPad apps in a language learning and literacy practice session with a group of 5 children aged 5. We have analysed the conversations around the tablet computers and in front of a shared display, trying to identify types of talk. The roles of the iPads, the apps and the shared display are discussed in relation to the types of talk, engagement and playfulness observed in the activities. We argue that the intervention led to valuable activities for language learning and literacy practices. The two selected apps differ in their levels of structure (directed vs. open) and genre (show and tell vs. fairy tale), and this difference will be discussed in relation to the types of conversation they initiate, and the extent to which they enable the children to transfer experiences from books and hence develop their literacy to include digital and multimodal resources.

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Computers in Education: What for?

Eevi E. Beck (2011) Computers in Education: What for? Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy / 2011 / Special Issue

The assumption that increased use of computing technologies is beneficial per se has been questioned in research on workplace computing since the early 1970ies. The intention of this paper is to encourage stopping and pausing to consider what is happening (an empirical question), and whether what is seen is desirable (a normative question). The paper calls for more debate (among researchers, teachers, parents, school leaders, governmental bodies, and other interested parties) as to what we would want computers for and how to get there. Points of view would differ; possibly never fully settling on agreement. This would constitute an ideal and a practice of attempting to bring Bildung and democracy to computing use in education, and would be a worthwhile lead to equip the young for participation in a technology-intensive society.

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What Do Students Use Their Laptops for During Teacher Instruction?

Marte Blikstad-Balas (2012) Digital Literacy in Upper Secondary School – What Do Students Use Their Laptops for During Teacher Instruction? Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, Vol 7, 2012, Nr 02, 81-96

Many schools assume that the technology will fit into school practices, and thus use the computer as a supplement to the “regular” instruction. However, the students have their own vernacular practices concerning the use of the same technology, which they bring to school and wherever they go. This means that if schools fail to create the need of relevant educational Internet-based practices, the students will continue to use the Internet mainly for their personal vernacular practices, even at school. It goes without saying that banning Internet activity will not contribute to developing students’ literacy skills. What might need more explicit attention, is that neither will allowing unlimited Internet access without any guidance or clear educational purpose.

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How are Mobile Technologies supporting the Teaching of Literacy in Western Australia?

Grace Oakley, Mark Pegrum, Robert Faulkner & Michelle Striepe (2012) Exploring the Pedagogical Applications of Mobile Technologies for Teaching Literacy, Report for the Association of Independent Schools of Western Australia

Using a multiple case study strategy, this project set out to explore how independent schools in Western Australia were using mobile technologies such as iPads and iPod Touches to support, enhance and transform teaching and learning in the English learning area as well as, more broadly, the area of literacy as a ‘general capability’ across the curriculum.

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Is multitasking of technology a support or a distraction to learning?

Ajao, Peter Olayinka Oluwasegun (2012)  Multitasking-Impact of ICT on learning, Case Study (LUAS), Lahti University of Applied Sciences, Degree programme in Business Information Technology

The purpose of this paper is to use a questionnaire/survey, interview, and observations, and a test to examine how multitasking using various technologies impact or affects students. Multitasking of technology becomes a distraction when it is not managed well, such as when multitasking is heavily done, it leads to ineffectiveness, inefficiency, and affect productivity because the brain is subject to many things. Heavy multitasking is reported to cause even stress to the multitasker. In the case of students, more mental work is required since there is divided attention and concentration. So, it is possible that the education productivity goes on the dwindling side. On the other hand, multitasking that is done moderately, and that is controlled, is seen as a support.

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What is the Impact of Internet Access at Home and/or School on Students’ Academic Performance in Brazil?

Badasyan, Narine and Silva, Simone, (2012) The Impact of Internet Access at Home and/or School on Students’ Academic Performance in Brazil, Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2133609

This paper uses propensity scores matching techniques to examine the impact of Internet on 8th grade students’ academic achievement, as measured by their test scores in Portuguese and mathematics, for years 2007 and 2009. In both years, the results suggest that Internet access at home has a considerable positive impact on test scores of 8th graders in both mathematics and Portuguese. These paper’s findings have interesting implications from a policy perspective. In the past decade policymakers in many countries, including Brazil, have allocated substantial funds to increase Internet access at schools. Previous research suggest that the efforts to increase Internet access at schools can result in much higher magnitude of improvement of students’ academic performance if they are combined with policy initiatives to increase home Internet access. This paper provides further evidence to this view and argues that school internet access should be combined with policies to increase the instructors’ awareness of the importance of internet as a pedagogical tool.

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How can Competency in Visual Literacy Enhance Student Learning?

Anneliese Tillmann (2012) What We See and Why It Matters: How Competency in Visual Literacy can Enhance Student Learning,  Honors Projects, Educational Studies Department, Illinois Wesleyan University

In today’s world, we use more visuals than ever before. Research suggests that the balance between words and images has shifted considerably calling for new forms of literacy (Brumberger, 2011). Visual literacy goes above and beyond the traditional concepts of reading and writing, expanding literacy to include visuals. The analysis and review of current visual literacy research suggests teaching visual literacy is necessary for students to become capable of navigating the visually driven world in which we live. The research highlights the importance of incorporating visuals into the literacy curricula and explores practical uses of visual literacy in present day society. Findings suggest that developing the ability to create images will help students better learn to decipher, understand and communicate with images. If there is a better understanding of how and why visuals are developed, then the use of visuals can become more effective, ergo enhancing student learning.

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What makes new literacies new?

Colin Lankshear and Michele Knobel (2012) ‘New’ literacies: technologies and values, article extracted and edited from the book “New Literacies” Third Edition, by Colin Lankshear and Michele Knobel. McGrawHill, Open University Press, 2011, chapter 3, pp. 51-92.

It is too easy to make light of ‘new literacies’ by saying things like: “Well, there are always newer ones coming along”. Such remarks suggest new literacies have a similar kind of life trajectory to an automobile: new in 2009, semi-new in 2010, and old hat by 2011. Against this kind of “that’s so yesterday” perspective, we suggest in this article that ‘new literacies’ are best understood in terms of an historical period of social, cultural, institutional, economic, and intellectual change that is likely to span many decades – some of which are already behind us. We associate new literacies with an historical conjuncture and an ascending social paradigm. From this perspective we suggest that the kinds of practices we currently identify as new literacies will cease to be ‘new’ once the social ways characterizing the ascending paradigm have become sufficiently established and grounded to be regarded as conventional. Furthermore we suggest that at the heart of the idea of new ethos stuff is the idea of technological change aligning with a range of increasingly popular values.

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How can can Multiliteracies be put into Practice?

D. Bruce Taylor, Lindsay Sheronick Yearta (2012) Putting Multiliteracies into Practice in Teacher Education: Tools for Teaching and Learning in a Flat World,  In Teacher Education Programs and Online Learning Tools: Innovations in Teacher Preparation,ed. Richard Hartshorne, Tina L. Heafner and Teresa Petty, 244-263 (2013)

While technology has always played a role in teaching and learning, with the advent of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs), schools have struggled to keep pace with Web 2.0 tools available for teaching and learning. Multiliteracies, a term coined by scholars who published under the name The New London Group in 1996, has helped provide a theoretical foundation for applying new texts and tools to teaching and learning; however, much of the scholarship around Multiliteracies remains in the academic and theoretical domain. The authors suggest a pedagogic framework or metastructure for applying Multiliteracies to teacher education and by extension to P-12 classrooms. They document Web 2.0 tools and discuss how they have used them in undergraduate and graduate teacher education courses.

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How information literate are students in the mobile environment?

Yarmey, K. (2011) Student information literacy in the mobile environment, Educause Quarterly Magazine, 34(1).

The results of the Scranton Smartphone Survey indicate that, while students are interested in using their phones for academic purposes, they still require guidance from educators to choose the most appropriate mobile resource and to evaluate mobile websites and mobile apps. As Agnes Kukulska-Hulme noted, “Learners tend to move between using desktop computers and mobile devices, and maybe touch-screen displays in public areas, often for different parts of a learning task.” The information literacy world would benefit from a closer parsing of when and why users switch between devices. The existing data nonetheless permit a few generalizations and recommendations: Information literacy instructors should become familiar with new search methods (such as quick response codes) to help students use them effectively and efficiently; Students should be encouraged to review a range of search results, particularly when searching for academic information; Information literacy instructors should help students understand how to evaluate information, especially when it is presented in a nontraditional form, such as a native app; Students may need assistance from educators in applying information literacy skills they have learned while searching on a laptop or desktop to the mobile environment.

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Does digital immersion improve students digital literacy skills?

Land, J. (2012). Does digital immersion improve students digital literacy skills? Computers in New Zealand Schools: Vol. 24, No 1. pp. 4-20.

When introducing a 1:1 programme or similar, you need to allow time to teach the students how to use the tools. A study by Dunleavy, Dextert and Heinecket (2007) concluded by saying that, “In order to create effective learning environments, teachers need opportunities to learn what instruction and assessment practices, curricular resources, and classroom management skills work best in a 1:1 student to networked laptop classroom setting” (p. 450). We need to bear this in mind when introducing any programme, and allow time to teach the teachers as well as the students.

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Are young learners ready for virtual learning?

Leppisaari, I., & Lee, O. (2012) Modeling Digital Natives’ International Collaboration: Finnish-Korean Experiences of Environmental Education. Educational Technology & Society, 15 (2)

A new generation of young learners often described as digital native school children are attitudinally and technically equipped to employ social media as a social process in learning. However, few international virtual learning projects have been implemented and researched. This article examines a trial which aimed to combine viable technology with future pedagogic solutions for primary students from Korea and Finland and create an international collaboration model in virtual learning for environmental education. The results show various challenges of the operational model and suggest effective implementation strategies. The challenges were organisational, language, technical and collaboration barriers. The operational model illustrates possibilities of implementing cyber space pedagogy, visualization of knowledge using technology, cyber spaces for collaboration, and the motivational impetus provided by the model. This pilot study demonstrates the need to increase greater interactivity between teachers from the partner countries during the planning phase and provide more authentic interaction for inter-learner dialogue.

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Should we redefine the literary classroom as a learning commons?

