Using the power of research to inform ICT integration in education

Archive for the ‘Uncategorized’ Category

How Does Literacy Transform the Human Brain?

Dehaene, Stanislas. “Inside the Letterbox: How Literacy Transforms the Human Brain.” Cerebrum (2013).

Learning to read is a major event in a child’s life. Cognitive neuroscience shows why: compared to the brain of an illiterate person, the literate brain is massively changed, mostly for the better—through the enhancement of the brain’s visual and phonological areas and their interconnections—but also slightly for the worse, as the displacement of the brain’s face-recognition circuits reduces the capacity for mirror invariance. Once children learn to read, their brains are literally different. Now that we understand exactly which circuits are changed by reading education, we may start thinking about how to optimize this process, particularly for children who struggle in school. Training preschoolers with just a few hours of GraphoGame—fun software that links graphemes and phonemes—is enough to enhance the representation of letters in the cortex. By monitoring children’s progress by their behavior as well as by brain imaging, we now have all the necessary tools to better understand what schools do and facilitate enhanced learning strategies.

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What Do Students Use Their Laptops for During Teacher Instruction?

Blikstad-Balas, Marte. “Digital Literacy in Upper Secondary School-What Do Students Use Their Laptops for During Teacher Instruction.” Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy 2 (2012): 2012.

The present study uses video recordings and qualitative interviews to examine the digital literacy practices of Norwegian students who have a personal laptop for school use. It uses the dichotomy between dominant school texts and vernacular out-of-school texts to examine the new school literacy practices. Findings indicate that the teachers’ use of visual technologies such as Power Point presentations in whole-class settings generates a variety of individual digital literacy practices among the students.

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What kinds of digital didactical designs do teachers apply in their iPad- classes in schools?

Jahnke, Isa, Lars Norqvist, and Andreas Olsson. “Designing for iPad-classrooms.” ECSCW 2013 Adjunct Proceedings (2013).

Our study explores Digital Didactics Designs using mobile technology in co- located settings. Classroom observations and qualitative data were collected in a Danish community where 200 teachers and 2,000 students aged 6-16 use iPads in classrooms implemented in 2012. Based on the theoretical framework called Digital Didactics (DD), five patterns of Digital Didactical Designs and following the innovative designs, three key aspects could be explored: The teachers’ digital didactical designs embrace a) new learning goals where more than one correct answer exists, b) focus on learning as a process in informal-in-formal learning spaces, c) making learning visible in different products (e.g., text, comics, podcasts). The study informs system developers for mobile learning applications in schools and teachers as workplace designers.

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How can Google Blogs (Blogger) Promote Interactive Learning Communities in K-6 Language Arts Classes?

Beatty, Mia. “Integrating Google Blogs into the K-6 Language Arts Classroom To Promote Interactive Learning Communities.” (2013).

Bringing literacies into a classroom is not an easy task for a teacher, especially when two-thirds of teachers feel underprepared to use technology in the classroom (Barone & Wright, 2008). This online instructional module was designed to introduce K-6 educators to using Google Blogs (Blogger) in the classroom to promote interactive learning communities. Google Blogs was selected because of its enormous user base, ease of use, free access, and privacy features. Graduate students and educators voluntarily participated in this web-based module by taking pre- and post-assessments, and attitudinal surveys. The module engaged participants using short quizzes, videos, and images. The results indicate that after the module, participants felt more comfortable integrating an online tool such as Google Blogs into their classroom to promote interactive learning communities.

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Can Early Years Students Independently Create Music With iPads?

Hodgson, Sarah. “Early Years students can use higher order thinking skills to independently create content in music using touch interface technology.” (2013).

This action research project was initiated to examine the use of touch interface technology,  namely tablet computers, with students in the Early Years. It was an attempt to discover how tablets could best be utilized with young learners. The research indicates that young learners are capable of using higher order thinking skills to create their own content, in this case musical compositions, using tablet technology. It proposes that Early Years students should take active and independent roles in the creation of their own works in order to demonstrate a more powerful understanding of their world.

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Could a right to be forgotten in Argentina threaten free-speech?

Carter, Edward L. “ARGENTINA’S RIGHT TO BE FORGOTTEN.” Emory Int’l L. Rev. 27 (2013): 23-661.

