Using the power of research to inform ICT integration in education

Posts tagged ‘information literacy’

Could users be empowered to auction their information online?

Kamleitner, Bernadette, et al. “Information bazaar: a contextual evaluation.”ACM HotPlanet workshop. 2013.

The rise in the number of smart devices has created a large  ecosystem centred on users’ personal information and online activities. Numerous smartphone applications and social networking sites harvest and catalogue users’ personal information, enabling brokers such as Google and Facebook to provide a platform for advertisers to use this information for targeted advertising. Despite the fact that the users of these services are at the heart of this ecosystem, there has been little effort in understanding individuals’ perception of the value of their personal data in different contexts and situations. In this work, we present the results of our large-scale, contextual study over ten days that used smartphones to collect data on user activities, location, and companionship, as well as the amount of money that individuals attach to such information. Our results indicate that people can be remarkably sensitive to situational cues and also be prone to valuation biases. This study represents a first step towards providing insights into the usefulness of a marketplace for information, where users, or their agents, can freely decide to auction off various pieces of their information within established contexts.

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What Do Students Use Their Laptops for During Teacher Instruction?

Marte Blikstad-Balas (2012) Digital Literacy in Upper Secondary School – What Do Students Use Their Laptops for During Teacher Instruction? Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, Vol 7, 2012, Nr 02, 81-96

Many schools assume that the technology will fit into school practices, and thus use the computer as a supplement to the “regular” instruction. However, the students have their own vernacular practices concerning the use of the same technology, which they bring to school and wherever they go. This means that if schools fail to create the need of relevant educational Internet-based practices, the students will continue to use the Internet mainly for their personal vernacular practices, even at school. It goes without saying that banning Internet activity will not contribute to developing students’ literacy skills. What might need more explicit attention, is that neither will allowing unlimited Internet access without any guidance or clear educational purpose.

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Does Digitalk build a Community?

Kristen Hawley Turner (2012) Digitalk as Community, English Journal 101.4 (2012): 37–42

With the increasing popularity among today’s teens of email, texting, and instant messaging, a recognizable change has occurred in the language that students use in their writing. “Audience, Purpose, and Language Use in Electronic Messages” explores the language of electronic messages and how it affects other writing. Further, it explores the freedom and creativity for using Internet abbreviations for specific purposes and examines the impor- tance of a more formal style of writing based on audience.

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How can Competency in Visual Literacy Enhance Student Learning?

Anneliese Tillmann (2012) What We See and Why It Matters: How Competency in Visual Literacy can Enhance Student Learning,  Honors Projects, Educational Studies Department, Illinois Wesleyan University

In today’s world, we use more visuals than ever before. Research suggests that the balance between words and images has shifted considerably calling for new forms of literacy (Brumberger, 2011). Visual literacy goes above and beyond the traditional concepts of reading and writing, expanding literacy to include visuals. The analysis and review of current visual literacy research suggests teaching visual literacy is necessary for students to become capable of navigating the visually driven world in which we live. The research highlights the importance of incorporating visuals into the literacy curricula and explores practical uses of visual literacy in present day society. Findings suggest that developing the ability to create images will help students better learn to decipher, understand and communicate with images. If there is a better understanding of how and why visuals are developed, then the use of visuals can become more effective, ergo enhancing student learning.

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What makes new literacies new?

Colin Lankshear and Michele Knobel (2012) ‘New’ literacies: technologies and values, article extracted and edited from the book “New Literacies” Third Edition, by Colin Lankshear and Michele Knobel. McGrawHill, Open University Press, 2011, chapter 3, pp. 51-92.

It is too easy to make light of ‘new literacies’ by saying things like: “Well, there are always newer ones coming along”. Such remarks suggest new literacies have a similar kind of life trajectory to an automobile: new in 2009, semi-new in 2010, and old hat by 2011. Against this kind of “that’s so yesterday” perspective, we suggest in this article that ‘new literacies’ are best understood in terms of an historical period of social, cultural, institutional, economic, and intellectual change that is likely to span many decades – some of which are already behind us. We associate new literacies with an historical conjuncture and an ascending social paradigm. From this perspective we suggest that the kinds of practices we currently identify as new literacies will cease to be ‘new’ once the social ways characterizing the ascending paradigm have become sufficiently established and grounded to be regarded as conventional. Furthermore we suggest that at the heart of the idea of new ethos stuff is the idea of technological change aligning with a range of increasingly popular values.

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How can can Multiliteracies be put into Practice?

D. Bruce Taylor, Lindsay Sheronick Yearta (2012) Putting Multiliteracies into Practice in Teacher Education: Tools for Teaching and Learning in a Flat World,  In Teacher Education Programs and Online Learning Tools: Innovations in Teacher Preparation,ed. Richard Hartshorne, Tina L. Heafner and Teresa Petty, 244-263 (2013)

While technology has always played a role in teaching and learning, with the advent of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs), schools have struggled to keep pace with Web 2.0 tools available for teaching and learning. Multiliteracies, a term coined by scholars who published under the name The New London Group in 1996, has helped provide a theoretical foundation for applying new texts and tools to teaching and learning; however, much of the scholarship around Multiliteracies remains in the academic and theoretical domain. The authors suggest a pedagogic framework or metastructure for applying Multiliteracies to teacher education and by extension to P-12 classrooms. They document Web 2.0 tools and discuss how they have used them in undergraduate and graduate teacher education courses.

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How information literate are students in the mobile environment?

Yarmey, K. (2011) Student information literacy in the mobile environment, Educause Quarterly Magazine, 34(1).

The results of the Scranton Smartphone Survey indicate that, while students are interested in using their phones for academic purposes, they still require guidance from educators to choose the most appropriate mobile resource and to evaluate mobile websites and mobile apps. As Agnes Kukulska-Hulme noted, “Learners tend to move between using desktop computers and mobile devices, and maybe touch-screen displays in public areas, often for different parts of a learning task.” The information literacy world would benefit from a closer parsing of when and why users switch between devices. The existing data nonetheless permit a few generalizations and recommendations: Information literacy instructors should become familiar with new search methods (such as quick response codes) to help students use them effectively and efficiently; Students should be encouraged to review a range of search results, particularly when searching for academic information; Information literacy instructors should help students understand how to evaluate information, especially when it is presented in a nontraditional form, such as a native app; Students may need assistance from educators in applying information literacy skills they have learned while searching on a laptop or desktop to the mobile environment.

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How can traditional literacies and media literacies be connected?

Joslyn Sarles Young (2012) Voices from the Field: Linking Learning: Connecting Traditional and Media Literacies in 21st Century Learning, The National Association for Media Literacy Education’s Journal of Media Literacy Education 4:1 (2012) 70 – 81

Today’s youth are failing to meet measures of traditional literacy, but they are quickly and easily acquiring skills using new tools for communication.  Many youth today fail in traditional measures of literacy, but participate in new forms of communication, and see those worlds of “literacy” and “communication” as completely separate from one another. Like many students, educators also tend to view literacy and communication as separate skill sets, so schools emphasize the testing regulations and demands focused on traditional literacy. As a result, today’s educational environment is moving away from the inclusion of media literacy education in academic literacy instruction even though youth need media literacy skills at an ever-increasing rate.

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Information Literacy or Information Literacies?

Louise Limberg, Olof Sundin, Sanna Talja (2012) Three Theoretical Perspectives on Information Literacy, HumanIT: Journal for Information Technology Studies as a Human Science, vol.11. issue 2

This article discusses alternative theoretical understandings of information literacy and their consequences for educational practices. Three theoretical perspectives are presented that represent different understandings of information literacy; phenomenography, sociocultural theory and Foucauldian discourse analysis. According to all three theoretical lenses, information literacy is embedded in and shaped by as well as shaping the context in which it is embedded. In consequence, we propose the notion of information literacies in the plural. The three perspectives offer different insights on information literacies, on both empirical and theoretical levels. However, a sociocultural perspective also involves particular theoretical assumptions about the ways in which digital environments and tools reshape conditions for learning.

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How is Media Literacy approached in Germany?

Gerard Tulodziecki, Silke Grafe (2012) Approaches to Learning with Media and Media Literacy Education – Trends and Current Situation in Germany, The National Association for Media Literacy Education’s Journal of Media Literacy Education 4:1 (2012) 44 – 60

German approaches to media literacy education are concerned with the questions, how the variety of media can be used in a meaningful way for learning and teaching and what educational tasks result from the extensive use of media. Considering these questions there are various conceptual ideas, research and development projects as well as implementations into practice in the field of education and teacher training. The development and the current situation of approaches to media literacy education in Germany are described and discussed in the article. Thereby, the focus is on media literacy education in schools.