Beach, R. (2012), Constructing Digital Learning Commons in the Literacy Classroom. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 55: 448–451

Redefining the literary classroom as a learning commons means that students, teachers, peers, counselors, experts, administrators, and parents are learning to use digital annotation, collaborative writing/discussion, or professional learning network tools for a collaborative, crowd-sourcing construction of knowledge that can redefine the boundaries of the classroom. Learning how to participate in the learning commons to share ideas and alternative perspectives for addressing problems leading to change is an essential 21st-century digital literacy.

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Are interactive blogs more effective than isolated blogs in supporting student learning?

Yang, C. and Chang, Y.-S. (2012), Assessing the effects of interactive blogging on student attitudes towards peer interaction, learning motivation, and academic achievements. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 28: 126–135

Blogs have been increasingly used to supplement traditional classroom lectures in higher education. This paper explores the use of blogs, and how student attitudes towards online peer interaction and peer learning, as well as motivation to learn from peers, may differ when using the blog comments feature, and when students are encouraged to read and comment on each other’s work. We contrast two ways blogs affect learning engagement: (1) solitary blogs as personal digital portfolios for writers; or (2) blogs used interactively to facilitate peer interaction by exposing blogging content and comments to peers. A quasi-experiment was conducted across two semesters, involving 154 graduate and undergraduate students. The result suggests that interactive blogs, compared with isolated blogs, are associated with positive attitudes towards academic achievement in course subjects and in online peer interaction. Students showed positive motivation to learn from peer work, regardless of whether blogs were interactive or solitary.

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What is the role of blogging for twenty first century professional academic practitioners?

Kirkup, Gill (2010). Academic blogging, academic practice and academic identity. London Review of Education, 8(1), pp. 75–84.

This paper describes a small scale study which investigates the role of blogging in professional academic practice in higher education. It draws on interviews with a small sample of academics (scholars, researchers and teachers) who have blogs and on the author’s own reflections on blogging to investigate the professional benefits and costs of academic blogging. It argues that blogging offers a new genre of authoritative and accessible academic textual production, and in this way is changing the nature of what it is to be a twenty first century academic practitioner.

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How can students learn with and through technology in primary school?

Diana van Walsum (2012) Learning with and through technology in primary school: Creating a movie of my own hero’s quest myth, Centre for Information Technology in Education, Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong

A lesson plan incorporating a sequence of technology-supported activities was developed to enable primary school students aged ten to eleven to learn how to create a narrative based on narrative conventions as part of their literacy curriculum. Links to web- based learning tools and descriptions of related learning strategies were included for each activity. Use of technology was planned with the goal of enhancing the quality of student learning, in particular the stimulation of higher-level thinking skills. The use of technology in each activity is justified based on relevant learning theories and key literature, in particular the theory of collaborative knowledge building. Strategies for evaluation of the successful integration of technology in the activities are proposed.

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What is the Potential of Google+ as a Media Literacy Tool?

J. Cohen (2012) The Potential of Google+ as a Media Literacy Tool, Journal of Media Literacy Education 4:1 (2012) 93 – 96

Utilizing Google+ as a media literacy tool means understanding its use as an access point to analyze messages to engage critical thinking about everyday issue people face. Google+ combines the elements of long-form posts, following others, reposting, video and images sharing in one social network. The following is a discussion of how to utilize the features available on Google+ to benefit media literacy.

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How does the millennial generation search for information?

Taylor, A. (2012) “A study of the information search behaviour of the millennial generation” Information Research17(1) paper 508

Statistically significant findings suggest that millennial generation Web searchers proceed erratically through an information search process, make only a limited attempt to evaluate the quality or validity of information gathered, and may perform some level of ‘backfilling’ or adding sources to a research project before final submission of the work. These findings indicate that the search behaviour of millennial generation searchers may be problematic. Existing search models are appropriate; it is the execution of the model by the searcher within the context of the search environment that is at issue.

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How does information literacy relate to learning?

Mandy Lupton (2008) Information Literacy and Learning, PhD thesis, Queensland University of Technology.

This thesis explores the relationship between information literacy and learning. In formal education, students are frequently required to independently find and use information to learn about a topic, and information literacy is often claimed to be a generic skill and graduate attribute. However, to date; the experienced relationship between information literacy and learning has not been investigated. My primary research question was ‘What is the experienced relationship between information literacy and learning?’ The secondary research question was “What are the generic and situated aspects of information literacy?’

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How does informed learning go beyond information literacy?

Bruce, Christine S., Hughes, Hilary E., & Somerville, Mary M. (2012) Supporting informed learners in the 21st century. Library Trends, 60(3), pp. 522-545.

The idea of informed learning represents and advances understandings of information literacy that incorporate the broader concept of using information to learn: those understandings that go beyond the functional or generic information literacy paradigm and draw attention to the transformational, situated and critical aspects of information literacy. Using information to learn is a natural, but often implicit part of all formal and informal learning environments, and is a vital component of the lifelong learning agendas of many nations worldwide. Supporting informed learning requires conscious attention to the use of information in the learning process, by educators, managers, trainers, and policy makers in all sectors. It requires a far reaching response to policy directions involving a wide range of stakeholders.

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Multimodal literacy: What does it mean for classroom practice?

Maureen Walsh (2010) Multimodal literacy: What does it mean for classroom practice?, Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, Vol. 33, No. 3, 2010, pp. 211–239

Changes to literacy pedagogy are gradually occurring in classrooms in response to contemporary communication and learning contexts. These changes are diverse as teachers and educational researchers attempt to design new pedagogy to respond to the potential of digital technologies within existing curriculum and assessment policies. This paper discusses evidence from recent classroom research where 16 teachers worked in teams in nine primary school classrooms to develop new ways of embedding technology for literacy learning. Data from the nine case studies provides evidence that teachers can combine the teaching of print-based literacy with digital communications technology across a range of curriculum areas. Findings from this research confirm that literacy needs to be redefined within current curriculum contexts, particularly in light of the emergence of a national curriculum. New descriptors of language and literacy criteria are proposed within the framework of multimodal literacy, the literacy that is needed in contemporary times for reading, viewing, responding to and producing multimodal and digital texts.

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How might technology be transforming the literacies of children entering the classroom?

Joanne O’Mara, Linda Laidlaw (2011) Living in the iworld: Two literacy researchers reflect on the changing texts and literacy practices of childhood, English Teaching: Practice and Critique, December, 2011, Volume 10, Number 4,  pp. 149-159

Within the article we demonstrate, using media links and images, the ways in which our own children have begun to navigate digital devices and texts and to create new sorts of narratives that open possibilities for literacies in multiple ways, as “creators”, “designers”, and experts. We argue that, once translated into classroom practice, technological tools tend to be “domesticated” by practices that resist the transformative affordances of these tools, and may even provide barriers to student engagement and practice. Finally, we conclude the article by making some practical suggestions for creating opportunities for transformative technology use in education.

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How do teachers understand students’ digital learning at home?

Honan, Eileen (2012) A whole new literacy’: Teachers’ understanding of students’ digital learning at home [online]. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, The, Vol. 35, No. 1, Feb 2012: 82-98.

This paper reports on an analysis of data collected through interviewing four teachers about their understandings of young people’s uses of new digital technologies at home and outside school. The teachers display some understanding and knowledge of their students’ access to new technologies, the skills they have developed using these technologies and the learning that occurs when using digital texts. However, it seems that these teachers cannot perceive the learning in terms of any educational affordance, or cannot see that students’ knowledge of digital texts used outside of school could be useful or have any place in the literacy classroom. The paper concludes with some questions that may start teachers thinking in different ways about their incorporation of digital texts into their literacy classrooms.

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Can 3D virtual worlds be literacy learning environments?

MERCHANT, G. H. (2010). 3D virtual worlds as environments for literacy learning. Educational research, 52 (2), 135-150.

Although much has been written about the ways in which new technology might transform educational practice, particularly in the area of literacy learning, there is relatively little empirical work that explores the possibilities and problems – or even what such a transformation might look like in the classroom. 3D virtual worlds offer a range of opportunities for children to use digital literacies in school, and suggest one way in which we might explore changing literacy practices in a playful, yet meaningful context. From a Foucauldian perspective, the article suggests that social control of pedagogical practice through the regulation of curriculum time, the normalisation of teaching routines and the regimes of individual assessment restricts teachers‟ and pupils‟ conceptions of what constitutes literacy. The counternarrative, found in recent work in new litearcies (Lankshear & Knobel, 2006) provides an attractive alternative, but a movement in this direction requires a fundamental shift of emphasis and a re- conceptualisation of what counts as learning.

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A developmental approach to new media literacy?

Diana Graber (2012) New Media Literacy Education (NMLE): A Developmental Approach, Journal of Media Literacy Education 4:1 (2012) 82 – 92

Waldorf-inspired schools may have a successful formula for the development of ethical thinking and new media literacy skills. By providing rich sensory experiences and social interactions for students from the time they are very young, these schools are sowing the seeds of new media literacy without any technology in sight. The challenge they face now is taking the next step. In doing so, Waldorf-inspired could be the model for Ohler’s (2010) vision of a “whole school approach to behavior that sets the entirety of being digitally active within an overall ethical and behavioral context” (145). Maybe some of these practices will even find their way into traditional schools, giving more students a chance to experience a developmental approach to new media literacy that will equip them to be creative, capable, and ethical users of today’s technology, or technologies that are yet seeds in their imaginations.

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What are the legal risks facing young people using network sites?

David Lindsay, Melissa de Zwart, Michael Henderson, Michael Phillips (2011) Understanding legal risks facing children and young people using social network sites, Telecommunications Journal of Australia, Vol.61, No1 (2011)

Children and young people are increasingly participating in everyday use of Social Networking Sites (SNS), such as Facebook or MySpace, to the extent that such interactions have come to be seen as an essential part of growing up. To date, mainstream discussion and policy debates about young people and SNS have tended to focus on high profile risks associated with these activities, such as cyber-bullying and online grooming of children by adults. While not dismissing the potential risks of SNS use by young people, it is important to understand the potential benefits that may accrue from online social interactions, including the acquisition of social and technical skills that are likely to be important for future digital citizens. Moreover, it is also important not to ignore other potential, albeit less dramatic, risks that may arise from SNS use. This article focuses on the range of legal risks that children and young people may face in their everyday use of SNS.  The article concludes with an analysis of the research findings, and some suggestions as to how the popularity of SNS with young people may be used to engage students in learning about, and debating, the application of the law to online activities, especially the use of SNS.