The twentieth century Argentine author Jorge Luis Borges wrote a fictional short story about a boy named Ireneo Funes who suffered the curse of remembering everything. For Funes, the present was worthless because it was consumed by his memories of the past. One contemporary author has described the lesson of Funes: “Borges suggests that forgetting—that is, forgetting ceaselessly—is essential and necessary for thought and language and literature, for simply being a human being.” The struggle between remembering and forgetting is not unique to Borges or Argentina, but that struggle has manifested itself in Argentina in poignant ways, even outside the writings of Borges. In recent years, the battle has played out in Argentina’s courts in the form of lawsuits by celebrities against the Internet search engines Google and Yahoo.

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Is privacy socially retrograde?

Cohen, Julie. “What Privacy Is For.” Harvard Law Review 126 (2013).

Privacy has an image problem. Over and over again, regardless of the forum in which it is debated, it is cast as old-fashioned at best and downright harmful at worst – antiprogressive, overly costly, and inimical to the welfare of the body politic. The consequences of privacy’s bad reputation are predictable: when privacy and its purportedly outdated values must be balanced against the cutting-edge imperatives of national security, efficiency, and entrepreneurship, privacy comes up the loser. The list of privacy’s counterweights is long and growing. The recent additions of social media, mobile platforms, cloud computing, data mining, and predictive analytics now threaten to tip the scales entirely, placing privacy in permanent opposition to the progress of knowledge. Yet the perception of privacy as antiquated and socially retrograde is wrong…

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Do the benefits of children using social networking services outweigh the risks?

Livingstone, Sonia, Kjartan Ólafsson, and Elisabeth Staksrud. “Risky Social Networking Practices Among “Underage” Users: Lessons for Evidence‐Based Policy.” Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication (2013).

There are growing public calls for social networking services (SNS) providers to remove age restrictions and to recognize that children want – and have the right to – use these services. Facebook’s CEO recently announced his wish to remove age restrictions. Also, some child welfare organizations argue that if children can be accurately identified by age on registration, then providers could be required to and would be able to deliver targeted age-appropriate protective advice/measures including upgraded control features, child-friendly user tools and safety information, privacy settings by default, and easy-to-use reporting mechanisms. If age restrictions are removed, the numbers of young children using SNS would likely rise substantially, passing regulatory responsibility to parents who, based on the evidence from this survey, might find this difficult. About half of parents want to restrict their children’s use of SNS. More fundamentally, this conclusion implies that it is in children’s best interests that younger ones do not use SNSs (or at least, those used also by adults) unless appropriate safety features are in place. In other words, we suggest that the risk (to privacy, safety and self-esteem of children) is likely to outweigh the benefits of SNS use. Although the evidence for this claim is sparse, we would call for qualitative research to explore the unfolding interaction among children’s desires, parental concerns, technological affordances, and observable outcomes. There is scope also for further research into the effectiveness and legitimacy of self-regulation for child protection on the internet.

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Could users be empowered to auction their information online?

Kamleitner, Bernadette, et al. “Information bazaar: a contextual evaluation.”ACM HotPlanet workshop. 2013.

The rise in the number of smart devices has created a large  ecosystem centred on users’ personal information and online activities. Numerous smartphone applications and social networking sites harvest and catalogue users’ personal information, enabling brokers such as Google and Facebook to provide a platform for advertisers to use this information for targeted advertising. Despite the fact that the users of these services are at the heart of this ecosystem, there has been little effort in understanding individuals’ perception of the value of their personal data in different contexts and situations. In this work, we present the results of our large-scale, contextual study over ten days that used smartphones to collect data on user activities, location, and companionship, as well as the amount of money that individuals attach to such information. Our results indicate that people can be remarkably sensitive to situational cues and also be prone to valuation biases. This study represents a first step towards providing insights into the usefulness of a marketplace for information, where users, or their agents, can freely decide to auction off various pieces of their information within established contexts.

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How does trading online privacy lead to self-coercion?

Hermstrüwer, Yoan, and Stephan Dickert (2013) Tearing the Veil of Privacy Law: An Experiment on Chilling Effects and the Right to Be Forgotten. No. 2013_15. Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods, 2013.

Privacy law relies on the argument that consent does not entail any relevant impediments for the liberty of the consenting individual. Challenging this argument, we experimentally investigate whether consent to the publication of personal information in cyberspace entails self-coercion on a social norm level. Our results suggest that the monetary benefits from consent constitute a price that people are willing to accept for increased compliance with social norms.

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How does the Digital Dimension of Cultural Capital influence student achievement?