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Should Librarians teach students how to Google?

Sorensen, Charlene; Dahl, Candice (2008) Google in the research and teaching of instruction librarians, Journal of Academic Librarianship v.34, no.6, 482-488

This exploratory study assesses the differences and similarities between how instruction librarians in Western Canada use Google and how they instruct students to use it. Survey results indicate that these librarians do use Google but can be influenced by faculty to present Google negatively to students.

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Why do we need new critical approaches to information technology in librarianship?

Gloria J. Leckie, John E. Buschman (2009) Information technology in librarianship : new critical approaches, Libraries Unlimited

In the last 15 years, the ground – both in terms of technological advance and in the sophistication of analyses of technology – has shifted. At the same time, librarianship as a field has adopted a more skeptical perspective; libraries are feeling market pressure to adopt and use new innovations; and their librarians boast a greater awareness of the socio-cultural, economic, and ethical considerations of information and communications technologies. Within such a context, a fresh and critical analysis of the foundations and applications of technology in librarianship is long overdue.

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How can students learn with and through technology in primary school?

Diana van Walsum (2012) Learning with and through technology in primary school: Creating a movie of my own hero’s quest myth, Centre for Information Technology in Education, Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong

A lesson plan incorporating a sequence of technology-supported activities was developed to enable primary school students aged ten to eleven to learn how to create a narrative based on narrative conventions as part of their literacy curriculum. Links to web- based learning tools and descriptions of related learning strategies were included for each activity. Use of technology was planned with the goal of enhancing the quality of student learning, in particular the stimulation of higher-level thinking skills. The use of technology in each activity is justified based on relevant learning theories and key literature, in particular the theory of collaborative knowledge building. Strategies for evaluation of the successful integration of technology in the activities are proposed.

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What is the Potential of Google+ as a Media Literacy Tool?

J. Cohen (2012) The Potential of Google+ as a Media Literacy Tool, Journal of Media Literacy Education 4:1 (2012) 93 – 96

Utilizing Google+ as a media literacy tool means understanding its use as an access point to analyze messages to engage critical thinking about everyday issue people face. Google+ combines the elements of long-form posts, following others, reposting, video and images sharing in one social network. The following is a discussion of how to utilize the features available on Google+ to benefit media literacy.

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How does the millennial generation search for information?

Taylor, A. (2012) “A study of the information search behaviour of the millennial generation” Information Research17(1) paper 508

Statistically significant findings suggest that millennial generation Web searchers proceed erratically through an information search process, make only a limited attempt to evaluate the quality or validity of information gathered, and may perform some level of ‘backfilling’ or adding sources to a research project before final submission of the work. These findings indicate that the search behaviour of millennial generation searchers may be problematic. Existing search models are appropriate; it is the execution of the model by the searcher within the context of the search environment that is at issue.

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How does information literacy relate to learning?

Mandy Lupton (2008) Information Literacy and Learning, PhD thesis, Queensland University of Technology.

This thesis explores the relationship between information literacy and learning. In formal education, students are frequently required to independently find and use information to learn about a topic, and information literacy is often claimed to be a generic skill and graduate attribute. However, to date; the experienced relationship between information literacy and learning has not been investigated. My primary research question was ‘What is the experienced relationship between information literacy and learning?’ The secondary research question was “What are the generic and situated aspects of information literacy?’

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Does presenting the same material in written and spoken form really benefit learning and understanding?

Slava Kalyuga, Paul Chandler, John Sweller (2004Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Fall 2004 vol. 46 no. 3 567-581

It is frequently assumed that presenting the same material in written and spoken form benefits learning and understanding. The present work provides a theoretical justification based on cognitive load theory, and empirical evidence based on controlled experiments, that this assumption can be incorrect. From a theoretical perspective, it is suggested that if learners are required to coordinate and simultaneously process redundant material such as written and spoken text, an excessive working memory load is generated. Three experiments involving a group of 25 technical apprentices compared the effects of simultaneously presenting the same written and auditory textual information as opposed to either temporally separating the two modes or eliminating one of the modes. The first two experiments demonstrated that nonconcurrent presentation of auditory and visual explanations of a diagram proved superior, in terms of ratings of mental load and test scores, to a concurrent presentation of the same explanations when instruction time was constrained. The 3rd experiment demonstrated that a concurrent presentation of identical auditory and visual technical text (without the presence of diagrams) was significantly less efficient in comparison with an auditory-only text. Actual or potential applications of this research include the design and evaluation of multimedia instructional systems and audiovisual displays.

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How might technology be transforming the literacies of children entering the classroom?

Joanne O’Mara, Linda Laidlaw (2011) Living in the iworld: Two literacy researchers reflect on the changing texts and literacy practices of childhood, English Teaching: Practice and Critique, December, 2011, Volume 10, Number 4,  pp. 149-159

Within the article we demonstrate, using media links and images, the ways in which our own children have begun to navigate digital devices and texts and to create new sorts of narratives that open possibilities for literacies in multiple ways, as “creators”, “designers”, and experts. We argue that, once translated into classroom practice, technological tools tend to be “domesticated” by practices that resist the transformative affordances of these tools, and may even provide barriers to student engagement and practice. Finally, we conclude the article by making some practical suggestions for creating opportunities for transformative technology use in education.

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Can 3D virtual worlds be literacy learning environments?

MERCHANT, G. H. (2010). 3D virtual worlds as environments for literacy learning. Educational research, 52 (2), 135-150.

Although much has been written about the ways in which new technology might transform educational practice, particularly in the area of literacy learning, there is relatively little empirical work that explores the possibilities and problems – or even what such a transformation might look like in the classroom. 3D virtual worlds offer a range of opportunities for children to use digital literacies in school, and suggest one way in which we might explore changing literacy practices in a playful, yet meaningful context. From a Foucauldian perspective, the article suggests that social control of pedagogical practice through the regulation of curriculum time, the normalisation of teaching routines and the regimes of individual assessment restricts teachers‟ and pupils‟ conceptions of what constitutes literacy. The counternarrative, found in recent work in new litearcies (Lankshear & Knobel, 2006) provides an attractive alternative, but a movement in this direction requires a fundamental shift of emphasis and a re- conceptualisation of what counts as learning.

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What are the legal risks facing young people using network sites?

David Lindsay, Melissa de Zwart, Michael Henderson, Michael Phillips (2011) Understanding legal risks facing children and young people using social network sites, Telecommunications Journal of Australia, Vol.61, No1 (2011)

Children and young people are increasingly participating in everyday use of Social Networking Sites (SNS), such as Facebook or MySpace, to the extent that such interactions have come to be seen as an essential part of growing up. To date, mainstream discussion and policy debates about young people and SNS have tended to focus on high profile risks associated with these activities, such as cyber-bullying and online grooming of children by adults. While not dismissing the potential risks of SNS use by young people, it is important to understand the potential benefits that may accrue from online social interactions, including the acquisition of social and technical skills that are likely to be important for future digital citizens. Moreover, it is also important not to ignore other potential, albeit less dramatic, risks that may arise from SNS use. This article focuses on the range of legal risks that children and young people may face in their everyday use of SNS.  The article concludes with an analysis of the research findings, and some suggestions as to how the popularity of SNS with young people may be used to engage students in learning about, and debating, the application of the law to online activities, especially the use of SNS.

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How is Digital Media changing the way young people learn?

Mizuko Ito (2011) Mobilizing the Imagination in Everyday Play: The Case of Japanese Media Mixes, Draft of a chapter to appear in the International Handbook of Children, Media, and Culture, edited by Sonia Livingstone and Kirsten Drotner

The spread of digital media and communications in the lives of children and youth have raised new questions about the role of media in learning, development and cultural participation. In post-industrial societies, young people are growing up in what Henry Jenkins (2006) has dubbed “convergence culture”—an increasingly interactive and participatory media ecology where Internet communication ties together both old and new media forms.  My focus in this chapter is on outlining the contours of these shifts. How do young people mobilize the media and the imagination in everyday life? And how do new media change this dynamic?

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Are Instructional Design and Educational Technology Overlooked by Academic Library Administrators?

