Using the power of research to inform ICT integration in education

Posts tagged ‘teachers and technology’

What Do Students Use Their Laptops for During Teacher Instruction?

Blikstad-Balas, Marte. “Digital Literacy in Upper Secondary School-What Do Students Use Their Laptops for During Teacher Instruction.” Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy 2 (2012): 2012.

The present study uses video recordings and qualitative interviews to examine the digital literacy practices of Norwegian students who have a personal laptop for school use. It uses the dichotomy between dominant school texts and vernacular out-of-school texts to examine the new school literacy practices. Findings indicate that the teachers’ use of visual technologies such as Power Point presentations in whole-class settings generates a variety of individual digital literacy practices among the students.

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How could Stimulated Recall Interviews increase authentic understandings of technology integration?

Tondeur, J.; L. H. Kershaw; R. Vanderlinde; J. van Braak (2013) Changing Assessment — Towards a New Assessment Paradigm Using ICT, European Journal of Education, Vol. 48, No. 1, 2013

This study explored the black box of technology integration through the stimulated recall of teachers who showed proficiency in the use of technology to support teaching and learning. More particularly, the aim of the study was to examine how these teachers use technology in their lessons and to gain deeper insights into the multifaceted influences affecting their current practices. In order to explore this black box, observations and stimulated recall interviews with primary school teachers were conducted in schools which were selected by the inspectorate on the basis of advances they had made in educational technology use. Stimulated recall interviews – a verbal reporting technique in which the teachers were asked to verbalize their thoughts while looking at their own classroom practice on video – seemed to be a promising approach to increase authentic understandings of technology integration. The results emphasize that (a) the teachers involved in this study were pedagogically proficient and flexible enough to fit technology in with the varying demands of their educational practices, (b) the teachers’ ongoing learning experiences rather than training affected the development of the quality of their practices, and (c) the role of the school and the broader context of teachers’ personal lives played an important role. By interpreting the results of the study, recommendations are discussed for teacher technology integration and future research.

How do game making projects influence learners’ attitudes to computing?

Judy Robertson (2013) The influence of a game making project on male and female learners’ attitudes to computing, Computer Science, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK

There is a pressing need for gender inclusive approaches to engage young people in computer science. A recent popular approach has been to harness learners’ enthusiasm for computer games to motivate them to learn computer science concepts through game authoring. The results of this study indicate that both boys and girls in the early years of high school have positive attitudes to computing and want to find out more about it. Boys are more likely to be more strongly positive than girls. The pupils thought that the game making project was fun and around half of them would recommend it to a friend. Their teachers believed that the project was a highly positive experience for their pupils in terms of motivation, and that it benefited pupils right across the ability spectrum.

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What evidence influences how teachers use technology for teaching and learning?

Price, Linda and Kirkwood, Adrian (2013). Using technology for teaching and learning in higher education: a critical review of the role of evidence in informing practice. Higher Education Research and Development (in press).

The use of technology for teaching and learning is now widespread, but its educational effectiveness is still open to question. This mixed-method study explores educational practices with technology in higher education. It examines what forms of evidence (if any) have influenced teachers’ practices. It comprises a literature review, a questionnaire and interviews. A framework was used to analyse a wide range of literature. The questionnaires were analysed using content analysis and the interviews were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Findings suggest that evidence has partial influence upon practice with practitioners preferring to consult colleagues and academic developers. The study underscored the difficulty in defining and evaluating evidence, highlighting ontological and epistemological issues. The academic developer’s role appears to be key in mediating evidence for practitioners.

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Computers in Education: What for?

Eevi E. Beck (2011) Computers in Education: What for? Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy / 2011 / Special Issue

The assumption that increased use of computing technologies is beneficial per se has been questioned in research on workplace computing since the early 1970ies. The intention of this paper is to encourage stopping and pausing to consider what is happening (an empirical question), and whether what is seen is desirable (a normative question). The paper calls for more debate (among researchers, teachers, parents, school leaders, governmental bodies, and other interested parties) as to what we would want computers for and how to get there. Points of view would differ; possibly never fully settling on agreement. This would constitute an ideal and a practice of attempting to bring Bildung and democracy to computing use in education, and would be a worthwhile lead to equip the young for participation in a technology-intensive society.

