Using the power of research to inform ICT integration in education

Posts tagged ‘media literacy’

How can Competency in Visual Literacy Enhance Student Learning?

Anneliese Tillmann (2012) What We See and Why It Matters: How Competency in Visual Literacy can Enhance Student Learning,  Honors Projects, Educational Studies Department, Illinois Wesleyan University

In today’s world, we use more visuals than ever before. Research suggests that the balance between words and images has shifted considerably calling for new forms of literacy (Brumberger, 2011). Visual literacy goes above and beyond the traditional concepts of reading and writing, expanding literacy to include visuals. The analysis and review of current visual literacy research suggests teaching visual literacy is necessary for students to become capable of navigating the visually driven world in which we live. The research highlights the importance of incorporating visuals into the literacy curricula and explores practical uses of visual literacy in present day society. Findings suggest that developing the ability to create images will help students better learn to decipher, understand and communicate with images. If there is a better understanding of how and why visuals are developed, then the use of visuals can become more effective, ergo enhancing student learning.

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What makes new literacies new?

Colin Lankshear and Michele Knobel (2012) ‘New’ literacies: technologies and values, article extracted and edited from the book “New Literacies” Third Edition, by Colin Lankshear and Michele Knobel. McGrawHill, Open University Press, 2011, chapter 3, pp. 51-92.

It is too easy to make light of ‘new literacies’ by saying things like: “Well, there are always newer ones coming along”. Such remarks suggest new literacies have a similar kind of life trajectory to an automobile: new in 2009, semi-new in 2010, and old hat by 2011. Against this kind of “that’s so yesterday” perspective, we suggest in this article that ‘new literacies’ are best understood in terms of an historical period of social, cultural, institutional, economic, and intellectual change that is likely to span many decades – some of which are already behind us. We associate new literacies with an historical conjuncture and an ascending social paradigm. From this perspective we suggest that the kinds of practices we currently identify as new literacies will cease to be ‘new’ once the social ways characterizing the ascending paradigm have become sufficiently established and grounded to be regarded as conventional. Furthermore we suggest that at the heart of the idea of new ethos stuff is the idea of technological change aligning with a range of increasingly popular values.

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How can can Multiliteracies be put into Practice?

D. Bruce Taylor, Lindsay Sheronick Yearta (2012) Putting Multiliteracies into Practice in Teacher Education: Tools for Teaching and Learning in a Flat World,  In Teacher Education Programs and Online Learning Tools: Innovations in Teacher Preparation,ed. Richard Hartshorne, Tina L. Heafner and Teresa Petty, 244-263 (2013)

While technology has always played a role in teaching and learning, with the advent of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs), schools have struggled to keep pace with Web 2.0 tools available for teaching and learning. Multiliteracies, a term coined by scholars who published under the name The New London Group in 1996, has helped provide a theoretical foundation for applying new texts and tools to teaching and learning; however, much of the scholarship around Multiliteracies remains in the academic and theoretical domain. The authors suggest a pedagogic framework or metastructure for applying Multiliteracies to teacher education and by extension to P-12 classrooms. They document Web 2.0 tools and discuss how they have used them in undergraduate and graduate teacher education courses.

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How information literate are students in the mobile environment?

Yarmey, K. (2011) Student information literacy in the mobile environment, Educause Quarterly Magazine, 34(1).

The results of the Scranton Smartphone Survey indicate that, while students are interested in using their phones for academic purposes, they still require guidance from educators to choose the most appropriate mobile resource and to evaluate mobile websites and mobile apps. As Agnes Kukulska-Hulme noted, “Learners tend to move between using desktop computers and mobile devices, and maybe touch-screen displays in public areas, often for different parts of a learning task.” The information literacy world would benefit from a closer parsing of when and why users switch between devices. The existing data nonetheless permit a few generalizations and recommendations: Information literacy instructors should become familiar with new search methods (such as quick response codes) to help students use them effectively and efficiently; Students should be encouraged to review a range of search results, particularly when searching for academic information; Information literacy instructors should help students understand how to evaluate information, especially when it is presented in a nontraditional form, such as a native app; Students may need assistance from educators in applying information literacy skills they have learned while searching on a laptop or desktop to the mobile environment.

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How can traditional literacies and media literacies be connected?

Joslyn Sarles Young (2012) Voices from the Field: Linking Learning: Connecting Traditional and Media Literacies in 21st Century Learning, The National Association for Media Literacy Education’s Journal of Media Literacy Education 4:1 (2012) 70 – 81

Today’s youth are failing to meet measures of traditional literacy, but they are quickly and easily acquiring skills using new tools for communication.  Many youth today fail in traditional measures of literacy, but participate in new forms of communication, and see those worlds of “literacy” and “communication” as completely separate from one another. Like many students, educators also tend to view literacy and communication as separate skill sets, so schools emphasize the testing regulations and demands focused on traditional literacy. As a result, today’s educational environment is moving away from the inclusion of media literacy education in academic literacy instruction even though youth need media literacy skills at an ever-increasing rate.

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Are young learners ready for virtual learning?

Leppisaari, I., & Lee, O. (2012) Modeling Digital Natives’ International Collaboration: Finnish-Korean Experiences of Environmental Education. Educational Technology & Society, 15 (2)

A new generation of young learners often described as digital native school children are attitudinally and technically equipped to employ social media as a social process in learning. However, few international virtual learning projects have been implemented and researched. This article examines a trial which aimed to combine viable technology with future pedagogic solutions for primary students from Korea and Finland and create an international collaboration model in virtual learning for environmental education. The results show various challenges of the operational model and suggest effective implementation strategies. The challenges were organisational, language, technical and collaboration barriers. The operational model illustrates possibilities of implementing cyber space pedagogy, visualization of knowledge using technology, cyber spaces for collaboration, and the motivational impetus provided by the model. This pilot study demonstrates the need to increase greater interactivity between teachers from the partner countries during the planning phase and provide more authentic interaction for inter-learner dialogue.