John D. Shank, Nancy H. Dewald (2012), Academic Library Administrators’ Perceptions of Four Instructional Skills, College & Research Libraries vol. 73 no. 1 78-93

The profession is in the midst of an unprecedented paradigm shift, moving from print-based to digital-based information. This dramatic change is impacting, and will continue to impact, the academic library. Clearly, it is vital to have highly skilled employees who are able to rapidly adapt to the changes as well as drive the innovations within the field. This study raises a very big question: who is responsible for driving that process? If, as the authors suppose, library administrators are key players in facilitating the hiring of new or redefined positions, then, based on the survey data, library administrators might be restraining change within the educational role of the library because of their biases.

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How can Libraries Support Students Live and Learn with Digital Media?

C. Shoemaker, H. Martin, B. Joseph (2010) How Using Social Media Forced a Library to Work on the Edge in Their
Efforts to Move Youth From “Hanging Out” to “Messing Around,  Journal of Media Literacy Education 2:2 (2010) 181 – 184

In 2009, Mimi Ito released Hanging Out, Messing Around and Geeking Out: Living and Learning with New Media, a book composed of 23 related studies. These ethnographic studies interrogated how learning is being experienced by teens via informal uses of digital media. The title refers to the framework around how youth learn through digital media and networked spaces, a kind of learning that is quite often invisible to adults who often confuse it with playing, wasting time or, at worst, as undermining youth’s ethical values and social competencies. This collection of studies, however, finds that these three different modes of participation with digital media, in fact, support the development of a wide range of new media literacies. This is the challenge offered by Ito and the one recently taken up by the New York Public Library. This worked example is not designed to report the successes or failure of this pilot project. Rather, it is intended to explore and take a critical look at the obstacles encountered along the way and discuss how they were negotiated. Finally, it will leverage Ito’s framework to provide context to understand what it means to use digital media for learning and how to apply these lessons learned, both for this organization and others.

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How Has YouTube Provided New Ways to Consume, Create, and Share Music?

Christopher Cayari (2011) The YouTube Effect: How YouTube Has Provided New Ways to Consume, Create, and Share Music, International Journal of Education & the Arts, 12(6).

This case study about a teenage musician, Wade Johnston, suggests how YouTube has affected music consumption, creation, and sharing. A literature review connects education, technology, and media. Informal learning, digital literacy, and twenty-first century technology are also connected in the review. Data reveals how Wade started his channel, gained popularity, interacted with others, and promoted his musical career through YouTube. Original songs, covers, collaborations, documentaries, self- interviews, video blogs (vlogs), and live performances are observed by the researcher. Interviews with the subject, key actors in his life, fans, and first time listeners were transcribed and results were used to triangulate. Previous musical media research is expanded upon to include YouTube and video sharing. The idea of amateur and professional musician, musical venue, and audience member are being changed through YouTube. Current practices of how YouTube is used in the classroom are discussed, and future research is suggested.

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Why Bother Theorizing Online Literacies?

Donna E. Alvermann (2008) Why Bother Theorizing Adolescents’ Online Literacies for Classroom Practice and Research? Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 52(1) September 2008

Teachers, teacher educators, and researchers cannot turn their backs on the inevitable. When school work is deemed relevant and worthwhile, when opportunities exist for students to reinvent themselves as competent learners (even rewrite their social identities), then literacy instruction is both possible and welcomed. But theorizing adolescents’ penchant for creating online content is merely a start—half the task. The other half involves asking the young people whom we teach, conduct research on and with, and teach about in our teacher education classes for their input into how, or for that matter whether, their online literacies should be embraced in the regular curriculum. As Kirkland so deftly reminded us, “The work of [literacy] instruction [is] as much about listening and learning as it is about telling and teaching”

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Can engaging students in digital image tagging help them with information literacy?

Zorana Ercegovac (2012) Digital Image Tagging: A Case Study with Seventh Grade Students, School Libraries Worldwide, Volume 18, Number 1, January 2012

Results of this exploratory study suggested engaging students in digital image tagging can have analytical and educational importance. The study was designed to gauge middle school students’capacities to describe digital images from two digital libraries that they used in an information literacy activity. When describing the image attributes, students (N=81) freely chose single words and multiword phrases to describe the interpretations, feelings, and questions evoked by the images. These descriptors were used to derive conceptual categories for the seventeen digital images. Results demonstrated that students acknowledged the responsibility of indexers to choose index terms for objects in collections that enable identification, organization and retrieval. The study sheds light on the potential to improve age-appropriate access to images by means of offering a multi-tiered approach to image representation. It also introduces a transparent approach to teaching information literacy concepts through creative thinking about the meaning of resources and their relationship in a broader information cycle context.

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Can a Virtual Reality Library help students develop information literacy skills?

Jamshid Beheshti (2012) Teens, Virtual Environments and Information Literacy, Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, Volume 38, Issue 3

As digital natives, the vast majority of teens are used to cellphones, text messaging, social networking sites and other forms of electronic communications and technologies. Though rooted in the digital world for many of their daily activities, teens lack basic information literacy skills for academic tasks and other demands. Specific instruction through the educational system may not be feasible, but it may be possible to build teens’ information competence through interactive virtual learning environments. Game-style virtual environments are highly motivating and engaging, providing opportunities for repeated practice and reward for persistence and achieving goals. A virtual reality library, VRLibrary, was constructed, collaboratively designed by young teens and adults, based on the metaphor of a physical library. Teens could wander the virtual space and browse links to age-appropriate websites presented as virtual books. VRLibrary was very positively received and succeeded at engaging teen users. A librarian avatar could be incorporated to provide help as needed with a user’s information seeking.

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How can Library Media specialists be leaders in Professional Learning Communities?

Leslie E. Brantley (2011) The Leadership Role of the Library Media Specialist in a Professional Learning Community, a research paper submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Library Science and Information Services in the Department of Educational Leadership and Human Development University of Central Missouri

The Professional Learning Community (PLC) concept has been adopted by school districts as a model for professional development. A PLC requires strong leadership to function. The library media specialist is a natural servant-leader in school districts. The problem under study is what leadership role does the library media specialist play in a PLC? This is a review of the literature of PLC leadership and the role of the library media specialist in the PLC. The research demonstrates how the library media specialist fulfills a servant-leadership role in the daily structure of the school. The adoption of the PLC concept provides an opportunity to elevate the servant-leadership role of the library media specialist through collaboration, instructional leadership, and in the creation of a learning commons.

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Do ICT Competences Support Educational Attainment at University?

Kurt De Wit, Dirk Heerwegh (2012) Do ICT Competences Support Educational Attainment at University?, Journal of Information Technology Education: Research Volume 11, 2012

Taking into account that universities assume students will have at least some basic knowledge of the use of computers and the Internet, we hypothesize that the command of ICT skills by freshmen could have an influence on their educational attainment. To test this hypothesis an online questionnaire was used, which was answered by a representative sample of 1,529 freshmen studying at a large university. Four factors are very powerful in predicting a student’s educational attainment: the GPA in secondary school, the number of hours spent weekly on the study of maths in secondary school, the study of classical languages in secondary school, and any ambivalent feelings about the chosen study subject. Contrary to our expectations, ICT social contact skills and basic ICT skills do not provide a better prediction of educational attainment, whereas maintenance skills do.

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How can Google Docs support an Information Literacy Assessment Program?

Ma Lei Hsieh, Patricia H. Dawson (2010) A University’s Information Literacy Assessment Program Using Google Docs, Brick and Click Libraries: Proceedings of an Academic Library Symposium (10th, Maryville, Missouri, November 5, 2010)

The Rider University academic community has adopted information literacy (IL) as one of the core learning objectives for undergraduates. The IL objectives are based on the ACRL IL Competency Standards for Higher Education. The Moore Library developed an online survey to assess students’ skills on the first IL objective—identifying various resources. The survey was administered to students who attended information research instruction sessions in fall 2009. In spring 2010, a new survey was developed to assess students’ skills on the second IL objective—developing keyword strategies and accessing relevant information from the most appropriate resources. The surveys for the IL objectives collect rich data sets to inform the University community of the IL competency of students. The information is valuable for librarians and faculty in planning and incorporating IL into the curriculum of academic departments.

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How is ICT Changing Libraries in Nigeria?