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How do scholars use their YouTube channels?

Mariana Martinho, Marta Pinto, Yuliya Kuznetsova (2012) Scholars’ YouTube channels: content analysis of educational videos, Internet Latent Corpus Journal VOL. 2 N. 2 (2012)

YouTube is a Web 2.0 platform of distributed video sharing, widely used by students, universities and scholars. This article looks into the YouTube channels set by three scholars whose research interests are linked to technology enhanced learning. The focus of analysis is on the sample of videos each scholar uploaded and categorized as “education” in their YouTube channels. The data collected from the content analysis allows to understand what content is being shared and with what approach.

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Can Technology for Personalising Learning (TPL) support better pedagogical use of ICT?

Jones, Mellita M. and McLean, Karen J. (2012) “Personalising Learning in Teacher Education through the use of Technology,” Australian Journal of Teacher Education: Vol. 37: Iss. 1, Article 5.

This paper considers the components of personalising learning and describes one approach to creating a technology-infused learning environment that has been trialled in the tertiary sector. The key focus of this trial was the effective integration of technology as an enabler of personalising learning. Findings indicate that meaningful student learning experiences can be achieved through a personalised approach which also supports the emerging tenets of effective, pedagogical use of ICT for learning. These findings led to a model of Technology for Personalising Learning (TPL) which is presented as a planning framework through which personalising learning with technology can be achieved in higher education.

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How do high school math teachers use technology to teach geometry?

Melanie Lolli (2012) The Views of High School Geometry Teachers regarding the Effect of Technology on Student Learning, Honors Thesis Final Project, Ohio Dominican University

The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics claims that technology is necessary to student learning in math and, in fact, enhances it. There are some studies to support this claim, but these studies leave some unanswered questions. The purpose of this study was to find out from current high school math teachers, of geometry specifically, what their views of technology are. The goal of the study was to ask these teachers which technologies they use and whether they believe technology has beneficial effects on student learning. This study did find a consensus among the participants as to which technologies they felt were the most beneficial in their classrooms, as well as those that might not be needed at all in a classroom.

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How can technology enhance learning and teaching?

Price, Linda and Kirkwood, Adrian (2011). Enhancing professional learning and teaching through technology: a synthesis of evidence-based practice among teachers in higher education. Higher Education Academy, York, UK.

Technology has the potential effectively to support learning and teaching in a number of situations. However, the manner in which the technology was used and aligned with the goals and aspirations of the learner was an important consideration. Practitioners do not appear to be capitalising on existing evidence. More emphasis appears to be placed on generating new evidence rather than evidence driving new practices. Teachers’ beliefs and practices are influential in determining how they engage with technology. The context of both the student and the teacher is also influential in determining the successfulness of learning and teaching practices with technology. Academic developers have key roles in supporting practitioners in engaging with relevant evidence while also supporting the development of their beliefs and practices concerning learning and teaching with technology. Policy makers have key roles in determining the integration of technology, as they influence the culture within which practitioners operate and hence their actions.

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What is the role of context on students’ performance on map tasks?

Lowrie, Tom, Diezmann, Carmel M., & Logan , Tracy (2011) Primary students’ performance on map tasks : the role of context. In Ubuz, Behiye (Ed.) Proceedings of the 35th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education: Developing Mathematical Thinking, PME, Cultural and Convention Center, Ankara, pp. 145-152.

Being numerate in today’s society requires increased demands on our capacity to represent, manipulate and decode information in various graphical forms (e.g., graphs, maps). New technologies allow data to be transformed into detailed and dynamic graphic displays (e.g., Google Earth) with increased complexity (and detail), and consequently, there is greater need for students to become proficient in decoding maps. At the same time, the tasks students are required to solve are becoming more authentic and realistic. The purpose of this paper is to  investigate the effect that students’ lived experiences (in terms of geographic locality) have on their ability to decode maps.

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How can students learn with and through technology in primary school?