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Information Literacy or Information Literacies?

Louise Limberg, Olof Sundin, Sanna Talja (2012) Three Theoretical Perspectives on Information Literacy, HumanIT: Journal for Information Technology Studies as a Human Science, vol.11. issue 2

This article discusses alternative theoretical understandings of information literacy and their consequences for educational practices. Three theoretical perspectives are presented that represent different understandings of information literacy; phenomenography, sociocultural theory and Foucauldian discourse analysis. According to all three theoretical lenses, information literacy is embedded in and shaped by as well as shaping the context in which it is embedded. In consequence, we propose the notion of information literacies in the plural. The three perspectives offer different insights on information literacies, on both empirical and theoretical levels. However, a sociocultural perspective also involves particular theoretical assumptions about the ways in which digital environments and tools reshape conditions for learning.

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How does YouTube help teachers and students cultivate cross-cultural exchanges and understandings?

Kristen Bloom & Kelly Marie Johnston (2010) Digging into YouTube Videos: Using Media Literacy and Participatory Culture to Promote Cross-Cultural Understanding, Journal of Media Literacy Education 2:2 (2010) 113 – 123

The role of the educator, as a result of new media, has changed substantially from one that is focused on the one-way transfer of information to one that trains students how to participate in digital environments with intelligence, skill, and literacy. It is our contention that educators and learners can exploit this media to engage in cross-cultural exchange and ultimately greater cross- cultural understanding. This paper will elaborate on the ways in which teachers and students can use YouTube as a site for cultivating cross-cultural exchange and understanding by establishing video-pal relationships with other students from outside their home culture. Digital exchanges can help students and teachers build connections with their colleagues abroad and to develop an international perspective.

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How does Vlogging on Youtube support collective problem-solving and informal learning?

Lindgren, S. (2011). ”Collective problem-solving and informal learning in networked publics. Reading vlogging networks on YouTube as knowledge communities ”. In E. Dunkels, G. Frånberg & C. Hällgren (Eds.) Interactive Media Use and Youth: Learning, Knowledge Exchange and Behavior (pp. 50-64). Hershey: IGI Global.

Social network sites like Facebook or MySpace, allow their users to create a public (or semi-public) profile and to articulate their relations to other users in a way that is visible to anyone accessing their profile. As these sites have become increasingly popular, many other sites – like YouTube – have started to adopt SNS features. According to Cheng et al (2008, p. 235), YouTube is indeed a social media application. This can be illustrated of how social networks are established on the vlogging arena on YouTube. To be able to assess this issue in a smaller scale, vloggers with a specific interest – in this case the urban art form of free running, so called parkour – were selected.

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How are YouTube Fridays providing students with open-ended problem solving practice?

Matthew W. Liberatore, Charles R. Vestal, Andrew M. Herring (2012) YouTube Fridays: Student led development of engineering estimate problems, Advances n Engineering Education, Winter 2012, Volume 3, Number 1

YouTube Fridays devotes a small fraction of class time to student-selected videos related to the course topic, e.g., thermodynamics. The students then write and solve a homework-like problem based on the events in the video. Three recent pilots involving over 300 students have developed a database of videos and questions that reinforce important class concepts like energy balances and phase behavior. Student evaluations found a vast majority (79%) of the students felt better at relating real world phenomena to thermodynamics from participating in YouTube Fridays. Overall, YouTube Fridays is a student led activity that provides practice of problem solving on open-ended, course related questions.

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How is YouTube used for Teaching and Learning Chemistry?

Joseph Lichter (2012) Using YouTube as a Platform for Teaching and Learning Solubility Rules, Journal of Chemical Education

Two challenges faced by university instructors in introductory chemistry courses are the need to keep the course material connected with technology that students are using as well as engaging students in a manner that keeps them interested in the subject. A case study is described where students in a general chemistry course were challenged to create and upload a video to the video-sharing Web site YouTube that could be used to learn solubility rules (which ions combine to form insoluble precipitates in dilute aqueous solutions). An assessment of the assignment was done by comparing results on a common exam question for courses with and without the assignment, as well as a follow up question on the final exam, survey questions, and comments. Results suggest that the solubility rules YouTube video assignment improved student learning of the rules and promoted interest in chemistry among a majority of the students involved in the activity.

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What is the Potential of Google+ as a Media Literacy Tool?

James N. Cohen (2012) The Potential of Google+ as a Media Literacy Tool, The National Association for Media Literacy Education’s Journal of Media Literacy Education 4:1 (2012) 93 – 96

Civic engagement is rarely the initial intent of a social media user. According to a 2011 Pew Internet Life study, nearly two-thirds of social media users are online to keep in touch with friends and family while only a very small percentage (near 5%) utilize it for learning. The results of these studies have inspired media literacy scholars and educators to empower social media users to approach the online tools with a mind toward information sharing. The potential in social media is limitless, but many users have to be made aware of the possibilities. Educators in particular should be informed of the civic functions Google+ offers the user.

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How is Media Literacy approached in Germany?

Gerard Tulodziecki, Silke Grafe (2012) Approaches to Learning with Media and Media Literacy Education – Trends and Current Situation in Germany, The National Association for Media Literacy Education’s Journal of Media Literacy Education 4:1 (2012) 44 – 60

German approaches to media literacy education are concerned with the questions, how the variety of media can be used in a meaningful way for learning and teaching and what educational tasks result from the extensive use of media. Considering these questions there are various conceptual ideas, research and development projects as well as implementations into practice in the field of education and teacher training. The development and the current situation of approaches to media literacy education in Germany are described and discussed in the article. Thereby, the focus is on media literacy education in schools.