Speirs, M. (2010) “The Development of Information and Communication Technologies in Nigerian Libraries”, e-prints in library & information science

The development and use of information and communications technologies (ICT) in the libraries of Nigeria has been a slowly emerging process involving many successes and failures over the past decades. This chapter examines the history of this process while reviewing the challenges to this development that many libraries face because of inadequate infrastructure, and budgeted funding, as well as a lack of leadership and training for capacity building. Strategies for the way forward towards the effective and sustainable inclusion of technology in Nigerian libraries are suggested.

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What are the attitudes of academic librarians towards Internet plagiarism?

Rebecca Bartlett, Biddy Casselden (2011) An investigation into the attitudes of academic librarians towards Internet plagiarism of HE students, Library and Information Research Volume 35 Number 110 2011

This research paper aims to report an investigation into the attitudes of academic librarians towards Internet plagiarism of higher education students in the United Kingdom (UK), particularly with regard to how they define Internet plagiarism, their perceived role in combating this phenomenon, and the skills and techniques they have or will adopt to achieve this.

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What are the strengths of digital library education programs?

Elena Macevičiūte (2011) Education for digital libraries: library management perspective, Swedish School of Library and Information Science (SSLIS), University of Borås

The paper examines three Master’s programmes in digital libraries: Digital Library Learning (Oslo University College, Tallinn University, and University of Parma), Digital Library and Information Services, and Digital services – culture, information and communication (Swedish School of Library and Information Science). The author uses her direct experience of developing one of the programmes, collaborating with another and evaluating the third, for comparison of their conceptual basis, goals, curricula, students admission and study process, teachers experience, and several aspects of the students’ satisfaction. The author concludes that all three programmes build their programmes on the notion of change management, either through innovation, organizational change or project implementation. This perspective cultivated in library management for several decades since introduction of computer technology into libraries unites all three programmes on the common foundation of library management.

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How can Libraries use iPads to survey students?

Jennifer Link Jones, Bryan Sinclair (2011) Assessment on the Go: Surveying Students With an iPad, Library Innovation Volume 2, Issue 2, 2011

Ongoing assessment in academic libraries, particularly the measurement of student perceptions, preferences, and satisfaction, can be a challenge to schedule and execute. This paper describes a pilot project at Georgia State University Library that combined assessment with the portability of the tablet computer. A tablet computer–in this case, Apple’s iPad–loaded with survey software became a digital clipboard with the added benefit of automatic data compilation. Subjects were surveyed quickly in the library buildings, maximizing convenience for both subjects and researchers alike. The result was a model that other libraries, as well as campus student services divisions and classroom instructors, can easily adopt. Methodology, benefits, lessons learned, and ideas for future projects are discussed.

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How can Librarians prepare for mobile technology?

Angela Dresselhaus and Flora Shrode (2012) “Mobile Technologies & Academics: Do Students Use Mobile Technology in their Academic Lives and are Librarians Ready to Meet this New Challenge?” Information Technology and Libraries Forthcoming (2012)

In this paper we report on two surveys and offer an introductory plan that librarians may use to begin implementing mobile access to selected library databases and services. Results from the first survey helped us to gain insight into where students at Utah State University (USU) in Logan, Utah stands regarding their use of mobile devices for academic activities in general and their desire for access to library services and resources in particular. A second survey that we conducted with librarians gave us an idea of the extent to which responding libraries offer mobile access, their future plans for mobile implementation, and librarians’ opinions about whether and how mobile technologies may be useful to library patrons. In the last segment of the paper, we outline steps librarians can take as they “go mobile.”

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Do young people care about online privacy?

Hoofnagle, C., King, J., Li, S. & Turow, J., (2010How Different are Young Adults from Older Adults When it Comes to Information Privacy Attitudes and Policies? University of California, Berkeley.

In policy circles, it has become almost a cliché to claim that young people do not care about privacy. Certainly there are many troubling anecdotes surrounding young individuals’ use of the internet, and of social networking sites in particular. Nevertheless, we found that in large proportions young adults do care about privacy. The data show that they and older adults are more alike on many privacy topics than they are different. Public policy agendas should therefore not start with the proposition that young adults do not care about privacy and thus do not need regulations and other safeguards. Rather, policy discussions should acknowledge that the current business environment along with other factors sometimes encourages young adults to release personal data in order to enjoy social inclusion even while in their most rational moments they may espouse more conservative norms.

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How can School Librarians be Technology Integration Leaders?

Melissa P. Johnston (2011) School Librarians as Technology Integration Leaders: Enablers and Barriers To Leadership Enactment, Florida State University, A dissertation submitted to the School of Library & Information Studies in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Degree Awarded: Summer Semester, 2011

The highly technological environment of 21st century schools has significantly redefined the role of school librarians by presenting the opportunity to assume leadership through technology integration. School librarians are continually directed to evolve as leaders in order to address the needs of today’s learners and ensure that they are equipped with the knowledge and skills they need to succeed in the 21st century. The purpose of this study is to identify the enablers and barriers that accomplished practicing school librarians, or those who are National Board Certified, experience in relation to crafting a leadership role in technology integration.

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How should Libraries prepare for eBooks and mobile devices?

Mandy Callow and Kaye England (2011)  Preparing your library for mobile devices m-libraries Conference, 11 – 13 May, 2011

This paper had its beginnings in a discussion at the USQ Library about the necessity, or not, to provide information on the Library‟s website about how eBooks can or cannot be used on mobile devices, specifically eBook readers. Varying sides in the discussion had differing opinions about our students‟, and staff, abilities in using mobile devices and eBooks. The systems team, who were involved in the development of a mobile Library interface, and were themselves proficient users of technology, felt that students and staff needed no instruction, whilst Information Services staff felt that they did.

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How can Information Literacy be assessed?

Megan Oakleaf (2008) Dangers and Opportunities: A Conceptual Map of Information Literacy Assessment Approaches, Libraries and the Academy, Vol. 8, No. 3 (2008), pp. 233–253.

The culture of assessment in higher education requires academic librarians to demonstrate the impact of information literacy instruction on student learning. As a result, many librarians seek to gain knowledge about the information literacy assessment approaches available to them. This article identifies three major assessment approaches: (1) fixed-choice tests, (2) performance assessments, and (3) rubrics. It maps the theoretical and educational assumptions on which these options are grounded and charts the dangers and opportunities of each assessment approach.

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Why is it more difficult for students to conduct research in the digital age?

Head, A.J. & Eisenberg, M.B. (2009). Finding context: What today’s college students say about conducting research in the digital age, Project Information Literacy Progress Report, February 2009

So far, we have found that no matter where students are enrolled, no matter what information resources they may have at their disposal, and no matter how much time they have, the abundance of information technology and the proliferation of digital information resources make conducting research uniquely paradoxical: Research seems to be far more difficult to conduct in the digital age than it did in previous times. In this progress report we share some of the perceptions that led to this conclusion and several of the trends in problem-solving strategies that have emerged. The findings and analysis presented here should not be viewed as complete, but rather as part of our ongoing research that will be explored further and tested more rigorously.

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Is there an international framework to measure Information Literacy?

Catts, Ralph; Lau, Jesus (2008) Towards information literacy indicators, UNESCO 2008

UNESCO, through its Information for All Programme (IFAP), decided to engage in the development of an international framework for measuring information literacy in order to demonstrate achievements at both international and national levels, and to better focus future efforts. A considerable effort has already been invested by many international organizations in “measuring the information society”. IFAP’s goal is not to replicate their work but to identify additional indicators to measure the development of knowledge societies and then to collaborate with organizations currently engaged in measurement activities in order to develop a coherent set of indicators. This paper provides a conceptual framework for the identification of indicators of information literacy (IL) and proposes a pathway for cost effective and timely development. It includes a definition of IL; a model that links information literacy with other adult competencies, including information and communication technology (ICT) skills; and a description of IL standards in education. Issues of IL equality and the implications of cultural diversity are also identified.

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To be truly effective, should Information Literacy (IL) and Media Literacy (ML) be pursued as complementary concepts?

Nieves Gonz ́alez Fernandez-Villavicencio (2010) Helping students become literate in a digital, networking-based society: A literature review and discussion, The International Information & Library Review (2010) 42, 124e136

Without necessarily taking sides in the debate, although expressing a preference for complementarity, the author contends that it is absolutely essential that all persons (not just students) learn to become both Information Literate and Media Literate in this digital world in which we now find ourselves. Additionally, the author contends that Web 2.0 and Social Networking tools, such as Facebook, Tuenti (in Spanish context), MySpace and Twitter, including the rich portfolio of applications they encompass, can substantially assist people in achieving that goal. The author presents a number of case examples to support her thesis, drawn largely from Spanish libraries and Spanish educational institutions that already are using Web 2.0 and Social Networking tools extensively to train people to become digitally competent.