Diana van Walsum (2012) Learning with and through technology in primary school: Creating a movie of my own hero’s quest myth, Centre for Information Technology in Education, Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong

A lesson plan incorporating a sequence of technology-supported activities was developed to enable primary school students aged ten to eleven to learn how to create a narrative based on narrative conventions as part of their literacy curriculum. Links to web- based learning tools and descriptions of related learning strategies were included for each activity. Use of technology was planned with the goal of enhancing the quality of student learning, in particular the stimulation of higher-level thinking skills. The use of technology in each activity is justified based on relevant learning theories and key literature, in particular the theory of collaborative knowledge building. Strategies for evaluation of the successful integration of technology in the activities are proposed.

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How do teachers understand students’ digital learning at home?

Honan, Eileen (2012) A whole new literacy’: Teachers’ understanding of students’ digital learning at home [online]. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, The, Vol. 35, No. 1, Feb 2012: 82-98.

This paper reports on an analysis of data collected through interviewing four teachers about their understandings of young people’s uses of new digital technologies at home and outside school. The teachers display some understanding and knowledge of their students’ access to new technologies, the skills they have developed using these technologies and the learning that occurs when using digital texts. However, it seems that these teachers cannot perceive the learning in terms of any educational affordance, or cannot see that students’ knowledge of digital texts used outside of school could be useful or have any place in the literacy classroom. The paper concludes with some questions that may start teachers thinking in different ways about their incorporation of digital texts into their literacy classrooms.

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Should Laptops be banned from classrooms?

Robin A. Boyle  (2011) Should Laptops be Banned? Providing a Robust Classroom Learning Experience Within Limits, Vol. 20, No 1, Perspectives: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 8

Laptops, iPods, iPads, and BlackBerrys are just a few of the newly developed modes of communication, note-taking, and music-storing devices that creep into our vocabulary–and students’ backpacks. Given the competitive nature of law school, students understandably bring laptops to class hoping to maximize their performance. Unfortunately for all involved, students use their laptops beyond the task of note-taking. The distractions that present themselves in class have led law professors to complain on various fora about the frequency of laptop use in the classroom. Some posit that students’ inappropriate use of laptops in the classroom has exceeded acceptable limits.

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Can educational gaming be understood as a complex interplay of four forms of knowledge?

Thorkild Hanghøj (2011) Clashing and Emerging Genres: The interplay of knowledge forms in educational gaming, Designs for Learning vol4, No1, September 2011

Based upon a series of design interventions with the educational computer game series Global Conflicts at various secondary schools, this article explores how educational gaming can be understood as a complex interplay between four knowledge forms – i.e. students’ everyday knowledge (non-specialised knowledge), the institutionalised knowledge forms of schooling, teachers’ subject-specific knowledge (specialised knowledge forms), and game-specific knowledge forms such as professional journalism, which is one of the inspirations for the game scenario. Depending on how the GC series was enacted by different teachers and students, these knowledge forms were brought into play rather differently. More specifically, several students experienced genre clashes in relation to their expectations of what it means to play a computer game, whereas other students experienced emerging genres – e.g. when one student was able to transform the game experience into a journalistic article that challenged her classmates’ understanding of journalistic writing.

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Do teachers believe they are competent to promote healthy ICT use among their students?

R. Zlamanskia, M. Ciccarelli (2012) Do teachers believe they are competent to promote healthy ICT use among their students?  Work, A Journal of Prevention, Assessment and Rehabilitation Vol, 41 (2012) 869-875

Information and communication technologies (ICT), including computers, are becoming common place tools for learning by school children in Australia and around the world. Teachers are responsible for integrating ICT into the school learning environment; however, they may not recognize how and when ICT use may compromise their students’ physical health. Children’s exposure to physical harm through the unhealthy use of ICT may have liability implications for the education sector.  All Catholic Education school principals in Western Australia were sent an email link to the survey for distribution to teachers at their respective schools. Fifty-five percent of teachers agreed they were concerned about their students’ physical health when using ICT. Only 19% of teachers reported they frequently or always provided their students with information on how to use computers in their class in a way, so as to promote physical health. Teachers identified barriers to promoting healthy computing use among students including; insufficient time (47%), non-adjustable furniture (46%), and insufficient knowledge (41%).  Designing and implementing school-based computer ergonomics education programmes may assist teachers fulfil their duty of care in regard to the physical health and well-being of their students.

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How Do Exemplary Science Teachers Use Technology?