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What does Peer-Based Learning in a Networked Age look like?

Mizuko Ito  (2010) Peer-Based Learning in a Networked Age, Keynote address for University of Michigan’s Enriching Scholarship 2010

Networked media offers an unprecedented opportunity to support learning that is highly personalized and learner-centered, driven by passionate interest and social engagement. But very few learners and educators are taking advantage of this opportunity. And the reason for this is that too often we separate the worlds of young people and adults, play and education. We hold onto the old boundaries between schooling, peer-culture, and home life, between what looks and feels like learning and education that we grew up with, and what looks and feels like socializing, hanging out, and playing. Even if those boundaries were never that real to begin with, in today’s networked world, they are even more untenable.

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Is photo sharing via handheld devices about communication or co-presence?

Mizuko Ito (2005) Intimate Visual Co-Presence, Position paper for the Seventh International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing, Tokyo, 11–14 September 2005

Photo sharing via handheld devices has unique limitations and affordances that differ from paper-based sharing and PC-based archive and moblog sites. Based on studies of camphone use in Japan, this paper suggests an emergent visual sharing modality that is uniquely suited to the handheld space. Intimate visual co- presence involves the sharing of an ongoing stream of viewpoint- specific photos with a handful of close friends or with an intimate other. The focus is on co-presence and viewpoint sharing rather than communication, publication, or archiving.

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How is Digital Media changing the way young people learn?

Mizuko Ito (2011) Mobilizing the Imagination in Everyday Play: The Case of Japanese Media Mixes, Draft of a chapter to appear in the International Handbook of Children, Media, and Culture, edited by Sonia Livingstone and Kirsten Drotner

The spread of digital media and communications in the lives of children and youth have raised new questions about the role of media in learning, development and cultural participation. In post-industrial societies, young people are growing up in what Henry Jenkins (2006) has dubbed “convergence culture”—an increasingly interactive and participatory media ecology where Internet communication ties together both old and new media forms.  My focus in this chapter is on outlining the contours of these shifts. How do young people mobilize the media and the imagination in everyday life? And how do new media change this dynamic?

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Hanging Out, Messing Around, and Geeking Out. How do kids live and learn with new media?

Mizuko Ito, Sonja Baumer, Matteo Bittanti, danah boyd, Rachel Cody, Becky Herr-Stephenson, Heather A. Horst, Patricia G. Lange, Dilan Mahendran, Katynka Z. Martinez, C. J. Pascoe, Dan Perkel, Laura Robinson, Christo Sims and Lisa Tripp (2009) Hanging Out, Messing Around, and Geeking Out, The MIT Press

Despite the widespread assumption that new media are tied to fundamental changes in how young people are engaging with culture and knowledge, there is still relatively little research that investigates how these dynamics operate on the ground. This book reports on a three-year ethnographic investigation of youth new media practice that aims to develop a grounded, qualitative evidence base to inform current debates over the future of learning and education in the digital age.

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How can Libraries Support Students Live and Learn with Digital Media?

C. Shoemaker, H. Martin, B. Joseph (2010) How Using Social Media Forced a Library to Work on the Edge in Their
Efforts to Move Youth From “Hanging Out” to “Messing Around,  Journal of Media Literacy Education 2:2 (2010) 181 – 184

In 2009, Mimi Ito released Hanging Out, Messing Around and Geeking Out: Living and Learning with New Media, a book composed of 23 related studies. These ethnographic studies interrogated how learning is being experienced by teens via informal uses of digital media. The title refers to the framework around how youth learn through digital media and networked spaces, a kind of learning that is quite often invisible to adults who often confuse it with playing, wasting time or, at worst, as undermining youth’s ethical values and social competencies. This collection of studies, however, finds that these three different modes of participation with digital media, in fact, support the development of a wide range of new media literacies. This is the challenge offered by Ito and the one recently taken up by the New York Public Library. This worked example is not designed to report the successes or failure of this pilot project. Rather, it is intended to explore and take a critical look at the obstacles encountered along the way and discuss how they were negotiated. Finally, it will leverage Ito’s framework to provide context to understand what it means to use digital media for learning and how to apply these lessons learned, both for this organization and others.

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Are Students More ICT Literate Than Their Teachers?

Saeid MORADI-REKABDARKOLAEI (2011) The Comparison of ICT’ Literacy between Teachers and Students and Presenting a Model for Development of ICT in Schools, Journal of  TURKISH SCIENCE EDUCATION Volume 8, Issue 4, December 2011

The major goal of the research is “the comparison of ICT’ literacy between teachers and students in Iran’s schools and presenting a model for development of information and communication technology literacy in schools”. A group sample of teachers, 367 and a group sample of students, 384 were selected through simple random sampling method. Deductive analysis of the data shows that for all five factors, there is a meaningful difference between ICT literacy of teachers and students. General result of the research shows that ICT literacy of students in all factors is higher and greater than teachers’.

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How Do Exemplary Science Teachers Use Technology?

Meral Hakverdi-Can,  Thomas M. Dana (2012) EXEMPLARY SCIENCE TEACHERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY, The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology – January 2012, volume 11 Issue 1

The purpose of this study is to examine exemplary science teachers’ level of computer use, their knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, how often they required their students to use those applications in or for their science class and factors influencing their decisions in using technology in the classroom. The sample of this study includes middle and high school science teachers who received the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science Teaching Award. Analysis of the survey responses indicated that exemplary science teachers have a variety of knowledge/skills in using computer related applications/tools. The most commonly used computer applications/tools are information retrieval via the Internet, presentation tools, online communication, digital cameras, and data collection probes. Results of the study revealed that students’ use of technology in their science classroom is highly correlated with the frequency of their science teachers’ use of computer applications/tools.

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Why Bother Theorizing Online Literacies?

Donna E. Alvermann (2008) Why Bother Theorizing Adolescents’ Online Literacies for Classroom Practice and Research? Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 52(1) September 2008

Teachers, teacher educators, and researchers cannot turn their backs on the inevitable. When school work is deemed relevant and worthwhile, when opportunities exist for students to reinvent themselves as competent learners (even rewrite their social identities), then literacy instruction is both possible and welcomed. But theorizing adolescents’ penchant for creating online content is merely a start—half the task. The other half involves asking the young people whom we teach, conduct research on and with, and teach about in our teacher education classes for their input into how, or for that matter whether, their online literacies should be embraced in the regular curriculum. As Kirkland so deftly reminded us, “The work of [literacy] instruction [is] as much about listening and learning as it is about telling and teaching”

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Can engaging students in digital image tagging help them with information literacy?

Zorana Ercegovac (2012) Digital Image Tagging: A Case Study with Seventh Grade Students, School Libraries Worldwide, Volume 18, Number 1, January 2012

Results of this exploratory study suggested engaging students in digital image tagging can have analytical and educational importance. The study was designed to gauge middle school students’capacities to describe digital images from two digital libraries that they used in an information literacy activity. When describing the image attributes, students (N=81) freely chose single words and multiword phrases to describe the interpretations, feelings, and questions evoked by the images. These descriptors were used to derive conceptual categories for the seventeen digital images. Results demonstrated that students acknowledged the responsibility of indexers to choose index terms for objects in collections that enable identification, organization and retrieval. The study sheds light on the potential to improve age-appropriate access to images by means of offering a multi-tiered approach to image representation. It also introduces a transparent approach to teaching information literacy concepts through creative thinking about the meaning of resources and their relationship in a broader information cycle context.

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Can a Virtual Reality Library help students develop information literacy skills?

Jamshid Beheshti (2012) Teens, Virtual Environments and Information Literacy, Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, Volume 38, Issue 3

As digital natives, the vast majority of teens are used to cellphones, text messaging, social networking sites and other forms of electronic communications and technologies. Though rooted in the digital world for many of their daily activities, teens lack basic information literacy skills for academic tasks and other demands. Specific instruction through the educational system may not be feasible, but it may be possible to build teens’ information competence through interactive virtual learning environments. Game-style virtual environments are highly motivating and engaging, providing opportunities for repeated practice and reward for persistence and achieving goals. A virtual reality library, VRLibrary, was constructed, collaboratively designed by young teens and adults, based on the metaphor of a physical library. Teens could wander the virtual space and browse links to age-appropriate websites presented as virtual books. VRLibrary was very positively received and succeeded at engaging teen users. A librarian avatar could be incorporated to provide help as needed with a user’s information seeking.

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How information literate are the Google generation entering university?

Fiona Salisbury, Sharon Karasmanis (2011) Are they ready? Exploring student information literacy skills in the transition from secondary to tertiary education, Australian Academic & Research Libraries

How information literate are the Google generation, and what information literacy skills do they bring to university? For university libraries, understanding student prior knowledge provides a foundation on which to introduce appropriate learning activities during the first year. In 2009, in response to a new pedagogical model in health sciences, La Trobe University Library measured and analysed the entry-level information literacy skills of first year health science students. The data was gathered during the first week of semester and 1,029 responses were collected. This paper examines the results of the survey and its implications for programs that broaden and build on students’ existing knowledge base.

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How can Google Maps support Japanese Language Learners?

Kiyomi Fujii, James Elwood, and Barron Orr (2011) Collaborative Mapping: Google Maps for Language Exchange, Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Central Association of Teachers of Japanese (CATJ22)

One of the many aspects of the burgeoning world of cloud computing, Web 2.0 (e.g. Google Maps), provides an engaging classroom tool that allows student production to be easily exhibited publicly in what Shulman (1997) dubbed the „capstone experience‟ of a learning endeavor. Through the use of Web 2.0 innovations that facilitate place-based communication and social networking, preliminary work suggests it may be possible to encourage language learners in two different countries to interact more, learn more, and engage further in cultural exchange on their own initiative. This paper explores a language exchange activity, using Web 2.0 technology, between university EFL (English as a foreign language) students in Japan and JFL (Japanese as a foreign language) students in America. The approach applies a traditional typing-and- composition lecture to an activity where students interactively and collaboratively map and describe the locations of favorite campus sites using Google Maps.