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How does Bookmapping bring together literature and web 2.0 mapping technology?

Terence W. Cavanaugh and Jerome Burg (2011) Bookmapping: Lit Trips and Beyond,  ISTE (International Society for Technology in Education)

With today’s technology and our students’ abilities, it is important to allow them to “construct content rather than just consuming it” (Milne, 2006, p. 11.2). One way to do this is to have students create their own bookmaps from their reading. By analyzing the texts they are reading to determine the locations for the story’s setting, students can then use that information to create placemarks on a digital map, adding to it comments, images, and quotations. Bookmapping, which brings together literature and web 2.0 mapping technology, can engage students in the books they read while giving them a better understanding of the setting, characters, and other story elements.

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Can engaging students in digital mapping of local history increase their civic engagement?

Katharyne Mitchell and Sarah Elwood (2012)  Engaging Students through Mapping Local History, Journal of Geography 111: 148–157

This article argues that the integration of local history and geography through collaborative digital mapping can lead to greater interest in civic participation by early adolescent learners. In the study, twenty-nine middle school students were asked to research, represent, and discuss local urban sites of historical significance on an interactive Web platform. As students learned more about local community events, people, and historical forces, they became increasingly engaged with the material and enthusiastic about making connections to larger issues and processes. In the final session, students expressed interest in participating in their own communities through joining nonprofit organizations and educating others about community history and daily life.

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How negative is media multitasking on the Well-Being of 8- to 12-Year-Old Girls?

Pea, R., Nass, C., Meheula, L., Rance, M., Kumar, A., Bamford, H., Nass, M., Simha, A., Stillerman, B., Yang, S., & Zhou, M. (2012). Media Use, Face-to-Face Communication, Media Multitasking, and Social Well-Being Among 8- to 12-Year-Old Girls. Developmental Psychology. Advance online publication.

An online survey of 3,461 North American girls ages 8–12 conducted in the summer of 2010 through Discovery Girls magazine examined the relationships between social well-being and young girls’ media use—including video, video games, music listening, reading/homework, e-mailing/posting on social media sites, texting/instant messaging, and talking on phones/video chatting—and face-to-face communication. This study introduced both a more granular measure of media multitasking and a new comparative measure of media use versus time spent in face-to-face communication. Regression analyses indicated that negative social well-being was positively associated with levels of uses of media that are centrally about interpersonal interaction (e.g., phone, online communication) as well as uses of media that are not (e.g., video, music, and reading). Video use was particularly strongly associated with negative social well-being indicators. Media multitasking was also associated with negative social indicators. Conversely, face-to-face communication was strongly associated with positive social well-being. Cell phone ownership and having a television or computer in one’s room had little direct association with children’s socioemotional well-being. We hypothesize possible causes for these relationships, call for research designs to address causality, and outline possible implications of such findings for the social well-being of younger adolescents.

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How do players manage moral concerns to make video game violence enjoyable?

Christoph Klimmt, Hannah Schmid, Andreas Nosper, Tilo Hartmann, Peter Vorderer (2006) How players manage moral concerns to make video game violence enjoyable, Communications Volume: 31, Issue: 3, Publisher: De Gruyter, Pages: 309-328

Research on video game violence has focused on the impact of aggression, but has so far neglected the processes and mechanisms underlying the enjoyment of video game violence. The present contribution examines a specific process in this context, namely players strategies to cope with moral concern that would (in real-life settings) arise from violent actions. Based on Banduras (2002) theory of moral disengagement, we argue that in order to maintain their enjoyment of game violence, players find effective strategies to avoid or cope with the moral conflict related to their violent behaviors in the game world (moral management). Exploratory interviews with ten players of violent video games revealed some relevance of moral reasoning to their game enjoyment, and several strategies that help players to manage moral concern. Most importantly, respondents referred to the game-reality distinction and their focus on winning the game when explaining how violent action is a by-product of good performance. Findings are discussed in light of further theorizing on moral management and potential links to the media violence debate.

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Should Librarians teach students how to Google?

Sorensen, Charlene; Dahl, Candice (2008) Google in the research and teaching of instruction librarians, Journal of Academic Librarianship v.34, no.6, 482-488

This exploratory study assesses the differences and similarities between how instruction librarians in Western Canada use Google and how they instruct students to use it. Survey results indicate that these librarians do use Google but can be influenced by faculty to present Google negatively to students.

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Why do we need new critical approaches to information technology in librarianship?

Gloria J. Leckie, John E. Buschman (2009) Information technology in librarianship : new critical approaches, Libraries Unlimited

In the last 15 years, the ground – both in terms of technological advance and in the sophistication of analyses of technology – has shifted. At the same time, librarianship as a field has adopted a more skeptical perspective; libraries are feeling market pressure to adopt and use new innovations; and their librarians boast a greater awareness of the socio-cultural, economic, and ethical considerations of information and communications technologies. Within such a context, a fresh and critical analysis of the foundations and applications of technology in librarianship is long overdue.

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How can technology enhance learning and teaching?

Price, Linda and Kirkwood, Adrian (2011). Enhancing professional learning and teaching through technology: a synthesis of evidence-based practice among teachers in higher education. Higher Education Academy, York, UK.

Technology has the potential effectively to support learning and teaching in a number of situations. However, the manner in which the technology was used and aligned with the goals and aspirations of the learner was an important consideration. Practitioners do not appear to be capitalising on existing evidence. More emphasis appears to be placed on generating new evidence rather than evidence driving new practices. Teachers’ beliefs and practices are influential in determining how they engage with technology. The context of both the student and the teacher is also influential in determining the successfulness of learning and teaching practices with technology. Academic developers have key roles in supporting practitioners in engaging with relevant evidence while also supporting the development of their beliefs and practices concerning learning and teaching with technology. Policy makers have key roles in determining the integration of technology, as they influence the culture within which practitioners operate and hence their actions.