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Who should decide how students use technology? Youth-Driven vs. Adult-Driven Genres of Participation

Tripp, Lisa M., and Rebecca Herr-Stephenson (2009) “Making Access Meaningful: Latino Young People Using Digital Media at Home and at School.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 14.4 (2009): 1190-1207.

This research challenges the assumptions held by some that incorporating media into the classroom is somehow inherently motivating for students. Just as Seiter (2005) urges us to be skeptical of the drive and hype to incorporate computers and the Internet into schools, and recommends that we stay attuned to the kinds of economic and pedagogic pressures that teachers and schools face from often ill-conceived efforts to integrate technology into instruction, we suggest that similar concerns exist about incorporating media production into instruction, and we see little value in incorporating digital media into instruction in superficial ways. At the same time, we take Warschauer’s (2007) charge seriously, that we should “promote multimedia literacy and information literacy in schools in ways that simultaneously develop diverse students’ reading, writing, cultural literacy, and academic literacy…” (p. 44). Based on this research, we conclude that media education can help accomplish these goals if it includes production and analysis activities that connect to young people’s existing knowledge and interests in media and technology, although we recognize that doing so successfully requires a great deal of innovation—and resources—often amidst challenging institutional, social, and cultural constraints.

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How can digital backchannels support student participation?

François Bry, Vera Gehlen-Baum, Alexander Pohl (2011) Promoting Awareness and  Participation in Large Class Lectures: The Digital Backchannel Backstage, Proceedings of the IADIS

This article reports on the conception of a novel digital backchannel, code name Backstage, dedicated to large classes aiming at empowering not only the audience but also the speaker, at promoting the awareness of both audience and speaker, and at promoting an active participation of students in the lecture. The backchannel supports different forms of inter-student communication via short microblog messages, social evaluation and ranking of messages by the students themselves, and aggregation of student’s opinions aiming at increasing the students’ community feeling, strengthening the students’ awareness of and co-responsibility for the class work aiming at promoting the students’ participation in the lecture. The backchannel further supports immediate concise feedback to the lecturer of selected and aggregated students’ opinions aiming at strengthening the lecturer’s awareness for students’ difficulties.

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How do high-school students use information literacy skills to find and evaluate scientific information?

Heidi Julien , Susan Barker (2009) How high-school students find and evaluate scientific information: A basis for information literacy skills development, Library & Information Science Research

This study examined the relationship between curricula in secondary-level science classrooms, which support development of information literacy skills, and actual student skills. A vast body of research reflects deep concern with the level of information literacy skill development among secondary and post-secondary students. But even when educational curricula mandate skill development, many students are unable to demonstrate sophisticated information searching and critical evaluation skills. The findings of this study, which we based on analyzing information seeking tasks and conducting interviews with students in three biology classes in a large urban high school, demonstrated a similar lack of skills. Pressure on teachers to “teach to examinations”—that is, to focus on substantive content rather than on information literacy skills and information literacy skills deficits among teachers themselves—is a possible explanation for these results. The study is of particular interest to teachers of the curriculum applicable in the study context, but the broader implications of repeated indications of gaps in students’ information literacy skills are a significant indicator that schools must assume a larger responsibility for information literacy instruction. Leaving skill development to the post-secondary environment will not ensure that citizens are sufficiently skilled to participate fully in 21st century life, in workplaces or in their personal life contexts.

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What does a flexible multi-layered approach to information literacy look like?

Sophie McDonald, Jemima McDonald (2011) Information Literacy For Ubiquitous Learning,  in Information Online 2011 ALIA 15th Conference and Exhibition, 1-3 Feb 2011 

The University of Technology, Sydney (UTS) Library is developing a new approach to delivering information literacy (IL). This paper will discuss the 2010 UTS Library Fun Day and the strategic use of informal information literacy activities such as games, trivia and treasure hunts incorporating the use of Facebook, Twitter and YouTube. These give new and ‘old’ clients an opportunity to explore the Library and get involved with our dynamic new learning environment. The paper will also provide insight into how we are supporting researchers across the research life cycle, embedding ourselves in faculties and using Web 2.0 technologies in training to equip twenty first-century researchers with effective IL skills.

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Why should Librarians be on Twitter?

Forrestal, Valerie(2011) ‘Making Twitter Work: A Guide for the Uninitiated, the Skeptical, and the Pragmatic’, The Reference Librarian, 52: 1, 146 — 151

This article highlights the advantages of librarians and libraries establishing a professional or institutional presence on Twitter. This basic introduction to the web service also discusses innovative ways to shape your Twitter account into a successful professional development, reference, and outreach resource.

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How can Wikis be used in the 21st-century literacy classroom?

Sanden, S., & Darragh, J. (2011). Wiki use in the 21st-century literacy classroom: A framework for evaluation. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 11(1), 6-20.

In today’s Web 2.0 world, teachers are perpetually struggling with how to incorporate technology into the classroom effectively in order to meet the diverse literacy needs of 21st-century learners. Utilizing the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE, 2008) Position Statement addressing these needs, the theoretical framework of Lankshear and Knobel (2006), and work by Cummins, Brown, and Sayers (2007) emphasizing the possibilities of technology in achieving literacy goals, a framework by which to assess the incorporation of technologies in classrooms as a means to build students’ new literacies was created. Finally, as a specific example, the framework was applied to the use of wikis to illustrate the literacy learning potential of both wikis and other new technologies.

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How do Search Engines Impact Literacy Learning?

Jann Carroll (2011) From Encyclopaedias to Search Engines: Technological Change and its Impact on Literacy Learning, Literacy Learning: the Middle Years, Volume 19, Number 2, June 2011

The concept of search engines opening up new worlds of information to our students is an exciting prospect, as long as we realise that the benefits are conditional and rest capriciously on a range of political, economic, technical and personnel related factors. It becomes, therefore, even more important that teachers of literacy equip students with online reading comprehension skills, critical thinking skills and continually provide opportunities for rich, varied and authentic literacy learning, to set students up for the successful future they deserve.

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Is there such a thing as Privacy Online? Let’s be realistic and talk about Contextual Integrity…

Helen Nissenbaum (2004) Privacy as Contextual Integrity, WASHINGTON LAW REVIEW, 2004

This Article, which extends earlier work on the problem of privacy in public, explains why some of the prominent theoretical approaches to privacy, which were developed over time to meet traditional privacy challenges, yield unsatisfactory conclusions. It posits a new construct, “contextual integrity,” as an alternative benchmark for privacy, to capture the nature of challenges posed by information technologies. Contextual integrity ties adequate protection for privacy to norms of specific contexts, demanding that information gathering and dissemination be appropriate to that context and obey the governing norms of distribution within it. Building on the idea of “spheres of justice,” developed by political philosopher Michael Walzer, this Article argues that public surveillance violates a right to privacy because it violates contextual integrity; as such, it constitutes injustice and even tyranny.

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How can Informed Learning and Informed Learners by supported?

Bruce, Christine S., Hughes, Hilary E., & Somerville, Mary M. (2012) Supporting informed learners in the 21st century. Library Trends, 60(3). (In Press)

This paper elaborates the concept of informed learning and locates it in educational, workplace and community settings. Drawing from existing research into people’s experience of information literacy, it identifies critical experiences of informed learners in each of these three settings. It also explores the support required in educational, community and workplace contexts which makes informed learning possible. Recognising strong implications for policy makers in different sectors, the paper presents a set of guiding principles for developing informed learning and learners.

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Evidence-Based Practice for Libraries: Evolution or Revolution?

David V. Loertscher (2009) Evidence-Based Practice: Evolution or Revolution? Evidence Based Library and Information Practice 2009, 4:2 

For some years, school library media specialists, like other educators, have been urged to raise their sights from the work-a-day world to the think-a-day world of reflective practice. The concepts of evidence-based practice and action research along with the general educational ideas of data mining, data-based decision making, diagnostic assessment, and a host of other terms encourage everyone to concentrate on results or the impact of actions and programs on teaching and learning. Perhaps the true EBP strategies must operate simultaneously in both an evolutionary manner and a revolutionary manner simultaneously

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Do school Libraries need to be flipped?