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How can Google Docs support an Information Literacy Assessment Program?

Ma Lei Hsieh, Patricia H. Dawson (2010) A University’s Information Literacy Assessment Program Using Google Docs, Brick and Click Libraries: Proceedings of an Academic Library Symposium (10th, Maryville, Missouri, November 5, 2010)

The Rider University academic community has adopted information literacy (IL) as one of the core learning objectives for undergraduates. The IL objectives are based on the ACRL IL Competency Standards for Higher Education. The Moore Library developed an online survey to assess students’ skills on the first IL objective—identifying various resources. The survey was administered to students who attended information research instruction sessions in fall 2009. In spring 2010, a new survey was developed to assess students’ skills on the second IL objective—developing keyword strategies and accessing relevant information from the most appropriate resources. The surveys for the IL objectives collect rich data sets to inform the University community of the IL competency of students. The information is valuable for librarians and faculty in planning and incorporating IL into the curriculum of academic departments.

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How do Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch compare?

Ian Utting, Stephen Cooper, Michael Kölling, John Maloney, Mitchel Resnick (2010) “Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch — A Discussion”, ACM Transactions on Computing Education (2010) Volume: 10, Issue: 4, Pages: 1-11

This article distills a discussion about the goals, mechanisms, and effects of three environments which aim to support the acquisition and development of computing concepts (problem solving and programming) in pre-University and non-technical students: Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch. The conversation started in a special session on the topic at the 2010 ACM SIGCSE Symposium on Computer Science Education and continued during the creation of the resulting Special Issue of the ACM Transactions on Computing Education.

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How can library resources be embedded into learning management systems?

Emily Daly (2010) “Embedding library resources into learning management systems: A way to reach Duke undergrads at their points of need”, College Research Libraries News (2010), Volume: 71, Issue: 4, Pages: 208-212

The article describes the effort of the library management at Duke University to make the university’s library easily accessible to students. Four librarians started to work in 2007 to add Library Links to Blackboard course sites, which received positive feedback from both faculty and students. The Subject Portals Task Force was created to create a more user-friendly template for the Libraries’ subject guides. Then, they decided to automate the inclusion of Library Guides. The author reveals that majority of students find the automatically and manually linked Library Guides to be useful to their research.

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What are the strengths of digital library education programs?

Elena Macevičiūte (2011) Education for digital libraries: library management perspective, Swedish School of Library and Information Science (SSLIS), University of Borås

The paper examines three Master’s programmes in digital libraries: Digital Library Learning (Oslo University College, Tallinn University, and University of Parma), Digital Library and Information Services, and Digital services – culture, information and communication (Swedish School of Library and Information Science). The author uses her direct experience of developing one of the programmes, collaborating with another and evaluating the third, for comparison of their conceptual basis, goals, curricula, students admission and study process, teachers experience, and several aspects of the students’ satisfaction. The author concludes that all three programmes build their programmes on the notion of change management, either through innovation, organizational change or project implementation. This perspective cultivated in library management for several decades since introduction of computer technology into libraries unites all three programmes on the common foundation of library management.

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How can Librarians prepare for mobile technology?

Angela Dresselhaus and Flora Shrode (2012) “Mobile Technologies & Academics: Do Students Use Mobile Technology in their Academic Lives and are Librarians Ready to Meet this New Challenge?” Information Technology and Libraries Forthcoming (2012)

In this paper we report on two surveys and offer an introductory plan that librarians may use to begin implementing mobile access to selected library databases and services. Results from the first survey helped us to gain insight into where students at Utah State University (USU) in Logan, Utah stands regarding their use of mobile devices for academic activities in general and their desire for access to library services and resources in particular. A second survey that we conducted with librarians gave us an idea of the extent to which responding libraries offer mobile access, their future plans for mobile implementation, and librarians’ opinions about whether and how mobile technologies may be useful to library patrons. In the last segment of the paper, we outline steps librarians can take as they “go mobile.”

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What does research say about how young people experience privacy online?

Alice E. Marwick, Diego Murgia Diaz, John Palfrey (2010) Youth, Privacy, and Reputation, Harvard Law School Public Law & Legal Theory Working Paper Series Paper No. 10-29

Much popular writing (and some research) includes descriptions of young people, online technologies, and privacy in ways that do not reflect the realities of most children and teenagers’ lives. Our review of the literature suggests that young people care deeply about privacy, particularly with regard to parents and teachers viewing personal information. Young people are heavily monitored at home, at school, and in public by a variety of surveillance technologies. Children and teenagers want private spaces for socialization, exploration, and experimentation, away from adult eyes. Posting personal information online is a way for youth to express themselves, connect with peers, increase popularity, and bond with friends and members of peer groups. Subsequently, young people want to be able to restrict information provided online in a nuanced and granular way.

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Do young people care about online privacy?

Hoofnagle, C., King, J., Li, S. & Turow, J., (2010How Different are Young Adults from Older Adults When it Comes to Information Privacy Attitudes and Policies? University of California, Berkeley.

In policy circles, it has become almost a cliché to claim that young people do not care about privacy. Certainly there are many troubling anecdotes surrounding young individuals’ use of the internet, and of social networking sites in particular. Nevertheless, we found that in large proportions young adults do care about privacy. The data show that they and older adults are more alike on many privacy topics than they are different. Public policy agendas should therefore not start with the proposition that young adults do not care about privacy and thus do not need regulations and other safeguards. Rather, policy discussions should acknowledge that the current business environment along with other factors sometimes encourages young adults to release personal data in order to enjoy social inclusion even while in their most rational moments they may espouse more conservative norms.

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What makes teachers effective in using technology as a meaningful pedagogical tool?

Peggy A. Ertmer, Anne T. Ottenbreit-Leftwich (2010) Teacher Technology Change: How Knowledge, Confidence, Beliefs, and Culture Intersect, JRTE, Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 255–284

Despite increases in computer access and technology training, technology is not being used to support the kinds of instruction believed to be most powerful. In this paper, we examine technology integration through the lens of the teacher as an agent of change: What are the necessary characteristics, or qualities, that enable teachers to leverage technology resources as meaningful pedagogical tools? To answer this question, we discuss the literature related to four variables of teacher change: knowledge, self-efficacy, pedagogical beliefs, and subject and school culture. Specifically, we propose that teachers’ mind- sets must change to include the idea that “teaching is not effective without the appropriate use of information and communication technologies (ICT) resources to facilitate student learning.” Implications are discussed in terms of both teacher education and professional development programs.

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Why is the UK banning ICT from schools?

The Royal Society (2012) Shut down or restart? The way forward for computing in UK schools, The Royal Academy of Engineering, January 2012

This report analyses the current state of Computing education in UK schools and sets out a way forward for improving on the present situation. The report states that the term ICT as a brand should be reviewed and the possibility considered of disaggregating this into clearly defined areas such as digital literacy, Information Technology and Computer Science. There is an analogy here with how English is structured at school, with reading and writing (basic literacy), English Language (how the language works) and English Literature (how it is used). The term ‘ICT’ should no longer be used as it has attracted too many negative connotations.

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How can School Librarians be Technology Integration Leaders?

Melissa P. Johnston (2011) School Librarians as Technology Integration Leaders: Enablers and Barriers To Leadership Enactment, Florida State University, A dissertation submitted to the School of Library & Information Studies in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Degree Awarded: Summer Semester, 2011

The highly technological environment of 21st century schools has significantly redefined the role of school librarians by presenting the opportunity to assume leadership through technology integration. School librarians are continually directed to evolve as leaders in order to address the needs of today’s learners and ensure that they are equipped with the knowledge and skills they need to succeed in the 21st century. The purpose of this study is to identify the enablers and barriers that accomplished practicing school librarians, or those who are National Board Certified, experience in relation to crafting a leadership role in technology integration.

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How is e-Learning Improving Secondary Schools in Kenya?

Mildred A. Ayere, F. Y. Odera and J. O. Agak (2010) E-learning in secondary Schools in Kenya: A Case of the NEPAD E-schools, Educational Research and Reviews Vol. 5 (5), pp. 218-223, May, 2010

The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) schools were set up as centres of excellence in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) integration, so that other schools could copy their model in e-learning. It was for this reason that they were provided with computers, e-materials, internet appliances and trained personnel. But to gauge their levels of success as e-learning centres there was need to compare them to other schools offering ICT education in Kenya. It was for this reason that this study compared the application of the e-learning in NEPAD and non-NEPAD schools in Kenya. Specifically, the study: Identified significant differences in levels of integration of ICT in curriculum subjects; surveyed the differences in use of e-materials in education research; examined availability of e-libraries; identified significant differences in academic performance of NEPAD and non-NEPAD schools attributed to e-learning. Based on these findings, it was recommended that schools involved in ICT education should intensify teacher facilitation and support teacher roles that are required in e-learning.

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How should Libraries prepare for eBooks and mobile devices?

Mandy Callow and Kaye England (2011)  Preparing your library for mobile devices m-libraries Conference, 11 – 13 May, 2011

This paper had its beginnings in a discussion at the USQ Library about the necessity, or not, to provide information on the Library‟s website about how eBooks can or cannot be used on mobile devices, specifically eBook readers. Varying sides in the discussion had differing opinions about our students‟, and staff, abilities in using mobile devices and eBooks. The systems team, who were involved in the development of a mobile Library interface, and were themselves proficient users of technology, felt that students and staff needed no instruction, whilst Information Services staff felt that they did.

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How can Information Literacy be assessed?

Megan Oakleaf (2008) Dangers and Opportunities: A Conceptual Map of Information Literacy Assessment Approaches, Libraries and the Academy, Vol. 8, No. 3 (2008), pp. 233–253.

The culture of assessment in higher education requires academic librarians to demonstrate the impact of information literacy instruction on student learning. As a result, many librarians seek to gain knowledge about the information literacy assessment approaches available to them. This article identifies three major assessment approaches: (1) fixed-choice tests, (2) performance assessments, and (3) rubrics. It maps the theoretical and educational assumptions on which these options are grounded and charts the dangers and opportunities of each assessment approach.

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Why is it more difficult for students to conduct research in the digital age?