Maria Paino and Linda A. Renzulli (2012)  Digital Dimension of Cultural Capital: The (In)Visible Advantages for Students Who Exhibit Computer Skills, Sociology of Education 2013 86: 124 

In this article we draw on insights from the study of information technology and teacher expectations to examine how computer usage may influence student achievement both directly and indirectly. Specifically, we suggest that Bourdieu’s theoretically robust idea of cultural capital may include a digital dimension. Computer proficiency may influence academic achievement directly because of the skills it develops, but it may also influence achievement indirectly through teachers’ evaluation. We explore the following questions: How does computer proficiency affect academic achievement? How does computer proficiency affect teachers’ evaluations of students? And finally, to what extent do teachers’ evaluations mediate the relationship between computer proficiency and academic achievement?

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Are Information Technology Outsourcing Alliances (ITOA) viable options?

Theophanis C. Stratopoulos, Mihir A. Parikh, Peter Lane (2009) Information Technology Outsourcing Alliances: A Strategic Alternative for IT-Capable Companies

While previous research has focused on choosing between insourcing or outsourcing, no systematic attempt has been made to find a viable alternative for IT-capable companies, which need to realize optimum value from their IT capabilities. This study identifies information technology outsourcing alliances (ITOA) as a strategic alternative to generate additional value from the capabilities of internal IT organizations. By building an ITOA with complementing partners, an IT-capable company can go beyond its internal market for IT services to provide similar and, even new, IT services to third parties. Grounded in transaction cost economics, relational theory, production theory and reciprocal learning alliances view, this study suggests that the IT-capable company can earn the collaboration-, transaction-, and firm-specific quasi rents through ITOA.

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How does the client-vendor relationship determine the success of Information Technology Outsourcing (ITO)?

Jorg Verbaas (2010)  “It takes two to tango”.  A Review of the Empirical Literature on Information Technology Outsourcing Relationship Satisfaction. Ph.D. dissertation, Tilburg University, Draft Paper

There is growing recognition that the overall client-vendor relationship, and not only the contract, plays a critical role in Information Technology Outsourcing (ITO) success. However, our understanding of how ITO relationships function is limited. This paper contributes to this understanding by reviewing empirical literature on ITO success in terms of relationship satisfaction. A key finding is that the majority of reviewed studies concentrates on client satisfaction, thus neglecting the vendor perspective. We argue that this raises questions about the construct validity of these studies. Consequently, concerns exist about the validity and reliability of their empirical findings. Some scholars have acknowledged the problem and use a dyadic perspective. However, a review of these studies reveals that the authors have underestimated their contributions and do not explain why there is a problem. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to highlight their contributions by comparing the findings of the dyadic perspective studies with those of the “client perspective” research. In doing so, we assess whether the dyadic studies produce better explanations for ITO success than the client-oriented studies. We argue that this is indeed the case, by producing a better view on how underlying mechanisms of ITO relationships work.

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When is IT outsourcing profitable?

Chang, Young Bong, and Vijay Gurbaxani (2012) “Information technology outsourcing, knowledge transfer, and firm productivity: An empirical analysis.”MIS Quarterly 36.4 (2012): 1043-1053.

Our study has important implications for practice. We demonstrate that IT outsourcing does lead to productivity gains for firms that select this mode of service delivery. Our results also suggest that IT-related knowledge held by IT services vendors enables these productivity gains, the magnitude of which is moderated by a firm’s IT intensity. Moreover, the value of outsourcing to a client firm increases with its propensity for outsourcing, which in turn depends on firm-specific attributes including efficiency level, financial leverage, and variability in business conditions. We show that IT outsourcing is a valuable delivery option, but not for all firms. Client firms must assess potential service providers not just using the traditional criteria of price and service levels, but also their knowledge capabilities. In addition, client firms must focus on building in-house assets that complement the provider’s capabilities.

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Why should outsourcing school technology be about learning more than technology?

Benoit A. Aubert, Jean-François Houde, Michel Patrya, Suzanne Rivarda (2012) A multi-level investigation of information technology outsourcing, Journal of Strategic Information Systems 21 (2012) 233–244

This paper presents a model explaining the IT outsourcing decision. Some findings highlight unique characteristics of IT outsourcing. For instance, firms in knowledge intensive industries using less outsourcing than firms in less knowledge intensive ones suggests that information processing activities might be treated somewhat differently from other activities. In addition, results show that the activities are not totally independent. Any outsourcing decision has to take into account activities within an ensemble. Managing these activities without acknowledging this would lead to coordination problems and inefficiencies. This might explain why some activities that seem perfect candidates for outsourcing are actually better managed inside the firm. Finally, the results suggest practitioners to consider their unique situation (notably the demand uncertainty and the knowledge intensity of the domain in which their firm operates). Recipes that have worked in one organization might not work in the other. Managers have to be aware of these influences that are independent from the activities themselves.