Meral Hakverdi-Can,  Thomas M. Dana (2012) EXEMPLARY SCIENCE TEACHERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY, The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology – January 2012, volume 11 Issue 1

The purpose of this study is to examine exemplary science teachers’ level of computer use, their knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, how often they required their students to use those applications in or for their science class and factors influencing their decisions in using technology in the classroom. The sample of this study includes middle and high school science teachers who received the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science Teaching Award. Analysis of the survey responses indicated that exemplary science teachers have a variety of knowledge/skills in using computer related applications/tools. The most commonly used computer applications/tools are information retrieval via the Internet, presentation tools, online communication, digital cameras, and data collection probes. Results of the study revealed that students’ use of technology in their science classroom is highly correlated with the frequency of their science teachers’ use of computer applications/tools.

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How Is Instructional Technology Being Integrated in Higher Education?

Mariya Markova (2011) Integrating Instructional Technology into Higher Education, A dissertation submitted to the faculty of Franklin Pierce University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Arts in Leadership in the College of Graduate and Professional Studies.

This dissertation presents the findings of an in-depth study conducted at two universities in New England. The purpose of this study is to identify the reasons why higher education faculties are not fully embracing instructional technology. Findings suggest that many faculty members view the instructional technology to be difficult to apply to existing instructional methodologies. In addition, existing technology infrastructure appears to be inadequate and unreliable. While technical problems persist, the primary cause of faculty resistance at this time relates to a lack of adequate faculty development and training resources. Results suggest, given the increasing sophistication of instructional technology, institutions should require a higher degree of technological proficiency than most faculty members currently possess.

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How is ICT Impacting Education in Pakistan?

M. Wasif Nisar, Ehsan Ullah Munir and Shafqat Ali shad (2012) Usage and Impact of ICT in Education Sector; A Study of Pakistan,  Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(12): 578-583, 2011

In many countries, information and communication technology (ICT) has a lucid impact on the development of educational curriculum. This is the era of Information Communication Technology, so to perk up educational planning it is indispensable to implement the ICT in Education sector. Student can perform well throughout the usage of ICT. ICT helps the students to augment their knowledge skills as well as to improve their learning skills. To know with reference to the usage and Impact of ICT in Education sector of Pakistan, we accumulate data from 429 respondents from 5 colleges and universities, we use convenient sampling to accumulate the data from district Rawalpindi of Pakistan. The consequences show that Availability and Usage of ICT improves the knowledge and learning skills of students. This indicates that existence of ICT is improving the educational efficiency as well as obliging for making policies regarding education sector.

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Are young children surrounded by techno-optimist teachers and techno-pessimist parents?

Fox, Jillian L., Diezmann, Carmel M., & Grieshaber, Susan J. (2011) Teachers’ and parents’ perspectives of digital technology in the lives of young children. In Howard, Sarah (Ed.) AARE Annual Conference 2010, 28th November – 2nd December 2010, Melbourne, Australia. (Unpublished)

This paper examines teachers’ and parents’ perspectives and considers whether they are techno-optimists who advocate for and promote the inclusion of digital technology, or whether they are they techno-pessimists, who prefer to exclude digital devices from young children’s everyday experiences. The results of data analysis identified a misalignment among adults’ perspectives. Teachers were identified as techno-optimists and parents were identified as techno-pessimists with further emergent themes particular to each category being established. This is concerning because both teachers and mothers influence young children’s experiences and numeracy knowledge, thus, a shared understanding and a common commitment to supporting young children’s use of technology would be beneficial. Further research must investigate fathers’ perspectives of digital devices and the beneficial and detrimental roles that a range of digital devices, tools, and entertainment gadgets play in 21st Century children’s lives.

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What are the risks of introducing new technologies to teachers?

Caroline Stockman, Fred Truyen (2011) The Danger of the Downward Spiral: Teachers and Digital Literacy, Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on e-Learning, Brighton 10-11 Nov 2011

The primary purpose of this paper is to provide anyone active in the field of education with a useful tool to assess risks during the integration of new technology in an educational setting, but especially to raise awareness of the danger of a downward spiral, which not only undermines our investment of time and money into these promising new technologies, but which also puts the learners at a great disadvantage when providing useful tools for their benefit which are, in the end, not fully or even wrongly used.