David Loertscher (2008) Flip This Library: School Libraries Need a Revolution, Not Evolution, School Library Journal

What has to happen for school libraries to become relevant? One of the biggest business battles of our time is between Microsoft and Google. The two have very different business models. Microsoft believes that if they build it, we will come—and buy their product. Google’s approach is different: if they build it, we will integrate it into our lives. We use Microsoft products on their terms, but we use Google products—from iGoogle to GoogleDocs—on our terms, to construct whatever we want. What does this have to do with school libraries? A lot. If we want to connect with the latest generation of learners and teachers, we have to totally redesign the library from the vantage point of our users—our thinking has to do a 180-degree flip. In short, it’s time for school libraries to become a lot less like Microsoft and a lot more like Google.  With this notion in mind, I collaborated with two of my colleagues, Carol Koechlin and Sandi Zwaan, Canadian educational consultants, to develop an idea we’re calling the school library learning commons.

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What do recent studies show about literacy and technology in primary classrooms?

BURNETT, C. (2009). Research into literacy and technology in primary classrooms: an exploration of understandings generated by recent studies. Journal of research in reading (special issue: New developments in literacy and technology), 32 (1), 22-37.

Whilst much has been written about the implications for ‘literacy’ for practices surrounding digital technologies (Gee, 2000a; Luke and Carrington, 2002; Snyder, 1998), there has been surprisingly little research investigating new literacies in primary classrooms (Andrews, 2003; Labbo and Reinking, 2003: Lankshear and Knobel, 2003). This review examines the kinds of understandings that have been generated through studies of primary literacy and technology reported during the period 2000-2006. It uses Green’s distinction between ‘operational’, ‘cultural’ and ‘critical’ dimensions of primary literacy (Lankshear and Bigum, 1999; Snyder, 2001) to investigate the focus and methodology of 38 empirical studies. It explores ways in which research may be informed by assumptions and practices associated with print literacy, but also highlights the kinds of studies which are beginning to investigate the implications of digital texts for primary education. The paper concludes by arguing for further ethnographic and phenomenological studies of classroom literacy practices in order to explore the complex contexts which surround and are mediated by digital texts.

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How can Libraries develop strategies for phones, ipads and other mobile devices?

Munro, K., Stevenson, K., Stenson, R., Walker, W. and Fisher, C. (2011Planning for the mobile library: a strategy for managing innovation and transformation at the University of Glasgow Library. Serials: the Journal for the Serials Community, 24 . S26-S31.

Modern mobile devices have powerful features that are transforming access to information. Lippincott1 argues that as mobile devices such as smartphones become ‘key information devices’ for our users, libraries will want to have a significant presence in offering content and services that are suitable for this medium. This article outlines the process of development and implementation of a mobile strategy at the University of Glasgow Library. The most popular devices our users had were smartphones such as the iPhone, BlackBerry and those with the Android operating system, and also the iPad. What began as an investigation into a mobile interface to the library catalogue evolved into a comprehensive strategic review of how we deliver services now and in the future in this rapidly changing mobile environment.

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How can Systemic Functional Grammar be used to construct a powerful online identity?

Victor Ho (2010Constructing Identities In The Workplace Through Request E-Mail Discourse – How Does One Benefit From It? GEMA OnlineTM Journal of Language Studies 3 Volume 10(2) 2010

This paper discusses the construction of personal identities through the request e-mail discourse by a group of professional English language teachers of a public education institution in Hong Kong. Facing the downsizing of the civil service, the revised appraisal system, and the tighter budget of the Hong Kong SAR government following the Asian financial crisis, teachers working in Hong Kong public schools have less chances of getting promotion and pay rises. To put themselves in an advantageous position in relation to get a promotion and a pay rise, as argued in this paper, the teachers constructed two personal identities online before their peers and superiors in their workplace. A total of 50 e-mails met the two criteria that follow and formed the corpus of the present study: containing at least one request, and having teachers of the same rank as the author and recipients. The request e-mail discourse is analyzed at the clause level with respect to transitivity, mood and modality by drawing upon systemic functional linguistics. It is found that the teachers, using the resources available in the English language grammar, constructed for themselves the identity of a responsible, hardworking member, and of a member with authority and power. This paper hopes to achieve three aims – (1) to contribute to the understanding of the constitutive effect of discourse; (2) to illustrate how such effect could be manipulated by discourse producers in order to achieve both their communicative and political aims; and (3) to enhance people’s e-mail communication competency in the workplace.

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How is technology changing literacy?

Guy Merchant (2009) Literacy in virtual worlds, Journal of Research in Reading, Volume 32, Issue 1, 2009, pp 38–56

Introducing new digital literacies into classroom settings is an important and challenging task, and one that is encouraged by both policy-makers and educators. This paper draws on a case study of a 3D virtual world which aimed to engage and motivate primary school children in an immersive and literacy-rich on-line experience. Planning decisions, early experimentation and the experience of avatar interaction are explored. Using field notes, in-world interviews and observations I analyse pupil and teacher perspectives on the use of digital literacy and its relationship to conventional classroom literacy routines, and use these to trace the potential and inherently disruptive nature of such work. The paper makes the case for a wider recognition of the role of technology in literacy and suggests that teachers need time for experimentation and professional development if they are to respond appropriately to new digital literacies in the classroom.

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Is the best use of class time to provide facts or for problem solving?

Jose Antonio Bowen (2011 ) Rethinking Technology outside the Classroom, Journal of Music History Pedagogy, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 43–59

Knowledge is a lot cheaper than it used to be. It used to be that you went to university because books were expensive and you probably didn’t have any, so you went to hear lectures because that was the way you could get information. Then later there were libraries, and you still needed faculty to help you and guide you, and they knew things that books hadn’t yet published, so that’s why you went to a university. Now, almost everything is online. New teaching technologies will increasingly allow students to access the basic course information before they come to class. As teachers using these new technologies, our mission is to create homework and assignments that inspire them to interrogate the course content outside of class time. We can then rethink the type of work students do in class to develop more sophisticated intellectual engagement than taking notes from a lecture.

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Should Information Literacy be reframed as a Metaliteracy?

Thomas P. Mackey and Trudi E. Jacobson (2011) Reframing Information Literacy as a Metaliteracy, College & Research Librairies vol. 72 no. 1 62-78

Social media environments and online communities are innovative collaborative technologies that challenge traditional definitions of information literacy. Metaliteracy is an overarching and self-referential framework that integrates emerging technologies and unifies multiple literacy types. This redefinition of information literacy expands the scope of generally understood information competencies and places a particular emphasis on producing and sharing information in participatory digital environments.

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What skills do students, teachers, and librarians need to build media literacy?

Jennifer M. Henson (2011) Media Literacy, Department of Educational Leadership and Human Development University of Central Missouri

An important aspect of application of media literacy for teaching and learning is for teachers to step back, support, and encourage students to be inventive and creative with such tools. Beginning media literacy education in early childhood and including parents is critical, as parents are their teachers at home. Young children are exposed to media literacy though television commercials, hand held games, the Internet, and even movies. Parents are the fist people to explain to children what they see, hear, and understand from these different types of media. An important aspect of application of media literacy for teaching and learning is for teachers to step back, support, and encourage students to be inventive and creative with such tools. Teachers should be knowledgeable in media literacy skills and how to integrate them into the curriculum. The librarian has a key role in supporting the integration of media literacy into the curriculum. School librarians partnering with other educators to identify and teach the media literacy will enable students to be effective digital learners.

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What does literacy with digital media look like?

Ola Erstad (2010) Educating the Digital Generation, Exploring Media Literacy for the 21st Century,  Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy

The concept of a digital generation has been dominating the public discourse on the role of digital media in young people’s lives. Issues concerning a digital generation is closely linked to questions about how we develop an education system that is able to face the challenges of the 21st Century. A growing field of research, inclined to raise awareness of present and future challenges for our education system, is ‘media/digital literacy’. This article examines research within ‘generation studies’ and public constructions of young people and digital media. Further the article presents some developments within ‘new literacy studies’ and different aspects of ‘competencies for the 21st Century’. Next, the article reflects different approaches to studying these competencies, based on different empirical data, both from my own research and that of colleagues. Towards the end the important question of inclusion and exclusion is raised. The objective is to explore some issues of importance for future development of media literacy, the educational use of digital tools and critical considerations of a digital generation. A key part of the article is the elaboration of five dimensions representing different focus areas of research on school-based studies of media literacy.

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How can information literacy impact social capital?