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What is the role of blogging for twenty first century professional academic practitioners?

Kirkup, Gill (2010). Academic blogging, academic practice and academic identity. London Review of Education, 8(1), pp. 75–84.

This paper describes a small scale study which investigates the role of blogging in professional academic practice in higher education. It draws on interviews with a small sample of academics (scholars, researchers and teachers) who have blogs and on the author’s own reflections on blogging to investigate the professional benefits and costs of academic blogging. It argues that blogging offers a new genre of authoritative and accessible academic textual production, and in this way is changing the nature of what it is to be a twenty first century academic practitioner.

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What is the Potential of Google+ as a Media Literacy Tool?

J. Cohen (2012) The Potential of Google+ as a Media Literacy Tool, Journal of Media Literacy Education 4:1 (2012) 93 – 96

Utilizing Google+ as a media literacy tool means understanding its use as an access point to analyze messages to engage critical thinking about everyday issue people face. Google+ combines the elements of long-form posts, following others, reposting, video and images sharing in one social network. The following is a discussion of how to utilize the features available on Google+ to benefit media literacy.

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Can a Virtual World be culturally sensitive and support language learning?

Michael Gardner, Adela Ganem-Gutierrez, John Scott, Bernard Horan and Vic Callaghan (2011) Immersive Education Spaces Using Open Wonderland: From Pedagogy Through to Practice , Published as chapter in IGI Global book ““Multi-User Virtual Environments for the Classroom: Practical Approaches to Teaching in Virtual Worlds”, 2011

This chapter presents a case study of the use of a Virtual World environment in UK Higher Education. It reports on the activities carried out as part of the SIMiLLE (System for an Immersive and Mixed reality Language Learning) project to create a culturally sensitive virtual world to support language learning (funded by the UK government JISC programme). The project built on an earlier project called MiRTLE, which created a mixed-reality space for teaching and learning. The aim of the SIMiLLE project was to investigate the technical feasibility and pedagogical value of using virtual environments to provide a realistic socio- cultural setting for language learning interaction. The chapter begins by providing some background information on the Wonderland platform and the MiRTLE project, and then outlines the requirements for SIMiLLE, and how these requirements were supported through the use of a virtual world based on the Open Wonderland virtual world platform. We then present the framework used for the evaluation of the system, with a particular focus on the importance of incorporating pedagogy into the design of these systems, and how we can support good practice with the ever-growing use of 3D virtual environments in formalised education. Finally we summarise the results from the formative and summative evaluations, and present the lessons learnt which can help inform future uses of immersive education spaces within Higher Education.

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How do second graders perceive blogging?

Jenny Tanaka (2012) How do second graders perceive blogging? Scholarly communication: An action research study. Powerpoint presented at the 17th Annual Technology, Colleges, and Community Worldwide Online Conference.

An action research study was conducted at a public elementary school in Hawaii, where second grade students’ perceptions of blogging for the first-time were gathered. Prior to the implementation period, students were introduced to basic computer skills that are necessary for blogging. Field notes and observations, daily reflection, a small group interview, and a post survey were used to collect data. Results revealed that students were very receptive and positive toward blogs. In fact, although blogging was not required outside of class time, some were blogging at home and even on vacation in another state and country. The students were not afraid to share their work, which portrayed a sense of authorship and ownership of their work, rather than apprehensiveness. However, some students encountered challenges with some basic computer skills, such as keyboarding and computer navigation. Despite some setbacks, this action research project yielded valuable feedback that could help the researcher and other educators to integrate blogging throughout many content areas.

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How does the millennial generation search for information?

Taylor, A. (2012) “A study of the information search behaviour of the millennial generation” Information Research17(1) paper 508

Statistically significant findings suggest that millennial generation Web searchers proceed erratically through an information search process, make only a limited attempt to evaluate the quality or validity of information gathered, and may perform some level of ‘backfilling’ or adding sources to a research project before final submission of the work. These findings indicate that the search behaviour of millennial generation searchers may be problematic. Existing search models are appropriate; it is the execution of the model by the searcher within the context of the search environment that is at issue.

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How does information literacy relate to learning?

Mandy Lupton (2008) Information Literacy and Learning, PhD thesis, Queensland University of Technology.

This thesis explores the relationship between information literacy and learning. In formal education, students are frequently required to independently find and use information to learn about a topic, and information literacy is often claimed to be a generic skill and graduate attribute. However, to date; the experienced relationship between information literacy and learning has not been investigated. My primary research question was ‘What is the experienced relationship between information literacy and learning?’ The secondary research question was “What are the generic and situated aspects of information literacy?’

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How can Libraries adopt ‘Information in Context’ structures to facilitate organizational learning?

Somerville, M.M.& Howard,Z. (2010) Information in context: Co- designing workplace structures and systems for organizational learning. Information Research, 15(4).

This paper discusses an ‘information in context’ design project at Auraria Library in Denver, Colorado which aims to collaboratively create organizational structures and communication systems with and for library employees. This project resulted in several of the co-designed knowledge initiatives being implemented within Auraria Library to enhance communication, decision making and planning systems. These included both face to face and technology enabled initiatives such as such as ‘brown bag’ lunches to a new wiki based intranet system. This project advances professional practice through better understanding how to create workplace contexts that cultivate individual and collective learning through situated ‘information in context’ experiences. An appreciative framework was developed which values information sharing and enables knowledge creation through shared leadership.

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How does informed learning go beyond information literacy?

Bruce, Christine S., Hughes, Hilary E., & Somerville, Mary M. (2012) Supporting informed learners in the 21st century. Library Trends, 60(3), pp. 522-545.