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What kind of language support should we provide our EAL learners?

Coffin, Caroline (2010). Language support in EAL contexts. Why systemic functional linguistics? (Special Issue of NALDIC Quarterly). NALDIC, Reading, UK.

Language can stand between a student and success in school learning. However, questions concerning the kind of language support to provide, the extent and timing of that support and who should provide it are vexed questions. In particular the first question (what kind of language support should be provided) has many implications for curriculum development, departmental strategy, classroom pedagogy, text book design and approaches to assessment. One major issue is how explicitly or implicitly the language support should be, and related to this, what kind of language for talking about language (what kind of meta-language) is needed – both by teachers and by students.

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Is research on violent video games methodologically flawed?

Ferguson, Christopher J. (2013) Violent video games and the Supreme Court: Lessons for the scientific community in the wake of Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Association, American Psychologist, Vol 68(2), Feb-Mar 2013, 57-74

In June 2011 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that video games enjoy full free speech protections and that the regulation of violent game sales to minors is unconstitutional. The Supreme Court also referred to psychological research on violent video games as “unpersuasive” and noted that such research contains many methodological flaws. Recent reviews in many scholarly journals have come to similar conclusions, although much debate continues. Given past statements by the American Psychological Association linking video game and media violence with aggression, the Supreme Court ruling, particularly its critique of the science, is likely to be shocking and disappointing to some psychologists. In this article the author argues that the psychological community would be better served by reflecting on this research and considering whether the scientific process failed by permitting and even encouraging statements about video game violence that exceeded the data or ignored conflicting data. Although it is likely that debates on this issue will continue, a move toward caution and conservatism as well as increased dialogue between scholars on opposing sides of this debate will be necessary to restore scientific credibility. The current article reviews the involvement of the psychological science community in the Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Association case and suggests that it might learn from some of the errors in this case for the future.

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What is the relationship between teacher beliefs and technology integration practices?

Peggy A. Ertmer, Anne T. Ottenbreit-Leftwichb, Olgun Sadik, Emine Sendurur, Polat Sendurur (2012) Teacher beliefs and technology integration practices: A critical relationship, Computers & Education 59 (2012) 423–435

Although efforts are still needed to provide ubiquitous technology access to teachers and their students, little will be gained if second-order barriers (knowledge and skills, attitudes and beliefs) are not addressed.  We are still woefully short of classroom environments that permit students to engage with technology in a way that prepares them to use technology in the real world. The results of this study suggest we should be utilizing the same technology tools for professional development that teachers are able to use in their classrooms: “It is time for our education workforce to engage in learning the way other professionals do continually, collaboratively, and on the job to address common problems and crucial challenges where they work”.  Web 2.0 technologies, such as blogs and wikis, enabled many of the teachers in this study to develop new ideas for their classrooms. Teachers should be introduced to the idea of joining and/or developing their own professional learning networks. PLNs allow teachers to select one or multiple Web 2.0 technologies by which they can “follow” individual teachers or organizations. This method of professional development is effective due to the “individualized focus, context-based learning, and empowerment of teachers”.

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How is ICT making us rethink the way we assess Understanding?

Christine Redecker & Øystein Johannessen (2013) Changing Assessment — Towards a New Assessment Paradigm Using ICT, European Journal of Education, Vol. 48, No. 1, 2013

This article argues for a paradigm shift in the use and deployment of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in assessment. While there is still a need to advance in the development of emerging technological solutions to support embedded assessment, such as Learning Analytics, and integrated assessment formats, the more pressing task is to make the conceptual shift between traditional and 21st century testing and develop (e-)Assessment pedagogies, frameworks, formats and approaches that reflect the core competences needed for life in the 21st century, supported by coherent policies for embedding and implementing eAssessment in daily educational practice.

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What could an iPad Professional Development Program look like?

Rebecca J. Hogue (2013) iPad Professional Development Program (iPDP), Proceedings of the 11th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning.

Scholars who have studied the adoption of technology in educational settings, believe that professional development is necessary for its successful adoption. This paper addresses a need for an iPad Professional Development Program (iPDP) to support the adoption of iPad tablet computers in higher education teaching and learning. The proposed iPDP is a hybrid program involving both face-to-face learner interventions and online resources. The program is made up of three interrelated components: (a) an online resource that supports the entire program, (b) an introductory workshop (iPadogogy) targeted at pre-adoption learners; and, (c) a knowledge-sharing event targeted at all learners. This paper describes: the components of an iPDP; the design considerations for each of the components; and, the limitation of the proposed iPDP.