Head, A.J. & Eisenberg, M.B. (2009). Finding context: What today’s college students say about conducting research in the digital age, Project Information Literacy Progress Report, February 2009

So far, we have found that no matter where students are enrolled, no matter what information resources they may have at their disposal, and no matter how much time they have, the abundance of information technology and the proliferation of digital information resources make conducting research uniquely paradoxical: Research seems to be far more difficult to conduct in the digital age than it did in previous times. In this progress report we share some of the perceptions that led to this conclusion and several of the trends in problem-solving strategies that have emerged. The findings and analysis presented here should not be viewed as complete, but rather as part of our ongoing research that will be explored further and tested more rigorously.

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Is there an international framework to measure Information Literacy?

Catts, Ralph; Lau, Jesus (2008) Towards information literacy indicators, UNESCO 2008

UNESCO, through its Information for All Programme (IFAP), decided to engage in the development of an international framework for measuring information literacy in order to demonstrate achievements at both international and national levels, and to better focus future efforts. A considerable effort has already been invested by many international organizations in “measuring the information society”. IFAP’s goal is not to replicate their work but to identify additional indicators to measure the development of knowledge societies and then to collaborate with organizations currently engaged in measurement activities in order to develop a coherent set of indicators. This paper provides a conceptual framework for the identification of indicators of information literacy (IL) and proposes a pathway for cost effective and timely development. It includes a definition of IL; a model that links information literacy with other adult competencies, including information and communication technology (ICT) skills; and a description of IL standards in education. Issues of IL equality and the implications of cultural diversity are also identified.

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To be truly effective, should Information Literacy (IL) and Media Literacy (ML) be pursued as complementary concepts?

Nieves Gonz ́alez Fernandez-Villavicencio (2010) Helping students become literate in a digital, networking-based society: A literature review and discussion, The International Information & Library Review (2010) 42, 124e136

Without necessarily taking sides in the debate, although expressing a preference for complementarity, the author contends that it is absolutely essential that all persons (not just students) learn to become both Information Literate and Media Literate in this digital world in which we now find ourselves. Additionally, the author contends that Web 2.0 and Social Networking tools, such as Facebook, Tuenti (in Spanish context), MySpace and Twitter, including the rich portfolio of applications they encompass, can substantially assist people in achieving that goal. The author presents a number of case examples to support her thesis, drawn largely from Spanish libraries and Spanish educational institutions that already are using Web 2.0 and Social Networking tools extensively to train people to become digitally competent.

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Why is Research in Educational Technology Essential to Inform Improved Learning in Schools?

Steven M Ross, Gary R Morrison, Deborah L Lowther (2010) Educational Technology Research Past and Present: Balancing Rigor and Relevance to Impact School LearningCONTEMPORARY EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY, 2010, 1(1), 17-35

Today, the exponential growth of technology usage in education, via such applications of distance education, Internet access, simulations, and educational games, has raised substantially the focus and importance of educational technology research. In this paper, we examine the past and present research trends, with emphasis on the role and contribution of research evidence for informing instructional practices and policies to improve learning in schools. Specific topics addressed include: (a) varied conceptions of effective technology uses in classroom instruction as topics for research, (b) historical trends in research approaches and topics of inquiry; (c) alternative research designs for balancing internal (rigor) and external (relevance) validity; and (d) suggested directions for future research. Attention is devoted to describing varied experimental designs as options for achieving appropriate rigor and relevance of research evidence, and using mixed-methods research for investigating and understanding technology applications in complex real-life settings.

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Is Twitter Effective for Language Learning?

Kerstin Borau, Carsten Ullrich, Jinjin Feng, and Ruimin Shen (2009) Microblogging for Language Learning: Using Twitter to Train Communicative and Cultural Competence,  Advances in Web Based Learning – ICWL 2009 (2009) Volume: 5686, Issue: 500

Our work analyzes the usefulness of microblogging in second language learning using the example of the social network Twitter. Most learners of English do not require even more passive input in form of texts, lectures or videos, etc. This input is readily available in numerous forms on the Internet. What learners of English need is the chance to actively produce language and the chance to use English as tool of communication. This calls for instructional methods and tools promoting ‘active’ learning that present opportunities for students to express themselves and interact in the target language. In this paper we describe how we used Twitter with students of English at the Distant College of Shanghai Jiao Tong University. We analyze the students’ messages and show how the usage of Twitter trained communicative and cultural competence.

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Does Technology Integration “Work” When Key Barriers are Removed?

Deborah Lowther, J. Dan Strahl, Fethi A. Inan, and Steven M. Ross (2008) Does Technology Integration “Work” When Key Barriers are Removed?, Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association in New York, NY March 2008

The effectiveness of Tennessee EdTech Launch (TnETL), a statewide technology program was investigated in this mixed-methods study. The goal of the program was to provide full-time, on-site technology coaches to prepare teachers to create lessons that engage students in critical thinking and use of computers as tools in order to increase learning. The study examined TnETL impact on student achievement, teachers’ skills and attitudes toward technology integration; use of research-based practices; and students’ skills in using technology as a tool. The study was implemented as “Launch” 1 and 2 cohorts that collectively involved 54 schools, 28,735 students and 1,746 teachers. Program effectiveness was measured via direct classroom observations, surveys, student performance assessments, focus groups, and student achievement analysis.

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Who should decide how students use technology? Youth-Driven vs. Adult-Driven Genres of Participation

Tripp, Lisa M., and Rebecca Herr-Stephenson (2009) “Making Access Meaningful: Latino Young People Using Digital Media at Home and at School.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 14.4 (2009): 1190-1207.

This research challenges the assumptions held by some that incorporating media into the classroom is somehow inherently motivating for students. Just as Seiter (2005) urges us to be skeptical of the drive and hype to incorporate computers and the Internet into schools, and recommends that we stay attuned to the kinds of economic and pedagogic pressures that teachers and schools face from often ill-conceived efforts to integrate technology into instruction, we suggest that similar concerns exist about incorporating media production into instruction, and we see little value in incorporating digital media into instruction in superficial ways. At the same time, we take Warschauer’s (2007) charge seriously, that we should “promote multimedia literacy and information literacy in schools in ways that simultaneously develop diverse students’ reading, writing, cultural literacy, and academic literacy…” (p. 44). Based on this research, we conclude that media education can help accomplish these goals if it includes production and analysis activities that connect to young people’s existing knowledge and interests in media and technology, although we recognize that doing so successfully requires a great deal of innovation—and resources—often amidst challenging institutional, social, and cultural constraints.

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How can digital backchannels support student participation?

François Bry, Vera Gehlen-Baum, Alexander Pohl (2011) Promoting Awareness and  Participation in Large Class Lectures: The Digital Backchannel Backstage, Proceedings of the IADIS

This article reports on the conception of a novel digital backchannel, code name Backstage, dedicated to large classes aiming at empowering not only the audience but also the speaker, at promoting the awareness of both audience and speaker, and at promoting an active participation of students in the lecture. The backchannel supports different forms of inter-student communication via short microblog messages, social evaluation and ranking of messages by the students themselves, and aggregation of student’s opinions aiming at increasing the students’ community feeling, strengthening the students’ awareness of and co-responsibility for the class work aiming at promoting the students’ participation in the lecture. The backchannel further supports immediate concise feedback to the lecturer of selected and aggregated students’ opinions aiming at strengthening the lecturer’s awareness for students’ difficulties.

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How do high-school students use information literacy skills to find and evaluate scientific information?

Heidi Julien , Susan Barker (2009) How high-school students find and evaluate scientific information: A basis for information literacy skills development, Library & Information Science Research

This study examined the relationship between curricula in secondary-level science classrooms, which support development of information literacy skills, and actual student skills. A vast body of research reflects deep concern with the level of information literacy skill development among secondary and post-secondary students. But even when educational curricula mandate skill development, many students are unable to demonstrate sophisticated information searching and critical evaluation skills. The findings of this study, which we based on analyzing information seeking tasks and conducting interviews with students in three biology classes in a large urban high school, demonstrated a similar lack of skills. Pressure on teachers to “teach to examinations”—that is, to focus on substantive content rather than on information literacy skills and information literacy skills deficits among teachers themselves—is a possible explanation for these results. The study is of particular interest to teachers of the curriculum applicable in the study context, but the broader implications of repeated indications of gaps in students’ information literacy skills are a significant indicator that schools must assume a larger responsibility for information literacy instruction. Leaving skill development to the post-secondary environment will not ensure that citizens are sufficiently skilled to participate fully in 21st century life, in workplaces or in their personal life contexts.

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What does a flexible multi-layered approach to information literacy look like?

Sophie McDonald, Jemima McDonald (2011) Information Literacy For Ubiquitous Learning,  in Information Online 2011 ALIA 15th Conference and Exhibition, 1-3 Feb 2011 

The University of Technology, Sydney (UTS) Library is developing a new approach to delivering information literacy (IL). This paper will discuss the 2010 UTS Library Fun Day and the strategic use of informal information literacy activities such as games, trivia and treasure hunts incorporating the use of Facebook, Twitter and YouTube. These give new and ‘old’ clients an opportunity to explore the Library and get involved with our dynamic new learning environment. The paper will also provide insight into how we are supporting researchers across the research life cycle, embedding ourselves in faculties and using Web 2.0 technologies in training to equip twenty first-century researchers with effective IL skills.

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Why should Librarians be on Twitter?

Forrestal, Valerie(2011) ‘Making Twitter Work: A Guide for the Uninitiated, the Skeptical, and the Pragmatic’, The Reference Librarian, 52: 1, 146 — 151

This article highlights the advantages of librarians and libraries establishing a professional or institutional presence on Twitter. This basic introduction to the web service also discusses innovative ways to shape your Twitter account into a successful professional development, reference, and outreach resource.

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How can Wikis be used in the 21st-century literacy classroom?

Sanden, S., & Darragh, J. (2011). Wiki use in the 21st-century literacy classroom: A framework for evaluation. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 11(1), 6-20.

In today’s Web 2.0 world, teachers are perpetually struggling with how to incorporate technology into the classroom effectively in order to meet the diverse literacy needs of 21st-century learners. Utilizing the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE, 2008) Position Statement addressing these needs, the theoretical framework of Lankshear and Knobel (2006), and work by Cummins, Brown, and Sayers (2007) emphasizing the possibilities of technology in achieving literacy goals, a framework by which to assess the incorporation of technologies in classrooms as a means to build students’ new literacies was created. Finally, as a specific example, the framework was applied to the use of wikis to illustrate the literacy learning potential of both wikis and other new technologies.