The idea of informed learning represents and advances understandings of information literacy that incorporate the broader concept of using information to learn: those understandings that go beyond the functional or generic information literacy paradigm and draw attention to the transformational, situated and critical aspects of information literacy. Using information to learn is a natural, but often implicit part of all formal and informal learning environments, and is a vital component of the lifelong learning agendas of many nations worldwide. Supporting informed learning requires conscious attention to the use of information in the learning process, by educators, managers, trainers, and policy makers in all sectors. It requires a far reaching response to policy directions involving a wide range of stakeholders.

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Does presenting the same material in written and spoken form really benefit learning and understanding?

Slava Kalyuga, Paul Chandler, John Sweller (2004Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Fall 2004 vol. 46 no. 3 567-581

It is frequently assumed that presenting the same material in written and spoken form benefits learning and understanding. The present work provides a theoretical justification based on cognitive load theory, and empirical evidence based on controlled experiments, that this assumption can be incorrect. From a theoretical perspective, it is suggested that if learners are required to coordinate and simultaneously process redundant material such as written and spoken text, an excessive working memory load is generated. Three experiments involving a group of 25 technical apprentices compared the effects of simultaneously presenting the same written and auditory textual information as opposed to either temporally separating the two modes or eliminating one of the modes. The first two experiments demonstrated that nonconcurrent presentation of auditory and visual explanations of a diagram proved superior, in terms of ratings of mental load and test scores, to a concurrent presentation of the same explanations when instruction time was constrained. The 3rd experiment demonstrated that a concurrent presentation of identical auditory and visual technical text (without the presence of diagrams) was significantly less efficient in comparison with an auditory-only text. Actual or potential applications of this research include the design and evaluation of multimedia instructional systems and audiovisual displays.

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Multimodal literacy: What does it mean for classroom practice?

Maureen Walsh (2010) Multimodal literacy: What does it mean for classroom practice?, Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, Vol. 33, No. 3, 2010, pp. 211–239

Changes to literacy pedagogy are gradually occurring in classrooms in response to contemporary communication and learning contexts. These changes are diverse as teachers and educational researchers attempt to design new pedagogy to respond to the potential of digital technologies within existing curriculum and assessment policies. This paper discusses evidence from recent classroom research where 16 teachers worked in teams in nine primary school classrooms to develop new ways of embedding technology for literacy learning. Data from the nine case studies provides evidence that teachers can combine the teaching of print-based literacy with digital communications technology across a range of curriculum areas. Findings from this research confirm that literacy needs to be redefined within current curriculum contexts, particularly in light of the emergence of a national curriculum. New descriptors of language and literacy criteria are proposed within the framework of multimodal literacy, the literacy that is needed in contemporary times for reading, viewing, responding to and producing multimodal and digital texts.

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How do teachers understand students’ digital learning at home?

Honan, Eileen (2012) A whole new literacy’: Teachers’ understanding of students’ digital learning at home [online]. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, The, Vol. 35, No. 1, Feb 2012: 82-98.

This paper reports on an analysis of data collected through interviewing four teachers about their understandings of young people’s uses of new digital technologies at home and outside school. The teachers display some understanding and knowledge of their students’ access to new technologies, the skills they have developed using these technologies and the learning that occurs when using digital texts. However, it seems that these teachers cannot perceive the learning in terms of any educational affordance, or cannot see that students’ knowledge of digital texts used outside of school could be useful or have any place in the literacy classroom. The paper concludes with some questions that may start teachers thinking in different ways about their incorporation of digital texts into their literacy classrooms.

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How does mobile text messaging allow youth to overcome adult-control?

Mizuko Ito, Daisuke Okabe (2004) Intimate Connections: Contextualizing Japanese Youth and Mobile Messaging, Forthcoming in Richard Harper, Leysia Palen and Alex Taylor Eds., Inside the Text: Social Perspectives on SMS in the Mobile Age

This paper describes social, cultural, and historical contexts that structure current mobile text messaging practices of Japanese youth. First are ways in which mobile messaging has been structured by the power geometries of existing places of home, school, and public places. Second, the paper presents the central social context in which youth peer messaging practice is situated, that of the intimate peer group. Finally, the paper describes how these practices are situated in a postwar history of intergenerational struggle and cultural politics over youth street and communication cultures. Our central argument is that youth technology use is driven not only by certain psychological and developmental imperatives, but also by youths’ position in historically specific social structures. Mobile messaging provides a mechanism through which youth can overcome some of the adult-controlled power structures that govern their everyday lives.

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A developmental approach to new media literacy?

Diana Graber (2012) New Media Literacy Education (NMLE): A Developmental Approach, Journal of Media Literacy Education 4:1 (2012) 82 – 92

Waldorf-inspired schools may have a successful formula for the development of ethical thinking and new media literacy skills. By providing rich sensory experiences and social interactions for students from the time they are very young, these schools are sowing the seeds of new media literacy without any technology in sight. The challenge they face now is taking the next step. In doing so, Waldorf-inspired could be the model for Ohler’s (2010) vision of a “whole school approach to behavior that sets the entirety of being digitally active within an overall ethical and behavioral context” (145). Maybe some of these practices will even find their way into traditional schools, giving more students a chance to experience a developmental approach to new media literacy that will equip them to be creative, capable, and ethical users of today’s technology, or technologies that are yet seeds in their imaginations.

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What is the impact of Media on the lives of 8- to 18-year-olds?