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How Do Teachers Use Twitter for Professional Development?

Andrea Forte, Melissa Humphreys, Thomas Park (2012) Grassroots Professional Development: How Teachers Use Twitter, College of Information Science and Technology (iSchool), Drexel University

In an exploratory study, we used survey, interviews and content analysis techniques to understand how educators appropriate Twitter and other social media in their practice. We report on teachers’ use of Twitter, structural features of their on and offline professional networks, and the institutional policies that shape their appropriation of social media for professional use. Most importantly, our analysis suggests teachers on Twitter tend to be eager adopters of technologies and well positioned to broker information as bridges between members of their local communities of practice and other networks of educators. Based on these findings, we discuss teachers on Twitter as participants in grassroots professional development efforts and the potential for them to be powerful fomenters and enactors of reform in educational communities.

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How does the coolness of the iPad affect its value and usefulness: in education and banking?

Alma Leora Culén, Andrea Gasparini, Roni Hercz (2012) iPad – the space between the cool and the useful, Oslo university

It is generally agreed that the iPhone and the iPad were Apple’s truly cool products that have permanently changed some things about mobile phones and finally made a tablet into a marketing success. In this paper we discuss the space between iPad’s coolness and its value and usefulness to users in two quite different settings: education and banking. In the first example, we consider the product ecology of an iPad in the classroom setting and try to capture something about how the coolness of the product affects individuals and groups as they take it into action. Our reflections are based on several studies that we have conducted related to the introduction of the iPad as an educational tool in elementary and high schools as well as the university. In the classroom setting, students, both individually and as a group, have quite a large degree of autonomy in defining the use (including production and consumption of information, communications, gaming etc) of the iPad. In the banking example, iPads are used individually and privately. It is the bank that decides which services are made available and what constitutes the best way of interacting with their services. Cool service design is still not a goal in itself. Rather, solid interaction design should make users perceive the service as really good and subsequently, cool. The boundaries between cool design, hype and trend-following are still blurry in the race for competitive advantage.

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How can librarians use audience response technology to teach academic integrity

Christine Bombaro (2007) Using audience response technology to teach academic integrity, Reference Services Review Vol. 35 No. 2, 2007 pp. 296-309

Purpose – This paper seeks to explore the successes and challenges associated with teaching first-year students a session on plagiarism avoidance through the use of an audience response system. Design/methodology/approach – An audience response system was used to test first-year students’ knowledge of plagiarism. Quiz questions about academic honesty and plagiarism were administered, and were answered anonymously with hand-held remote control devices. The reporting feature of the technology was used to gather results of the answers to these questions, which will be used to improve the session in future years. Findings – Data gathered from the sessions indicated that this session helped students retain knowledge of plagiarism rules. Comments solicited about the session indicated that the students enjoyed the lesson, that they were better able to recognize problem areas in their own writing, and that the interactivity kept them focused on the lesson. Research limitations/implications – The session will have to be repeated over a number of years to determine whether there is a link between it and the number of plagiarism incidents on campus. Practical implications – This paper provides a practical and relatively inexpensive approach for teaching academic integrity to large groups of students.

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Where are the ethical fault lines in the digital media?

Carrie James with Katie Davis, Andrea Flores, John M. Francis (2008) Young people, ethics, and the new digital media: A synthesis from the GoodPlay Project, White paper for the MacArthur Foundation Digital Media & Learning Initiative, The MIT Press Cambridge, Massachusetts

In late 2006, our research team at Harvard Project Zero launched a three-year project funded by the MacArthur Foundation. The goals of the GoodPlay Project are twofold—(1) to investigate the ethical contours of the new digital media and (2) to create interventions to promote ethical thinking and, ideally, conduct. In the first year of the project, we conducted background research to determine the state of knowledge about digital ethics and youth and to prepare ourselves for our empirical study. This report describes our thinking in advance of beginning our empirical work. We expect to revisit the framework and arguments that are presented here after our empirical study is complete.

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How much privacy are we willing to relinquish when we trust online?