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Can teachers be trusted to accurately assess their acceptance of educational technologies?

Bram PYNOO, Jo TONDEUR, Johan VAN BRAAK, Wouter DUYCK, Bart SIJNAVEd, Philippe DUYCK (2011) Assessing teachers’ acceptance of educational technologies: Beware for the congruency between user acceptance and actual use, T. Hirashima et al. (Eds.) (2011). Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computers in Education. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

In this study, we investigated the extent to which self-reported measures for user acceptance (attitude, behavioral intention, self-reported frequency of use), added to the prediction of several aspects of use of a portal for education. Data from 835 teachers was collected: questionnaire “acceptance” data on one occasion and five parameters for observed use (number of logins, downloads, uploads, page views, and reactions) were extracted on two occasions from the portal database. We found that the self-reported measures for acceptance primarily predicted search behavior (monthly number of logins, downloads and page views), and not share behavior (monthly number of uploads and reactions). So, researchers aiming to assess teachers’ acceptance of a technology to contribute information, should adjust their measures for user acceptance so that these correspond with the targeted actual behavior.

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Can robotics change students’ beliefs and interest toward STEM?

Stephen H. Whitehead (2010) Relationship of Robotic Implementation On Changes In Middle School Students’ Beliefs and Interest Toward Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, A Dissertation Submitted to the School of Graduate Studies and Research in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Education, Indiana University of Pennsylvania

This quantitative study evaluates the impact of using robotics as a content organizer to teach a mathematic concept between math and technology education classes in a middle school of the students beliefs and interests toward STEM concepts. The analysis was based upon pre and post belief and interest survey responses by the participating middle school students. Ten schools from Pennsylvania participated in the study over the spring semester of school in 2010.

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What do 40 years of research say about the impact of technology on learning?

Rana M. Tamim, Robert M. Bernard, Eugene Borokhovski, Philip C. Abrami, and Richard F. Schmid (2011) What Forty Years of Research Says About the Impact of Technology on Learning: A Second-Order Meta-Analysis and Validation Study, Review of Educational Research March 2011, Vol. 81, No. 1, pp. 4–28

This research study employs a second-order meta-analysis procedure to sum- marize 40 years of research activity addressing the question, does computer technology use affect student achievement in formal face-to-face classrooms as compared to classrooms that do not use technology? A study-level meta- analytic validation was also conducted for purposes of comparison. An extensive literature search and a systematic review process resulted in the inclusion of 25 meta-analyses with minimal overlap in primary literature, encompassing 1,055 primary studies. The random effects mean effect size of 0.35 was significantly different from zero. The distribution was heterogeneous under the fixed effects model. To validate the second-order meta- analysis, 574 individual independent effect sizes were extracted from 13 out of the 25 meta-analyses. The mean effect size was 0.33 under the random effects model, and the distribution was heterogeneous. Insights about the state of the field, implications for technology use, and prospects for future research are discussed.

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Can Scratch be used to teach Computer Science Concepts?

Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Michal Armoni, Mordechai (Moti) Ben-Ari (2010) Learning Computer Science Concepts with Scratch, ICER 2010, August 9–10, 2010

We investigated the use of Scratch to teach concepts of computer science. We developed new learning materials based upon the constructionist philosophy of Scratch, and evaluated their use in middle-school classrooms. The results showed that most students are able to understand CS concepts, thus supporting the claims of Scratch to be a viable platform for teaching CS.

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Do Interactive Whiteboards Motivate Elementary Students with Mathematics?

Bruce Torff , Rose Tirotta (2009) Interactive whiteboards produce small gains in elementary students’ self-reported motivation in mathematics, Computers & Education 54 (2010) 379–383

A treatment/control study (N = 773) was conducted to determine the extent to which use of interactive whiteboard technology (IWB) was associated with upper elementary students’ self-reported level of motivation in mathematics. Students in the treatment group reported higher levels of motivation relative to control students, but the effect was extremely weak. Students with teachers who were more supportive of IWB technology reported higher motivation levels (compared to students of teachers who were less supportive), but this effect also was very small. Claims about the motivation-enhancing effects of the IWB are not baseless, but they appear to be somewhat overstated. Research is needed to determine how IWB- use is associated with academic performance, and also to examine how teachers use the IWB and how this usage could be strengthened.