Victoria J. Rideout, Ulla G. Foehr, Donald F. Roberts, (2010) Generation M2: Media in the Lives of 8- to 18-Year-Olds, Kaiser Family Foundation

Over the past five years, young people have increased the amount of time they spend consuming media by an hour and seventeen minutes daily, from 6:21 to 7:38—almost the amount of time most adults spend at work each day, except that young people use media seven days a week instead of five. Use of every type of media has increased over the past 10 years, with the exception of reading. In just the past five years, the increases range from 24 minutes a day for video games, to 27 minutes a day for computers, 38 minutes for TV content, and 47 minutes a day for music and other audio. During this same period, time spent reading went from 43 to 38 minutes a day, not a statistically significant change. Today, 20% of media consumption (2:07) occurs on mobile devices—cell phones, iPods or handheld video game players.

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Why should games have a place in formal education?

Thorkild Hanghøj (2008) Playful Knowledge: An Explorative Study of Educational Gaming, PhD Dissertation, Institute of Literature, Media and Cultural Studies University of Southern Denmark

This dissertation can be read as an attempt to explore the widespread assumption that games have educational value within the context of formal schooling. More specifically, this study tries to answer a number of questions related to this assumption: Why should games have a place in formal education? How should educational games support teaching and learning? And what characterises “good” educational game design? These questions are repeatedly being addressed by game designers, policy makers, educators, news media and researchers in an attempt to explore – and often promote – the assumed learning potential of games. To bring matters to a head, such questions are often driven by an attempt to legitimise the educational use of games instead of actually exploring whether this goal is desirable or how it can be achieved.

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Is there such a thing as Mobile Multimedia 2.0?

Ilpo Koskinen (2011)  Mobile Multimedia 2.0?  School of Design, Industrial Design. University of Art and Design Helsinki

Mobile communication is an important constituent of what Gergen calls “the proactive Mittelbau,” opinion-formation and action that is rooted in the independent realities of civil society rather than in the opinions of political elites or mass media. In his opinion, mobile phones change the nature of mediated communication. However, Gergen also paints a darker picture. In this vision, civil society is replaced by small communication clusters, which increasingly take the role previously played by public venues. This paper attempts to look at some of the more recent developments of mobile multimedia. The first question is whether mobile multimedia, to use commercial computer slang, is in its second phase, and what kind of thing it is, if it exists. The second question deals with its social consequences.

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What does a social and cultural archeology of the internet look like?

Geert Willem Lovink (2009) Dynamics of Critical Internet Culture (1994-2001), Submitted in total fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, November 2002 English Department University of Melbourne

Unlike much of the cultural studies literature and early media theory, I will not describe what an email is, what MUDs and MOOs are and compare the Internet with book culture or television. In my view the question of what the Internet is all about has been sufficiently dealt with. It is time for critical research to move on, away from the general level of functionality. It is no longer the technical possibilities that characterize the medium. Instead of, yet again, going through general possibilities my research is based on empirical data: emails, webpages, events and personal encounters with the players in the field—both real and virtual. Where possible and useful I have made references to other (online) literature. It is my aim to write a contemporary form of media archeology in which I map the social and cultural usages of the Internet. I am writing early histories of a selected group of techno-cultural networks.

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Hanging Out, Messing Around, and Geeking Out. How do kids live and learn with new media?

Mizuko Ito, Sonja Baumer, Matteo Bittanti, danah boyd, Rachel Cody, Becky Herr-Stephenson, Heather A. Horst, Patricia G. Lange, Dilan Mahendran, Katynka Z. Martinez, C. J. Pascoe, Dan Perkel, Laura Robinson, Christo Sims and Lisa Tripp (2009) Hanging Out, Messing Around, and Geeking Out, The MIT Press

Despite the widespread assumption that new media are tied to fundamental changes in how young people are engaging with culture and knowledge, there is still relatively little research that investigates how these dynamics operate on the ground. This book reports on a three-year ethnographic investigation of youth new media practice that aims to develop a grounded, qualitative evidence base to inform current debates over the future of learning and education in the digital age.

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How can Serious Games Support Education?

Mary Ulicsak,  Martha Wright (2010) Games in Education: Serious Games,  A Futurelab literature review

It is argued that digital games, including simulations and virtual worlds, have the potential to be an important teaching tool because they are interactive, engaging and immersive activities. This document begins by briefly considering the rationale for using games in education – informal and formal. It then considers the various types of digital games that are described as being educational. The report then has an overview of their current use and research around their usage in multiple environments: the military, health, informal, vocational and formal education settings. It looks at the challenges of embedding serious games in formal education and three current methods for assessing appropriateness and effectiveness of games for teaching. From this it argues that what is required is a toolkit for educators, game designers and policy makers that allows the design and assessment of games to be used with an educational goal.

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Why Bother Theorizing Online Literacies?

Donna E. Alvermann (2008) Why Bother Theorizing Adolescents’ Online Literacies for Classroom Practice and Research? Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 52(1) September 2008

Teachers, teacher educators, and researchers cannot turn their backs on the inevitable. When school work is deemed relevant and worthwhile, when opportunities exist for students to reinvent themselves as competent learners (even rewrite their social identities), then literacy instruction is both possible and welcomed. But theorizing adolescents’ penchant for creating online content is merely a start—half the task. The other half involves asking the young people whom we teach, conduct research on and with, and teach about in our teacher education classes for their input into how, or for that matter whether, their online literacies should be embraced in the regular curriculum. As Kirkland so deftly reminded us, “The work of [literacy] instruction [is] as much about listening and learning as it is about telling and teaching”

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How can we deal with Plagiarism in a Complex Information Society?

Debbie Wheeler, David Anderson, (2010) Dealing with plagiarism in a complex information society, Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, Vol. 3 Iss: 3, pp.166 – 177

Academic integrity is not something innate, it is something that needs to be learned. Efforts to deal with plagiarism must be systematic, equitable, process-oriented and pervasive at all institutional levels otherwise there is a risk that punitive measures may seem unpredictable, and so will not send a clear message to stakeholders. If this is the case, students are even less likely to appreciate the centrality of academic integrity in the educational context.