Adam N. Joinson, Ulf-Dietrich Reips, Tom Buchanan, Carina B. Paine Schofield (2008) Privacy, Trust and Self-Disclosure, in press, human-computer interaction

Despite increased concern about the privacy threat posed by new technology and the Internet, there is relatively little evidence that people’s privacy concerns translate to privacy-enhancing behaviors while online. In Study 1, measures of privacy concern are collected, followed six weeks later by a request for intrusive personal information alongside measures of trust in the requestor and perceived privacy related to the specific request (n= 759). Participants’ dispositional privacy concerns, as well as their level of trust in the requestor and perceived privacy during the interaction, predicted whether or not they acceded to the request for personal information, although the impact of perceived privacy was mediated by trust. In Study 2, privacy and trust were experimentally manipulated, and disclosure measured (n=180). The results indicated that privacy and trust at a situational level interact such that high trust compensates for low privacy, and vice versa. Implications for understanding the links between privacy attitudes, trust, design and actual behavior, are discussed.

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A Systemic Approach to Technology-Based School Innovations

(2010). Educational Research and Innovation Inspired by Technology, Driven by Pedagogy: A Systemic Approach to Technology-Based School Innovations. SourceOECD Education Skills2010(27), 164. OECD – Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

This report highlights key issues to facilitate understanding of how a systemic approach to technology-based school innovations can contribute to quality education for all while promoting a more equal and effective education system. It focuses on the novel concept of systemic innovation, as well as presenting the emerging opportunities to generate innovations that stem from Web 2.0 and the important investments and efforts that have gone into the development and promotion of digital resources. It also shows alternative ways to monitor, assess and scale up technology-based innovations. Some country cases, as well as fresh and alternative research frameworks, are presented.Today, sufficient return on public investments in education and the ability to innovate are more important than ever. This was the conclusion of the international conference on “The School of Tomorrow, Today” organised by the OECD Centre for Educational Research and Innovation with the support of the Secretariat of Education of the State Santa Catarina (Brazil), in November 2009. The conference and this resulting report share the overall goal of addressing the issue of how education systems achieve technology-based innovations.

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What is the TPACK Framework?

Cox, S., & Graham, C. (2009). An elaborated model of the TPACK framework. Proceedings of Society for Information Technology Teacher Education International Conference 2009 (pp. 4042-4049). AACE

The introduction of the TPACK Framework has facilitated new and more rigorous study of teachers knowledge and use of technology in the classroom. However, the community interested in TPACK is still striving to develop a common understanding of what each construct in the framework means. A review of the research surrounding TPACK shows that there are still widely differing perceptions regarding how to operationalize the TPACK constructs and define boundaries between them. This paper reports on a conceptual analysis that was done to clarify construct definitions and boundaries in the TPACK framework. The research review and interviews with leading researchers have helped the authors to create an elaborated TPACK framework with case examples that further articulates the TPACK constructs and boundaries between them. The authors also suggest directions for future TPACK research.

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What is the true prevalence of sexting?

K A I T L I N LOUNSBURY , KIMBE R LY J . MI TCHE L L & DAVID F I N K E LHOR (2011) The True Prevalence of Sexting, University of New Hampshire

This factsheet presents and critiques the findings of recent studies estimating the prevalence of youth “sexting.” The authors contend that research findings to date have been inconsistent and many widely‐publicized studies have been flawed in their design. It is difficult to compare findings and draw clear conclusions due to inconsistent terminology between studies and the inclusion of material not of primary concern to the public and law enforcement, such as text‐only messages, images of adults, or images of youth that do not constitute child pornography under legal statutes. These findings are then often reported in distorted or exaggerated ways by the media, leading to public misperception. The authors present a number of suggestions to future researchers and to journalists wishing to cite statistics on sexting.

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How can Technology Leaders help their faculty implement appropriate ICT tools?

Keengwe, J., Kidd, T., & Kyei-Blankson, L. (2008). Faculty and Technology: Implications for Faculty Training and Technology Leadership. Journal of Science Education and Technology18(1), 23-28.

The purpose of this study was to explore the factors affecting ICT adoption process and the implications for faculty training and technology leadership. Respondents represented a wide range of academic and professional positions. They identi ed themselves as Assistant, Associate, and Professor as well as Instructional Designer, Director of Technology, Information Manager, eLearning Manager, Assistant Department Chair, Associate Vice President of Academic Affairs and Consultant. The respondents identi ed Organizational Support, Leadership, Training and Development, and Resources as the predominate themes affecting Information and Communication Technology (ICT) adoption process in higher education. Evidence from this study offers insights on how higher education administrators and technology leaders could help their faculty and staff to implement appropriate ICT tools and practices to improve student learning

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