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What is the effect of Twitter on student engagement and grades?

R. Junco, G. Heiberger, E. Loken (2011) The effect of Twitter on college student engagement and grades, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, Volume: 27, Issue: 2, Pages: 119-132

Despite the widespread use of social media by students and its increased use by instructors, very little empirical evidence is available concerning the impact of social media use on student learning and engagement. This paper describes our semester-long experimental study to determine if using Twitter the microblogging and social networking platform most amenable to ongoing, public dialogue for educationally relevant purposes can impact college student engagement and grades. The results showed that the experimental group had a significantly greater increase in engagement than the control group, as well as higher semester grade point averages. Analyses of Twitter communications showed that students and faculty were both highly engaged in the learning process in ways that transcended traditional classroom activities. This study provides experimental evidence that Twitter can be used as an educational tool to help engage students and to mobilize faculty into a more active and participatory role.

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Twitter: Intellectual Stimulator or Attention Distracter?

Beaudin, L. & Deyenberg, J. (2011). Twitter: Intellectual Stimulator or Attention Distracter. In M. Koehler & P. Mishra (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2011 (pp. 139-147).

This paper describes how Master’s students completed an informal investigation of the potential of using Twitter to reshape classroom participation in a summer graduate course on Leadership and Technology. As a group of high- technology users, it was natural for the group to be open to exploring the possibility of any new tool to increase their engagement and learning. This paper describes the informal case study and exploration of the potential of backchanneling to enhance seminar presentations in a graduate education course.

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How do Search Engines Impact Literacy Learning?

Jann Carroll (2011) From Encyclopaedias to Search Engines: Technological Change and its Impact on Literacy Learning, Literacy Learning: the Middle Years, Volume 19, Number 2, June 2011

The concept of search engines opening up new worlds of information to our students is an exciting prospect, as long as we realise that the benefits are conditional and rest capriciously on a range of political, economic, technical and personnel related factors. It becomes, therefore, even more important that teachers of literacy equip students with online reading comprehension skills, critical thinking skills and continually provide opportunities for rich, varied and authentic literacy learning, to set students up for the successful future they deserve.

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How Can the Contextual Integrity Model of Privacy Be Applied to Personal Blogs?

Frances S. Grodzinsky and Herman T. Tavani (2010) Applying the “Contextual Integrity” Model of Privacy to Personal Blogs in the Blogosphere, International Journal of Internet Research Ethics Vol. 3 (12/2010)

In this paper, we analyze some controversial aspects of blogging and the blogosphere from the perspective of privacy. In particular, we focus on Helen Nissenbaum’s theory of privacy as “contextual integrity” and apply it to personal blogs, in general, and the case of the “Washingtonienne” blogger, in particular. We examine the question of whether personal blogs that are not password protected can be considered “normatively private contexts” according to Nissenbaum’s principles of privacy. We argue that they cannot. Using Nissenbaum’s original model, we conclude that privacy expectations for those who disclose personal information in such blogs are unrealistic. We also suggest that Nissenbaum’s expanded theory (see Nissenbaum, 2010) can inform the contemporary debate about privacy and blogging in a wide variety of newer technological contexts, in addition to personal blogs, and we encourage researchers to apply Nissenbaum’s model in those contexts.

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How can blogs help Librarians prepare for a Web 2.0 World?

Joanne de Groot, Jennifer Branch (2009) “LEARNING TO SPEAK WEB 2.0”: TEACHER-LIBRARIANS PLAYING WITH 21ST CENTURY TECHNOLOGIES, Asia-Pacific Conference on Library & Information Education & Practice, 2009

This paper presents the initial findings of a study that looked at students’ experiences with and reactions to learning about Web 2.0 tools. The research questions guiding this study were: How effective is a graduate-level course in helping teachers and teacher-librarians learn about and integrate new Web 2.0 technologies? And, What are the knowledge, skills, and attributes that these teachers and teacher-librarians develop as a result of undertaking this inquiry? Participants were students enrolled in a graduate-level technology course offered through the Teacher- Librarianship by Distance Learning program at the University of Alberta. The major assignment for the course was an inquiry on Web 2.0 and students were required to write blog posts as they explored 10 new tools. The major source of data for this paper came from the first blog posts, which were analyzed and then categorized into four main themes: feelings, experiences, design of the blog, and challenges. Although this paper only reports on the initial stages of the study, early analysis of all the data indicates that this course has been a great success in helping teachers and teacher-librarians learn about and integrate new Web 2.0 technologies into their personal and professional lives.

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Why is effective use of technology so sporadic in educational institutions?

David A. Georgina, Myrna R. Olson (2008) Integration of technology in higher education: A review of faculty self-perceptions, Internet and Higher Education 11 (2008) 1–8

The rush over the last ten years to democratize technology in higher education by pouring vast sums of money into the systematic development of technological infrastructures seems to have surpassed the ability of educational institutions to affect the successful transfer of skill and technological “know how” into the traditional classroom. The increase in technological infrastructures is a direct result of the movement to increase revenue generated by distance education through online courses (Brown, 2003; Ertmer, 2005; Garrison, & Kanuka, 2004; Katz & Associates, 1999; Schrum, Burbank, Engle, Chambers, & Glasset, 2005). The move from online distance education courses and programs towards technologically enhanced traditional classrooms and pedagogies has been much slower. The result of this slow movement seems to suggest that while low level use of technologically enhanced pedagogy is wide-spread, high-level use is more sporadic (Ertmer, 2005). The results of the study showed significant correlations between technology literacy and pedagogical practice integration. The results also revealed that faculty technology training may be maximized for the integration of pedagogy by using the training strategy of small group faculty forums with a trainer.

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How can Informed Learning and Informed Learners by supported?

Bruce, Christine S., Hughes, Hilary E., & Somerville, Mary M. (2012) Supporting informed learners in the 21st century. Library Trends, 60(3). (In Press)

This paper elaborates the concept of informed learning and locates it in educational, workplace and community settings. Drawing from existing research into people’s experience of information literacy, it identifies critical experiences of informed learners in each of these three settings. It also explores the support required in educational, community and workplace contexts which makes informed learning possible. Recognising strong implications for policy makers in different sectors, the paper presents a set of guiding principles for developing informed learning and learners.

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Do school Libraries need to be flipped?

David Loertscher (2008) Flip This Library: School Libraries Need a Revolution, Not Evolution, School Library Journal

What has to happen for school libraries to become relevant? One of the biggest business battles of our time is between Microsoft and Google. The two have very different business models. Microsoft believes that if they build it, we will come—and buy their product. Google’s approach is different: if they build it, we will integrate it into our lives. We use Microsoft products on their terms, but we use Google products—from iGoogle to GoogleDocs—on our terms, to construct whatever we want. What does this have to do with school libraries? A lot. If we want to connect with the latest generation of learners and teachers, we have to totally redesign the library from the vantage point of our users—our thinking has to do a 180-degree flip. In short, it’s time for school libraries to become a lot less like Microsoft and a lot more like Google.  With this notion in mind, I collaborated with two of my colleagues, Carol Koechlin and Sandi Zwaan, Canadian educational consultants, to develop an idea we’re calling the school library learning commons.

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What do recent studies show about literacy and technology in primary classrooms?

BURNETT, C. (2009). Research into literacy and technology in primary classrooms: an exploration of understandings generated by recent studies. Journal of research in reading (special issue: New developments in literacy and technology), 32 (1), 22-37.

Whilst much has been written about the implications for ‘literacy’ for practices surrounding digital technologies (Gee, 2000a; Luke and Carrington, 2002; Snyder, 1998), there has been surprisingly little research investigating new literacies in primary classrooms (Andrews, 2003; Labbo and Reinking, 2003: Lankshear and Knobel, 2003). This review examines the kinds of understandings that have been generated through studies of primary literacy and technology reported during the period 2000-2006. It uses Green’s distinction between ‘operational’, ‘cultural’ and ‘critical’ dimensions of primary literacy (Lankshear and Bigum, 1999; Snyder, 2001) to investigate the focus and methodology of 38 empirical studies. It explores ways in which research may be informed by assumptions and practices associated with print literacy, but also highlights the kinds of studies which are beginning to investigate the implications of digital texts for primary education. The paper concludes by arguing for further ethnographic and phenomenological studies of classroom literacy practices in order to explore the complex contexts which surround and are mediated by digital texts.

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How can Libraries develop strategies for phones, ipads and other mobile devices?

Munro, K., Stevenson, K., Stenson, R., Walker, W. and Fisher, C. (2011Planning for the mobile library: a strategy for managing innovation and transformation at the University of Glasgow Library. Serials: the Journal for the Serials Community, 24 . S26-S31.

Modern mobile devices have powerful features that are transforming access to information. Lippincott1 argues that as mobile devices such as smartphones become ‘key information devices’ for our users, libraries will want to have a significant presence in offering content and services that are suitable for this medium. This article outlines the process of development and implementation of a mobile strategy at the University of Glasgow Library. The most popular devices our users had were smartphones such as the iPhone, BlackBerry and those with the Android operating system, and also the iPad. What began as an investigation into a mobile interface to the library catalogue evolved into a comprehensive strategic review of how we deliver services now and in the future in this rapidly changing mobile environment.

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How is technology changing literacy?

Guy Merchant (2009) Literacy in virtual worlds, Journal of Research in Reading, Volume 32, Issue 1, 2009, pp 38–56

Introducing new digital literacies into classroom settings is an important and challenging task, and one that is encouraged by both policy-makers and educators. This paper draws on a case study of a 3D virtual world which aimed to engage and motivate primary school children in an immersive and literacy-rich on-line experience. Planning decisions, early experimentation and the experience of avatar interaction are explored. Using field notes, in-world interviews and observations I analyse pupil and teacher perspectives on the use of digital literacy and its relationship to conventional classroom literacy routines, and use these to trace the potential and inherently disruptive nature of such work. The paper makes the case for a wider recognition of the role of technology in literacy and suggests that teachers need time for experimentation and professional development if they are to respond appropriately to new digital literacies in the classroom.