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How can School Librarians be Technology Integration Leaders?

Melissa P. Johnston (2011) School Librarians as Technology Integration Leaders: Enablers and Barriers To Leadership Enactment, Florida State University, A dissertation submitted to the School of Library & Information Studies in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Degree Awarded: Summer Semester, 2011

The highly technological environment of 21st century schools has significantly redefined the role of school librarians by presenting the opportunity to assume leadership through technology integration. School librarians are continually directed to evolve as leaders in order to address the needs of today’s learners and ensure that they are equipped with the knowledge and skills they need to succeed in the 21st century. The purpose of this study is to identify the enablers and barriers that accomplished practicing school librarians, or those who are National Board Certified, experience in relation to crafting a leadership role in technology integration.

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What is the effect of multitasking on students’ grades?

Yvonne Ellis, Bobbie Daniels, Andres Jauregui (2010) The effect of multitasking on the grade performance of business students, Research in Higher Education Journal (2010) Volume: 8, Issue: 1, Pages: 1-11

Multitasking refers to the concurrent processing of two or more tasks through a process of context switching. However, research by neuroscientists show that multitasking reduces the brain’s ability to effectively retrieve information. The purpose of this study is to empirically examine whether multitasking in class affects the grade performance of business students. Our findings indicate that the exam scores of students who text in class are significantly lower than the exam scores of students who do not text in class. Thus, multitasking during class is considered a distraction that is likely to result in lower grade performance.

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To be truly effective, should Information Literacy (IL) and Media Literacy (ML) be pursued as complementary concepts?

Nieves Gonz ́alez Fernandez-Villavicencio (2010) Helping students become literate in a digital, networking-based society: A literature review and discussion, The International Information & Library Review (2010) 42, 124e136

Without necessarily taking sides in the debate, although expressing a preference for complementarity, the author contends that it is absolutely essential that all persons (not just students) learn to become both Information Literate and Media Literate in this digital world in which we now find ourselves. Additionally, the author contends that Web 2.0 and Social Networking tools, such as Facebook, Tuenti (in Spanish context), MySpace and Twitter, including the rich portfolio of applications they encompass, can substantially assist people in achieving that goal. The author presents a number of case examples to support her thesis, drawn largely from Spanish libraries and Spanish educational institutions that already are using Web 2.0 and Social Networking tools extensively to train people to become digitally competent.

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What does a flexible multi-layered approach to information literacy look like?

Sophie McDonald, Jemima McDonald (2011) Information Literacy For Ubiquitous Learning,  in Information Online 2011 ALIA 15th Conference and Exhibition, 1-3 Feb 2011 

The University of Technology, Sydney (UTS) Library is developing a new approach to delivering information literacy (IL). This paper will discuss the 2010 UTS Library Fun Day and the strategic use of informal information literacy activities such as games, trivia and treasure hunts incorporating the use of Facebook, Twitter and YouTube. These give new and ‘old’ clients an opportunity to explore the Library and get involved with our dynamic new learning environment. The paper will also provide insight into how we are supporting researchers across the research life cycle, embedding ourselves in faculties and using Web 2.0 technologies in training to equip twenty first-century researchers with effective IL skills.

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Why should Librarians be on Twitter?

Forrestal, Valerie(2011) ‘Making Twitter Work: A Guide for the Uninitiated, the Skeptical, and the Pragmatic’, The Reference Librarian, 52: 1, 146 — 151

This article highlights the advantages of librarians and libraries establishing a professional or institutional presence on Twitter. This basic introduction to the web service also discusses innovative ways to shape your Twitter account into a successful professional development, reference, and outreach resource.

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Is there such a thing as Privacy Online? Let’s be realistic and talk about Contextual Integrity…

Helen Nissenbaum (2004) Privacy as Contextual Integrity, WASHINGTON LAW REVIEW, 2004

This Article, which extends earlier work on the problem of privacy in public, explains why some of the prominent theoretical approaches to privacy, which were developed over time to meet traditional privacy challenges, yield unsatisfactory conclusions. It posits a new construct, “contextual integrity,” as an alternative benchmark for privacy, to capture the nature of challenges posed by information technologies. Contextual integrity ties adequate protection for privacy to norms of specific contexts, demanding that information gathering and dissemination be appropriate to that context and obey the governing norms of distribution within it. Building on the idea of “spheres of justice,” developed by political philosopher Michael Walzer, this Article argues that public surveillance violates a right to privacy because it violates contextual integrity; as such, it constitutes injustice and even tyranny.

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Evidence-Based Practice for Libraries: Evolution or Revolution?

David V. Loertscher (2009) Evidence-Based Practice: Evolution or Revolution? Evidence Based Library and Information Practice 2009, 4:2 

For some years, school library media specialists, like other educators, have been urged to raise their sights from the work-a-day world to the think-a-day world of reflective practice. The concepts of evidence-based practice and action research along with the general educational ideas of data mining, data-based decision making, diagnostic assessment, and a host of other terms encourage everyone to concentrate on results or the impact of actions and programs on teaching and learning. Perhaps the true EBP strategies must operate simultaneously in both an evolutionary manner and a revolutionary manner simultaneously

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How can Systemic Functional Grammar be used to construct a powerful online identity?