Stuart Ferguson (2010) Social capital, lifelong learning, information literacy and the role of libraries, ANZCA Conference

The role of libraries in lifelong learning is examined, with specific reference to information literacy. The paper discusses the concept of social capital and the significance of lifelong learning to theories of social capital, which address issues of democratic health and civic participation, as distinct from economic issues such as the need to reskill the workforce. It argues that information literacy is a strong component of the learning process and that, if lifelong learning is to be fostered, so too must information literacy, which is part of the mission of many libraries, especially in the educational sector. The paper examines some of the most relevant issues facing libraries, such as the increasing reliance of many clients on Google, the relative lack of information literacy skills, even among younger clients with strong digital literacies, and the uptake of Web 2.0 for information literacy instruction. It concludes with a discussion of areas of research, such as evaluation of information literacy programs and questions about the transferability of information literacy skills from one context to another.

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How can blogs be used to develop students’ Information Literacy?

Christopher Chan, Dianne Cmor (2009) Blogging toward Information Literacy: Engaging Students and Facilitating Peer Learning, Reference Services Review (2009) Volume: 37, Issue: 4, Pages: 395-407

The purpose of this paper is to describe how a course-integrated blog is used to facilitate the learning of information literacy skills. It also reports on how the effectiveness of the blog is evaluated.  The blog is made the centerpiece of library support offered to a first-year politics course. With the support of the faculty member involved, students are required to post answers to weekly library research skills questions posted to the blog. The quality of student responses is examined using a simple assessment rubric. Also, a survey is administered to students to determine perceived usefulness. Findings The evaluation of blog posts shows that the quality of answers is generally very good. Students put effort into their responses and most give accurate and thorough answers. The results of the survey indicate that most students feel the blog is useful to their learning, both in terms of general information skills, and in terms of helping research the term paper for the course. These results reflect just one course at a single university, therefore it is not possible to use the findings to make generalizations. The study could serve as a starting point for further inquiry into the evaluation of blogs as a support tool. While others have reported on using blogs in a similar manner, this study also attempts a thorough evaluation of the efficacy of the blog in helping students learn. Given the positive results of this evaluation, librarians could consider using blogs and other Web 2.0 tools to engage students in their own learning.

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How can Digital Literacies make learning and teaching more effective?

Julia Gillen, David Barton (2010) Digital Literacies: A Research Briefing by the Technology Enhanced Learning phase of the Teaching and Learning Research Programme, English

The concept of digital literacies is fascinating both in its definition and its application. The term captures an arena of rapidly developing practices, as humans interact with technologies in new ways and for innovative purposes. Many time-honoured distinctions such as between producer and consumer, writer and reader blur or virtually disappear as new syntheses emerge. There are a number of valuable approaches to digital literacies that overlap with one another. Rather than look for clear distinctions to demarcate them, it is perhaps more helpful to look for continuities and commonalities.

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Digital Literacy or Digital Literacies?

Colin Lankshear, Michele Knobel (2008) Digital Literacies—Concepts, Policies and Practices, Peter Lang Publishing

This book brings together a group of internationally-reputed authors in the field of digital literacy. Their essays explore a diverse range of the concepts, policies and practices of digital literacy, and discuss how digital literacy is related to similar ideas: information literacy, computer literacy, media literacy, functional literacy and digital competence. It is argued that in light of this diversity and complexity, it is useful to think of digital literacies the plural as well the singular. The first part of the book presents a rich mix of conceptual and policy perspectives; in the second part contributors explore social practices of digital remixing, blogging, online trading and social networking, and consider some legal issues associated with digital media.

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What lies behind the rather different yet now converging approaches of Media Literacy and Information Literacy?

Sonia Livingstone, Elizabeth Van Couvering, and Nancy Thumim (2008) Converging Traditions of Research on Media and Information Literacies: Disciplinary, Critical and Methodological Issues, Department of Media and Communications London School of Economics and Political Science.

As broadcast, audiovisual, and print media converge with telecommunications, computing, and information systems, research on media literacy and information literacy could hardly remain separate. Indeed, despite their contrasting disciplinary backgrounds, theories, and methods, these research traditions have an increasingly similar object of inquiry: the public’s understanding of and effective engagement with media, information and communication technologies of all kinds. We advocate a converged or at least dialogical concept of media and information “literacies”, arguing that each tradition has much to learn from the other, although we accept that some differences must remain. Our focus is on two dominant approaches, media literacy and information literacy. What can each tradition learn from the other? Are they compatible? What methods and directions should be prioritized? In what follows, we compare these approaches in terms of definitions, origins, focus, methods, findings and purposes, our aim being to sketch the agenda for research on these converging literacies.

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Why should we move from ICT skills to Digital Literacy to best support students’ inquiry learning?

Dr. Leo Casey, Professor B. C. Bruce, Allan Martin, Abigail Reynolds (2009) Digital Literacy: New Approaches to Participation and Inquiry Learning to Foster Literacy Skills among Primary School Children, Centre for Research and Innovation in Learning and Teaching, National College of Ireland

Our theoretical review points to two contrasting conceptual approaches to literacy and specifically, digital literacy. The traditional view is to regard digital literacy as a set of specific technical skills such as the ability to use software and to operate devices – this is often referred to as a skills model of literacy. In contrast, more recent and increasingly accepted theories conceive of digital literacy in terms of context and social practice – this is a situated approach to literacy. The starting point of the framework for digital literacy was to reference the practices and activities that take place in the classroom. Obviously, the goal of classroom activity is to bring about learning and as such, we grounded our digital literacy framework in a conception of learning centered on the Inquiry Cycle. The term digital literacy has been popularised by Paul Gilster, who, in his book of the same name defined it as: the ability to understand and use information in multiple formats from a wide range of sources when it is presented via computers. The concept of literacy goes beyond simply being able to read; it has always meant the ability to read with meaning, and to understand. It is the fundamental act of cognition. Based on our review of theory we established the following definition of digital literacy in primary school contexts: Digital literacy in primary schools involves students and teachers using digital technology to enable, sustain and enrich all aspects of the inquiry cycle of learning as: ask, investigate, create, discuss and reflect.

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What is the best way to Authentically Assess an Information Literacy Program?

Karen R Diller, Sue F Phelps (2008) Learning Outcomes, Portfolios, and Rubrics, Oh My! Authentic Assessment of an Information Literacy Program, portal Libraries and the Academy (2008) Volume: 8, Issue: 1, Publisher: John Hopkins University Press Journals Division,Pages: 75-89

Librarians at Washington State University Vancouver helped the campus develop a method of assessing its General Education Program, a program based on university learning goals, one of which is information literacy. The assessment method, which relies on an electronic portfolio (ePortfolio) along with rubrics to evaluate work in the ePortfolio, enables the librarians to evaluate their information literacy program based on ACRL best practices guidelines, authentic assessment techniques, and the tenets of phenomenography. This paper will describe the library’s use of this assessment method, while looking at the advantages and disadvantages of this process for assessment.

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Can there be a future for learning organisations that neglect Information Literacy?

Bruce, Christine S. (2008) Informed learning : realising the potential of the information society in our 21st century world. In: International Conference on Libraries, Information and Society, 18-19 November 2008, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.

Information literacy has captured the imagination of information professionals. In the last twenty years significant advocacy has occurred putting information literacy issues high on the international agenda. This paper proposes informed learning (the kind of learning made possible by information literacy) as the key to realising the potential of the information society. The paper extends the concept of informed learning in the academic environment, conceptualising its broader role in the information society.

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Do students need Information Literacy skills when they have Google?

Karl Kingsley, Gillian M Galbraith, Matthew Herring, Eva Stowers, Tanis Stewart, Karla V Kingsley (2011) Why not just Google it? An assessment of information literacy skills in a biomedical science curriculum, BMC Medical Education, Volume: 11, Issue: 1, Publisher: BioMed Central, Pages: 17

The emerging networked technologies comprising the participatory Web, also known as Web 2.0, have profoundly changed the way information is produced, distributed, and consumed. Wikis, blogs, pod casts, video sharing, social networking sites, and other online applications offer innumerable opportunities for user generated content (UGC) and information sharing through what has been called an “architecture of participation”. Although these new participatory technologies provide rich opportunities for information sharing, they also pose new challenges for information seekers. Torrents of unfiltered information are uploaded to, and downloaded from, the Internet every day. In addition, users generate, remix, repurpose, store, and then share this digital information. As a result, Web users must continually balance the need for easy to find, readily available, reliable information and to avoid questionable, inaccurate, incomplete or deceptive online information.