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Is the best use of class time to provide facts or for problem solving?

Jose Antonio Bowen (2011 ) Rethinking Technology outside the Classroom, Journal of Music History Pedagogy, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 43–59

Knowledge is a lot cheaper than it used to be. It used to be that you went to university because books were expensive and you probably didn’t have any, so you went to hear lectures because that was the way you could get information. Then later there were libraries, and you still needed faculty to help you and guide you, and they knew things that books hadn’t yet published, so that’s why you went to a university. Now, almost everything is online. New teaching technologies will increasingly allow students to access the basic course information before they come to class. As teachers using these new technologies, our mission is to create homework and assignments that inspire them to interrogate the course content outside of class time. We can then rethink the type of work students do in class to develop more sophisticated intellectual engagement than taking notes from a lecture.

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Should Information Literacy be reframed as a Metaliteracy?

Thomas P. Mackey and Trudi E. Jacobson (2011) Reframing Information Literacy as a Metaliteracy, College & Research Librairies vol. 72 no. 1 62-78

Social media environments and online communities are innovative collaborative technologies that challenge traditional definitions of information literacy. Metaliteracy is an overarching and self-referential framework that integrates emerging technologies and unifies multiple literacy types. This redefinition of information literacy expands the scope of generally understood information competencies and places a particular emphasis on producing and sharing information in participatory digital environments.

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What skills do students, teachers, and librarians need to build media literacy?

Jennifer M. Henson (2011) Media Literacy, Department of Educational Leadership and Human Development University of Central Missouri

An important aspect of application of media literacy for teaching and learning is for teachers to step back, support, and encourage students to be inventive and creative with such tools. Beginning media literacy education in early childhood and including parents is critical, as parents are their teachers at home. Young children are exposed to media literacy though television commercials, hand held games, the Internet, and even movies. Parents are the fist people to explain to children what they see, hear, and understand from these different types of media. An important aspect of application of media literacy for teaching and learning is for teachers to step back, support, and encourage students to be inventive and creative with such tools. Teachers should be knowledgeable in media literacy skills and how to integrate them into the curriculum. The librarian has a key role in supporting the integration of media literacy into the curriculum. School librarians partnering with other educators to identify and teach the media literacy will enable students to be effective digital learners.

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What does literacy with digital media look like?

Ola Erstad (2010) Educating the Digital Generation, Exploring Media Literacy for the 21st Century,  Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy

The concept of a digital generation has been dominating the public discourse on the role of digital media in young people’s lives. Issues concerning a digital generation is closely linked to questions about how we develop an education system that is able to face the challenges of the 21st Century. A growing field of research, inclined to raise awareness of present and future challenges for our education system, is ‘media/digital literacy’. This article examines research within ‘generation studies’ and public constructions of young people and digital media. Further the article presents some developments within ‘new literacy studies’ and different aspects of ‘competencies for the 21st Century’. Next, the article reflects different approaches to studying these competencies, based on different empirical data, both from my own research and that of colleagues. Towards the end the important question of inclusion and exclusion is raised. The objective is to explore some issues of importance for future development of media literacy, the educational use of digital tools and critical considerations of a digital generation. A key part of the article is the elaboration of five dimensions representing different focus areas of research on school-based studies of media literacy.

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How can information literacy impact social capital?

Stuart Ferguson (2010) Social capital, lifelong learning, information literacy and the role of libraries, ANZCA Conference

The role of libraries in lifelong learning is examined, with specific reference to information literacy. The paper discusses the concept of social capital and the significance of lifelong learning to theories of social capital, which address issues of democratic health and civic participation, as distinct from economic issues such as the need to reskill the workforce. It argues that information literacy is a strong component of the learning process and that, if lifelong learning is to be fostered, so too must information literacy, which is part of the mission of many libraries, especially in the educational sector. The paper examines some of the most relevant issues facing libraries, such as the increasing reliance of many clients on Google, the relative lack of information literacy skills, even among younger clients with strong digital literacies, and the uptake of Web 2.0 for information literacy instruction. It concludes with a discussion of areas of research, such as evaluation of information literacy programs and questions about the transferability of information literacy skills from one context to another.

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How can blogs be used to develop students’ Information Literacy?

Christopher Chan, Dianne Cmor (2009) Blogging toward Information Literacy: Engaging Students and Facilitating Peer Learning, Reference Services Review (2009) Volume: 37, Issue: 4, Pages: 395-407

The purpose of this paper is to describe how a course-integrated blog is used to facilitate the learning of information literacy skills. It also reports on how the effectiveness of the blog is evaluated.  The blog is made the centerpiece of library support offered to a first-year politics course. With the support of the faculty member involved, students are required to post answers to weekly library research skills questions posted to the blog. The quality of student responses is examined using a simple assessment rubric. Also, a survey is administered to students to determine perceived usefulness. Findings The evaluation of blog posts shows that the quality of answers is generally very good. Students put effort into their responses and most give accurate and thorough answers. The results of the survey indicate that most students feel the blog is useful to their learning, both in terms of general information skills, and in terms of helping research the term paper for the course. These results reflect just one course at a single university, therefore it is not possible to use the findings to make generalizations. The study could serve as a starting point for further inquiry into the evaluation of blogs as a support tool. While others have reported on using blogs in a similar manner, this study also attempts a thorough evaluation of the efficacy of the blog in helping students learn. Given the positive results of this evaluation, librarians could consider using blogs and other Web 2.0 tools to engage students in their own learning.

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How can Digital Literacies make learning and teaching more effective?

Julia Gillen, David Barton (2010) Digital Literacies: A Research Briefing by the Technology Enhanced Learning phase of the Teaching and Learning Research Programme, English

The concept of digital literacies is fascinating both in its definition and its application. The term captures an arena of rapidly developing practices, as humans interact with technologies in new ways and for innovative purposes. Many time-honoured distinctions such as between producer and consumer, writer and reader blur or virtually disappear as new syntheses emerge. There are a number of valuable approaches to digital literacies that overlap with one another. Rather than look for clear distinctions to demarcate them, it is perhaps more helpful to look for continuities and commonalities.

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Digital Literacy or Digital Literacies?

Colin Lankshear, Michele Knobel (2008) Digital Literacies—Concepts, Policies and Practices, Peter Lang Publishing

This book brings together a group of internationally-reputed authors in the field of digital literacy. Their essays explore a diverse range of the concepts, policies and practices of digital literacy, and discuss how digital literacy is related to similar ideas: information literacy, computer literacy, media literacy, functional literacy and digital competence. It is argued that in light of this diversity and complexity, it is useful to think of digital literacies the plural as well the singular. The first part of the book presents a rich mix of conceptual and policy perspectives; in the second part contributors explore social practices of digital remixing, blogging, online trading and social networking, and consider some legal issues associated with digital media.

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What lies behind the rather different yet now converging approaches of Media Literacy and Information Literacy?

Sonia Livingstone, Elizabeth Van Couvering, and Nancy Thumim (2008) Converging Traditions of Research on Media and Information Literacies: Disciplinary, Critical and Methodological Issues, Department of Media and Communications London School of Economics and Political Science.

As broadcast, audiovisual, and print media converge with telecommunications, computing, and information systems, research on media literacy and information literacy could hardly remain separate. Indeed, despite their contrasting disciplinary backgrounds, theories, and methods, these research traditions have an increasingly similar object of inquiry: the public’s understanding of and effective engagement with media, information and communication technologies of all kinds. We advocate a converged or at least dialogical concept of media and information “literacies”, arguing that each tradition has much to learn from the other, although we accept that some differences must remain. Our focus is on two dominant approaches, media literacy and information literacy. What can each tradition learn from the other? Are they compatible? What methods and directions should be prioritized? In what follows, we compare these approaches in terms of definitions, origins, focus, methods, findings and purposes, our aim being to sketch the agenda for research on these converging literacies.

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Why should we move from ICT skills to Digital Literacy to best support students’ inquiry learning?

Dr. Leo Casey, Professor B. C. Bruce, Allan Martin, Abigail Reynolds (2009) Digital Literacy: New Approaches to Participation and Inquiry Learning to Foster Literacy Skills among Primary School Children, Centre for Research and Innovation in Learning and Teaching, National College of Ireland

Our theoretical review points to two contrasting conceptual approaches to literacy and specifically, digital literacy. The traditional view is to regard digital literacy as a set of specific technical skills such as the ability to use software and to operate devices – this is often referred to as a skills model of literacy. In contrast, more recent and increasingly accepted theories conceive of digital literacy in terms of context and social practice – this is a situated approach to literacy. The starting point of the framework for digital literacy was to reference the practices and activities that take place in the classroom. Obviously, the goal of classroom activity is to bring about learning and as such, we grounded our digital literacy framework in a conception of learning centered on the Inquiry Cycle. The term digital literacy has been popularised by Paul Gilster, who, in his book of the same name defined it as: the ability to understand and use information in multiple formats from a wide range of sources when it is presented via computers. The concept of literacy goes beyond simply being able to read; it has always meant the ability to read with meaning, and to understand. It is the fundamental act of cognition. Based on our review of theory we established the following definition of digital literacy in primary school contexts: Digital literacy in primary schools involves students and teachers using digital technology to enable, sustain and enrich all aspects of the inquiry cycle of learning as: ask, investigate, create, discuss and reflect.

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What is the best way to Authentically Assess an Information Literacy Program?

Karen R Diller, Sue F Phelps (2008) Learning Outcomes, Portfolios, and Rubrics, Oh My! Authentic Assessment of an Information Literacy Program, portal Libraries and the Academy (2008) Volume: 8, Issue: 1, Publisher: John Hopkins University Press Journals Division,Pages: 75-89

Librarians at Washington State University Vancouver helped the campus develop a method of assessing its General Education Program, a program based on university learning goals, one of which is information literacy. The assessment method, which relies on an electronic portfolio (ePortfolio) along with rubrics to evaluate work in the ePortfolio, enables the librarians to evaluate their information literacy program based on ACRL best practices guidelines, authentic assessment techniques, and the tenets of phenomenography. This paper will describe the library’s use of this assessment method, while looking at the advantages and disadvantages of this process for assessment.