Victor Ho (2010Constructing Identities In The Workplace Through Request E-Mail Discourse – How Does One Benefit From It? GEMA OnlineTM Journal of Language Studies 3 Volume 10(2) 2010

This paper discusses the construction of personal identities through the request e-mail discourse by a group of professional English language teachers of a public education institution in Hong Kong. Facing the downsizing of the civil service, the revised appraisal system, and the tighter budget of the Hong Kong SAR government following the Asian financial crisis, teachers working in Hong Kong public schools have less chances of getting promotion and pay rises. To put themselves in an advantageous position in relation to get a promotion and a pay rise, as argued in this paper, the teachers constructed two personal identities online before their peers and superiors in their workplace. A total of 50 e-mails met the two criteria that follow and formed the corpus of the present study: containing at least one request, and having teachers of the same rank as the author and recipients. The request e-mail discourse is analyzed at the clause level with respect to transitivity, mood and modality by drawing upon systemic functional linguistics. It is found that the teachers, using the resources available in the English language grammar, constructed for themselves the identity of a responsible, hardworking member, and of a member with authority and power. This paper hopes to achieve three aims – (1) to contribute to the understanding of the constitutive effect of discourse; (2) to illustrate how such effect could be manipulated by discourse producers in order to achieve both their communicative and political aims; and (3) to enhance people’s e-mail communication competency in the workplace.

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Should Information Literacy be reframed as a Metaliteracy?

Thomas P. Mackey and Trudi E. Jacobson (2011) Reframing Information Literacy as a Metaliteracy, College & Research Librairies vol. 72 no. 1 62-78

Social media environments and online communities are innovative collaborative technologies that challenge traditional definitions of information literacy. Metaliteracy is an overarching and self-referential framework that integrates emerging technologies and unifies multiple literacy types. This redefinition of information literacy expands the scope of generally understood information competencies and places a particular emphasis on producing and sharing information in participatory digital environments.

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What skills do students, teachers, and librarians need to build media literacy?

Jennifer M. Henson (2011) Media Literacy, Department of Educational Leadership and Human Development University of Central Missouri

An important aspect of application of media literacy for teaching and learning is for teachers to step back, support, and encourage students to be inventive and creative with such tools. Beginning media literacy education in early childhood and including parents is critical, as parents are their teachers at home. Young children are exposed to media literacy though television commercials, hand held games, the Internet, and even movies. Parents are the fist people to explain to children what they see, hear, and understand from these different types of media. An important aspect of application of media literacy for teaching and learning is for teachers to step back, support, and encourage students to be inventive and creative with such tools. Teachers should be knowledgeable in media literacy skills and how to integrate them into the curriculum. The librarian has a key role in supporting the integration of media literacy into the curriculum. School librarians partnering with other educators to identify and teach the media literacy will enable students to be effective digital learners.

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What does literacy with digital media look like?

Ola Erstad (2010) Educating the Digital Generation, Exploring Media Literacy for the 21st Century,  Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy

The concept of a digital generation has been dominating the public discourse on the role of digital media in young people’s lives. Issues concerning a digital generation is closely linked to questions about how we develop an education system that is able to face the challenges of the 21st Century. A growing field of research, inclined to raise awareness of present and future challenges for our education system, is ‘media/digital literacy’. This article examines research within ‘generation studies’ and public constructions of young people and digital media. Further the article presents some developments within ‘new literacy studies’ and different aspects of ‘competencies for the 21st Century’. Next, the article reflects different approaches to studying these competencies, based on different empirical data, both from my own research and that of colleagues. Towards the end the important question of inclusion and exclusion is raised. The objective is to explore some issues of importance for future development of media literacy, the educational use of digital tools and critical considerations of a digital generation. A key part of the article is the elaboration of five dimensions representing different focus areas of research on school-based studies of media literacy.

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How can Digital Literacies make learning and teaching more effective?

Julia Gillen, David Barton (2010) Digital Literacies: A Research Briefing by the Technology Enhanced Learning phase of the Teaching and Learning Research Programme, English

The concept of digital literacies is fascinating both in its definition and its application. The term captures an arena of rapidly developing practices, as humans interact with technologies in new ways and for innovative purposes. Many time-honoured distinctions such as between producer and consumer, writer and reader blur or virtually disappear as new syntheses emerge. There are a number of valuable approaches to digital literacies that overlap with one another. Rather than look for clear distinctions to demarcate them, it is perhaps more helpful to look for continuities and commonalities.

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Digital Literacy or Digital Literacies?

Colin Lankshear, Michele Knobel (2008) Digital Literacies—Concepts, Policies and Practices, Peter Lang Publishing

This book brings together a group of internationally-reputed authors in the field of digital literacy. Their essays explore a diverse range of the concepts, policies and practices of digital literacy, and discuss how digital literacy is related to similar ideas: information literacy, computer literacy, media literacy, functional literacy and digital competence. It is argued that in light of this diversity and complexity, it is useful to think of digital literacies the plural as well the singular. The first part of the book presents a rich mix of conceptual and policy perspectives; in the second part contributors explore social practices of digital remixing, blogging, online trading and social networking, and consider some legal issues associated with digital media.

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What lies behind the rather different yet now converging approaches of Media Literacy and Information Literacy?

Sonia Livingstone, Elizabeth Van Couvering, and Nancy Thumim (2008) Converging Traditions of Research on Media and Information Literacies: Disciplinary, Critical and Methodological Issues, Department of Media and Communications London School of Economics and Political Science.

As broadcast, audiovisual, and print media converge with telecommunications, computing, and information systems, research on media literacy and information literacy could hardly remain separate. Indeed, despite their contrasting disciplinary backgrounds, theories, and methods, these research traditions have an increasingly similar object of inquiry: the public’s understanding of and effective engagement with media, information and communication technologies of all kinds. We advocate a converged or at least dialogical concept of media and information “literacies”, arguing that each tradition has much to learn from the other, although we accept that some differences must remain. Our focus is on two dominant approaches, media literacy and information literacy. What can each tradition learn from the other? Are they compatible? What methods and directions should be prioritized? In what follows, we compare these approaches in terms of definitions, origins, focus, methods, findings and purposes, our aim being to sketch the agenda for research on these converging literacies.

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