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Why do we need to move towards a Transformative Pedagogy for School Libraries 2.0?

Marlene Asselin,  Ray Doiron (2008) Towards a Transformative Pedagogy for School Libraries 2.0, School Libraries Worldwide – Volume 14, Number 2, July 2008, 1‐18

Today’s students are no longer the people our education system was designed to teach. (Prensky, 2001). As more and more educators face the impact of Web 2.0, and as we see emerging what could be called a Learning 2.0 environment, it becomes urgent to extend teaching to meet the literacy and learning needs of the Net Generation. These ‘new’ learners and their expanding literacy needs have major implications for current models of school library programs which are largely focused on reading promotion and information literacy skills. We join others in recognizing the need to critically question long held tenets of school libraries and to create a new research‐based vision that will accord with the current economic and social directions driving educational change. This paper contributes to that process by proposing a framework for the work of school libraries in new times based on research in new literacies, today’s learners, and emerging concepts of knowledge.

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How can Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences support the effective teaching of Information Literacy?

Intan Azura Mokhtar, Shaheen Majid and Schubert Foo (2008) Teaching information literacy through learning styles: The application of Gardner’s multiple intelligences, Journal of Librarianship and Information Science 2008; 40; 93

The key for students of today to become independent learners and knowledge workers of tomorrow lies in being information literate. However, existing information literacy (IL) teaching approaches have not always been successful in equipping students with these crucial skills to ensure deep erudition and long-lasting retention. Hence, sound pedagogical approaches become critical in IL education. This research hypothesizes that students grasp IL skills more effectively when their innate interests, such as that determined by their respective dominant intelligences, are stimulated and applied to their work. Consequently, they would produce work of better quality. To verify these postulations, an IL course was designed for students undertaking project work to equip them with the necessary IL skills, by using an established pedagogical approach – Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences. Subsequently the quality of students’ project work between the experimental and control groups were compared. It was found that the performance of students who had undergone IL training through the application of learning styles was superior in their project work.

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How can librarians use audience response technology to teach academic integrity

Christine Bombaro (2007) Using audience response technology to teach academic integrity, Reference Services Review Vol. 35 No. 2, 2007 pp. 296-309

Purpose – This paper seeks to explore the successes and challenges associated with teaching first-year students a session on plagiarism avoidance through the use of an audience response system. Design/methodology/approach – An audience response system was used to test first-year students’ knowledge of plagiarism. Quiz questions about academic honesty and plagiarism were administered, and were answered anonymously with hand-held remote control devices. The reporting feature of the technology was used to gather results of the answers to these questions, which will be used to improve the session in future years. Findings – Data gathered from the sessions indicated that this session helped students retain knowledge of plagiarism rules. Comments solicited about the session indicated that the students enjoyed the lesson, that they were better able to recognize problem areas in their own writing, and that the interactivity kept them focused on the lesson. Research limitations/implications – The session will have to be repeated over a number of years to determine whether there is a link between it and the number of plagiarism incidents on campus. Practical implications – This paper provides a practical and relatively inexpensive approach for teaching academic integrity to large groups of students.

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Is it possible to develop Information Literacy without Technological Competencies?

Sharkey Jennifer, Brandt D Scott (2008) Digital Literacy Tools and Methodologies for Information Society, Publisher: IGI Global

Sharkey and Brandt start on the analysis from the traditional difference between Technology and Information Literacy. The first one seems to be wider, referring to general skills in acting with and through technology; the second one, on the contrary, is more focused on computer, Internet, and the other digital devices. According to the authors, in the so called Information Age, it is necessary to develop both of these literacies. In fact, most of the technological skills are involved with information and, on the contrary, it seems really impossible to develop informational skills without technological competencies. The result of the mediation between them is an integrated solution of Technology and Information Literacy; this could be considered as the condition starting from which to imagine the space and the role of what in this book is named: Digital Literacy.

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How do teachers understand and develop information literacy skills?

Elizabeth Probert (2009) Information literacy skills: Teacher understandings and practice, Computers & Education 53 (2009) 24–33

This article reports on a project, involving three New Zealand schools, which investigated teachers’ understanding of information literacy and their associated classroom practices. Recently published work, while lamenting school students’ lack of information literacy skills, including working with online resources, provides little research investigating classroom teachers’ knowledge of information literacy skills and their related pedagogical practice. The findings of this project indicate that while some of the teachers in this project had a reasonably good understanding of the concept of information literacy, very few reported developing their students’ information literacy skills.

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How are librarians involved in guided inquiry?

Carol Collier Kuhlthau (2010) Guided Inquiry: School Libraries in the 21st Century, School Libraries Worldwide, January 2010, Volume 16, Number 1, 17-28

The 21st century calls for new skills, knowledge and ways of learning to prepare students with abilities and competencies to address the challenges of an uncertain, changing world. Some think that an Internet connection in the classroom is all that is needed to transform a 20th century school into a 21st century learning space. If only it were that simple. Some have assumed that the Internet makes school libraries obsolete. Research shows that this is definitely not the case. A new way of learning is needed that prepares students for living and working in a complex information environment. Our research shows that school libraries are an essential component of information age schools. School librarians are vital partners in creating schools that enable students to learn through vast resources and multiple communication channels. Teachers cannot do this alone. School librarianship has evolved from emphasis on library skills to information skills in the 1980s, to information literacy in the 1990s, to inquiry as a way of learning in the first decade of the 21st century.

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Can phenomenography be a conceptual framework for information literacy in education?

Susie Andretta (2007) Phenomenography: a conceptual framework for information literacy education, ASLIB Proceedings (2007) Volume: 59, Issue: 2

By exploring learning from the learners point of view, and by focusing on the relationship between user/learner and information, the relational model proposes an holistic evaluation of learning exemplified by the qualitative changes in the way a person conceives and interacts with the world, rather than the testing of the amount of knowledge, or measuring the set of skills a learner acquires. The relational model promoted by Bruce et al. (2006), explores the dynamic relationship between learner and information within the context of information literacy, although the conceptual framework of the six frames of information literacy could be applied to any subject-specific scenario. This perspective necessarily calls for a shift of emphasis in Higher Education provision away from a learning what approach and towards a learning how attitude. To facilitate this shift Bruce et al. (2006) suggest that the relational model can be used to moderate other approaches to information literacy, thus promoting a pedagogy based on variation of learning that fosters independent and lifelong learning attitudes.

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Are collaborative teaching and inquiry PjBL the best way to develop Information Literacy and IT skills?

Chu, S. K. W., Chow, K. & Tse, S. K. (2011). Developing Hong Kong primary school students‘ information literacy and IT skills through collaborative teaching and inquiry PjBL. Library & Information Science Research

Information literacy and information technology (IT) skills have become increasingly important in today’s knowledge society. However, many studies have shown that students across different educational levels from primary to postgraduate level actually lack crucial information literacy and IT skills, thus the need for an effective pedagogical approach that will develop these skills. This study investigated the effect of combining a collaborative teaching approach with inquiry project-based learning (PjBL) on the development of primary students’ information literacy and IT skills. Students in a Hong Kong primary school completed two inquiry-based group projects. A collaborative teaching approach involving three teachers in different subject areas (General Studies, Chinese, and IT) and the school librarian was adopted in guiding students through the two projects. Results indicated the positive impact of collaborative teaching and inquiry PjBL on the development of students’ information literacy and IT skills.

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How relevant is information literacy in a digital environment?

R N Mishra (2010) Relevance of information literacy in digital environment, Journal of emerging trends in computing and information science (2010) Volume: 1, Issue: 1, Pages: 48-54

Information Literacy (IL) along with information and communication technology has become significant in library environment. Information literacy in library services is required not only to optimize the use of library resources in teaching, learning and research but also train the users to make them aware about information sources and access authentic information from vast array of electronic information sources, etc. Librarians have to impart skills on web searching techniques, evaluation and establishing authenticity and reliability of information retrieved from internet domain to the users. The paper focuses some of the major areas for the relevance of information literacy in contemporary library and information services. Methodology followed for the study is based on the documents available library including on internet. Library professionals need to be aware of using the skills involved in acquiring e-resources from a wide range of information resources including organization and proper dissemination to the users. Further, they require creating awareness among the users about the adaptability of new technologies, capability of information building etc.

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