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Can there be a future for learning organisations that neglect Information Literacy?

Bruce, Christine S. (2008) Informed learning : realising the potential of the information society in our 21st century world. In: International Conference on Libraries, Information and Society, 18-19 November 2008, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.

Information literacy has captured the imagination of information professionals. In the last twenty years significant advocacy has occurred putting information literacy issues high on the international agenda. This paper proposes informed learning (the kind of learning made possible by information literacy) as the key to realising the potential of the information society. The paper extends the concept of informed learning in the academic environment, conceptualising its broader role in the information society.

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Do students need Information Literacy skills when they have Google?

Karl Kingsley, Gillian M Galbraith, Matthew Herring, Eva Stowers, Tanis Stewart, Karla V Kingsley (2011) Why not just Google it? An assessment of information literacy skills in a biomedical science curriculum, BMC Medical Education, Volume: 11, Issue: 1, Publisher: BioMed Central, Pages: 17

The emerging networked technologies comprising the participatory Web, also known as Web 2.0, have profoundly changed the way information is produced, distributed, and consumed. Wikis, blogs, pod casts, video sharing, social networking sites, and other online applications offer innumerable opportunities for user generated content (UGC) and information sharing through what has been called an “architecture of participation”. Although these new participatory technologies provide rich opportunities for information sharing, they also pose new challenges for information seekers. Torrents of unfiltered information are uploaded to, and downloaded from, the Internet every day. In addition, users generate, remix, repurpose, store, and then share this digital information. As a result, Web users must continually balance the need for easy to find, readily available, reliable information and to avoid questionable, inaccurate, incomplete or deceptive online information.

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Why do we need to move towards a Transformative Pedagogy for School Libraries 2.0?

Marlene Asselin,  Ray Doiron (2008) Towards a Transformative Pedagogy for School Libraries 2.0, School Libraries Worldwide – Volume 14, Number 2, July 2008, 1‐18

Today’s students are no longer the people our education system was designed to teach. (Prensky, 2001). As more and more educators face the impact of Web 2.0, and as we see emerging what could be called a Learning 2.0 environment, it becomes urgent to extend teaching to meet the literacy and learning needs of the Net Generation. These ‘new’ learners and their expanding literacy needs have major implications for current models of school library programs which are largely focused on reading promotion and information literacy skills. We join others in recognizing the need to critically question long held tenets of school libraries and to create a new research‐based vision that will accord with the current economic and social directions driving educational change. This paper contributes to that process by proposing a framework for the work of school libraries in new times based on research in new literacies, today’s learners, and emerging concepts of knowledge.

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How can librarians use audience response technology to teach academic integrity

Christine Bombaro (2007) Using audience response technology to teach academic integrity, Reference Services Review Vol. 35 No. 2, 2007 pp. 296-309

Purpose – This paper seeks to explore the successes and challenges associated with teaching first-year students a session on plagiarism avoidance through the use of an audience response system. Design/methodology/approach – An audience response system was used to test first-year students’ knowledge of plagiarism. Quiz questions about academic honesty and plagiarism were administered, and were answered anonymously with hand-held remote control devices. The reporting feature of the technology was used to gather results of the answers to these questions, which will be used to improve the session in future years. Findings – Data gathered from the sessions indicated that this session helped students retain knowledge of plagiarism rules. Comments solicited about the session indicated that the students enjoyed the lesson, that they were better able to recognize problem areas in their own writing, and that the interactivity kept them focused on the lesson. Research limitations/implications – The session will have to be repeated over a number of years to determine whether there is a link between it and the number of plagiarism incidents on campus. Practical implications – This paper provides a practical and relatively inexpensive approach for teaching academic integrity to large groups of students.

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Why does society need media literacy?

Sonia Livingstone (2011) Media literacy: Ambitions, policies and measures, COST, September 2011

Theoretical and pedagogic ambitions for media literacy among audiences are often huge, with the promotion of media literacy heralding the promise of empowerment, critical literacy, democratic engagement and participatory culture in a thoroughly mediated world. But historically, these ambitions for media literacy have often foundered in the face of insufficient resources, policy commitment and problems of measurement. The measurement problems are attracting renewed interest now that Europe’s Digital Agenda demands a digitally literate citizenry, and now that the Audiovisual Media Services Directive demands three-yearly reporting on improvements in media literacy by all EU member states.

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Where are the ethical fault lines in the digital media?

Carrie James with Katie Davis, Andrea Flores, John M. Francis (2008) Young people, ethics, and the new digital media: A synthesis from the GoodPlay Project, White paper for the MacArthur Foundation Digital Media & Learning Initiative, The MIT Press Cambridge, Massachusetts

In late 2006, our research team at Harvard Project Zero launched a three-year project funded by the MacArthur Foundation. The goals of the GoodPlay Project are twofold—(1) to investigate the ethical contours of the new digital media and (2) to create interventions to promote ethical thinking and, ideally, conduct. In the first year of the project, we conducted background research to determine the state of knowledge about digital ethics and youth and to prepare ourselves for our empirical study. This report describes our thinking in advance of beginning our empirical work. We expect to revisit the framework and arguments that are presented here after our empirical study is complete.

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How can interviews demonstrate a lack of information skills among secondary students?

Heidi Julien, Susan Barker (2009) How high-school students find and evaluate scientific information: A basis for information literacy skills development, Library & Information Science Research xxx (2009)

This study examined the relationship between curricula in secondary-level science classrooms, which support development of information literacy skills, and actual student skills. A vast body of research reflects deep concern with the level of information literacy skill development among secondary and post-secondary students. But even when educational curricula mandate skill development, many students are unable to demonstrate sophisticated information searching and critical evaluation skills. The findings of this study, which we based on analyzing information seeking tasks and conducting interviews with students in three biology classes in a large urban high school, demonstrated a similar lack of skills. Pressure on teachers to “teach to examinations”—that is, to focus on substantive content rather than on information literacy skills and information literacy skills deficits among teachers themselves—is a possible explanation for these results. The study is of particular interest to teachers of the curriculum applicable in the study context, but the broader implications of repeated indications of gaps in students’ information literacy skills are a significant indicator that schools must assume a larger responsibility for information literacy instruction. Leaving skill development to the post-secondary environment will not ensure that citizens are sufficiently skilled to participate fully in 21st century life, in workplaces or in their personal life contexts.

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Does ICT peer coaching support teachers’ integration of ICT in their learning and teaching?

Ellul, R (2010ICT peer coaches: Techno-pedagogues of the twenty-first century, PhD Thesis, School of Education, RMIT University

This PhD by project investigates the ICT peer coaching programmes in place in three government schools in Victoria, Australia. Teacher professional learning is essential in supporting teachers to improve their practice and support a culture of continuous improvement across the school. The literature review highlighted that past methods of professional learning such as one-off workshops and off-site events are less effective to enable teachers to develop both ICT skills and pedagogical knowledge needed for 21st century teaching and learning. While peer coaching is increasingly offered as a professional learning strategy in schools, very little is available which focuses on peer coaching in an ICT context and whether it effectively supports teachers to integrate ICT into their classroom practice. This research examines whether ICT peer coaching as a professional learning strategy supports teachers’ integration of ICT into their learning and teaching programme. It uses a constructivist (naturalistic) inquiry methodology and a collective case study approach. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews, observations and an analysis of artefacts such as school strategic plans and policies.

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How does the iPad Contribute to Mobile Learning?

Melhuish, K. & Falloon, G. (2010). Looking to the future: M-learning with the iPad. Computers in New Zealand Schools: Learning, Leading, Technology , 22 (3).

This paper explores the potential affordances and limitations of the Apple iPad in the wider context of emergent mobile learning theory, and the social and economic drivers that fuel technology development. Against the background of effective teaching and learning, the functionality offered by the iPad, and its potential uses for learning, are discussed. A critical review of the way the iPad may support learning, that draws on learning theory, contemporary articles and e-learning literature, suggests that the device may offer an exciting platform for consuming and creating content in a collaborative, interactive way. However, of greater importance is that effective, evidence-driven, innovative practices, combined with a clear-sighted assessment of the advantages and limitations of any product, should take priority over the device itself.

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How does the iPad perform at college level?

Trina Marmarelli, Martin Ringle (2011), The Reed College iPad Study, The Reed Institute

When Apple announced the release of its iPad tablet in late January 2010, Reed College had just completed a semester-long study of the Amazon Kindle DX eReader in which students and faculty in three upper-division seminars used the Kindle to read, annotate, and discuss books and articles for the courses.1 While the Kindle DX failed to meet faculty and student needs in several important ways, most notably highlighting, annotation, and manipulation of texts, the study participants were optimistic enough about the long-term potential of eReader technology to prompt the College to continue its evaluation of emerging products. Consequently, during the fall semester of 2010, we undertook a study parallel in structure to the 2009 Kindle DX study. Students in one upper-division seminar, Political Science 422: Nuclear Politics — The origins and effects of the spread of nuclear weapons, used the iPad for all of their assigned readings. Since this was one of the courses included in the Kindle study and much of the reading list was unchanged, comparisons between student reactions were easy to make. We anticipated that a multipurpose device like the iPad would have different strengths and weaknesses than the Kindle DX, a dedicated eReader, and we were particularly interested in examining these differences.

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Can Informational Self-determination on the Internet Improve Online Privacy?

Simone Fischer-Hübner1, Chris Hoofnagle, Ioannis Krontiris, Kai Rannenberg, and Michael Waidner (2011) Online Privacy: Towards Informational Self-Determination on the Internet, Manifesto from Dagstuhl Perspectives Workshop 11061

While the collection and monetization of user data has become a main source for funding “free” services like search engines, online social networks, news sites and blogs, neither privacy-enhancing technologies nor its regulations have kept up with user needs and privacy preferences. The aim of this Manifesto is to raise awareness for the actual state of the art of online privacy, especially in the international research community and in ongoing efforts to improve the respective legal frameworks, and to provide concrete recommendations to industry, regulators, and research agencies for improving online privacy. In particular we examine how the basic principle of informational self-determination, as promoted by European legal doctrines, could be applied to infrastructures like the internet, Web 2.0 and mobile telecommunication networks.

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