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Why Do Teachers Participate in Self-generated Online Communities?

Jung Won Hur, Thomas A. Brush (2009) Teacher Participation in Online Communities: Why Do Teachers Want to Participate in Self-generated Online Communities of K–12 Teachers?, Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 41(3), 279–303

The purpose of this study was to examine reasons for teacher participation in on- line communities of K–12 teachers. The authors interviewed 23 teachers from three self-generated online communities and analyzed more than 2,000 postings in those communities. The findings indicated five reasons for participation: (a) sharing emotions, (b) utilizing the advantages of online environments, (c) combating teacher isolation, (d) exploring ideas, and (e) experiencing a sense of camaraderie. In conclusion, the findings imply that when designing teacher professional development programs, more emphasis needs to be placed on teachers’ emotional sharing and promotion of self-esteem.

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What do recent studies show about literacy and technology in primary classrooms?

BURNETT, C. (2009). Research into literacy and technology in primary classrooms: an exploration of understandings generated by recent studies. Journal of research in reading (special issue: New developments in literacy and technology), 32 (1), 22-37.

Whilst much has been written about the implications for ‘literacy’ for practices surrounding digital technologies (Gee, 2000a; Luke and Carrington, 2002; Snyder, 1998), there has been surprisingly little research investigating new literacies in primary classrooms (Andrews, 2003; Labbo and Reinking, 2003: Lankshear and Knobel, 2003). This review examines the kinds of understandings that have been generated through studies of primary literacy and technology reported during the period 2000-2006. It uses Green’s distinction between ‘operational’, ‘cultural’ and ‘critical’ dimensions of primary literacy (Lankshear and Bigum, 1999; Snyder, 2001) to investigate the focus and methodology of 38 empirical studies. It explores ways in which research may be informed by assumptions and practices associated with print literacy, but also highlights the kinds of studies which are beginning to investigate the implications of digital texts for primary education. The paper concludes by arguing for further ethnographic and phenomenological studies of classroom literacy practices in order to explore the complex contexts which surround and are mediated by digital texts.

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How is technology changing literacy?

Guy Merchant (2009) Literacy in virtual worlds, Journal of Research in Reading, Volume 32, Issue 1, 2009, pp 38–56

Introducing new digital literacies into classroom settings is an important and challenging task, and one that is encouraged by both policy-makers and educators. This paper draws on a case study of a 3D virtual world which aimed to engage and motivate primary school children in an immersive and literacy-rich on-line experience. Planning decisions, early experimentation and the experience of avatar interaction are explored. Using field notes, in-world interviews and observations I analyse pupil and teacher perspectives on the use of digital literacy and its relationship to conventional classroom literacy routines, and use these to trace the potential and inherently disruptive nature of such work. The paper makes the case for a wider recognition of the role of technology in literacy and suggests that teachers need time for experimentation and professional development if they are to respond appropriately to new digital literacies in the classroom.

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Do we really need to improve schools to improve education?

Allan Collins, Richard Halverson (2009) Rethinking Education in the Age of Technology: The Digital Revolution and the Schools, Distance Education, Teachers College Press, Pages: 1-11

The digital revolution has hit education, with more and more classrooms plugged into the whole wired world. But are schools making the most of new technologies? Are they tapping into the learning potential of today’s Firefox/Facebook/cell phone generation? Have schools fallen through the crack of the digital divide? In Rethinking Education in the Age of Technology, Allan Collins and Richard Halverson argue that the knowledge revolution has transformed our jobs, our homes, our lives, and therefore must also transform our schools. Much like after the school-reform movement of the industrial revolution, our society is again poised at the edge of radical change. To keep pace with a globalized technological culture, we must rethink how we educate the next generation or America will be “left behind.” This article summarizes the arguments of their groundbreaking book and  offers a vision for the future of American education that goes well beyond the walls of the classroom to include online social networks, distance learning with “anytime, anywhere” access, digital home schooling models, video-game learning environments, and more.

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How do teachers understand and develop information literacy skills?

Elizabeth Probert (2009) Information literacy skills: Teacher understandings and practice, Computers & Education 53 (2009) 24–33

This article reports on a project, involving three New Zealand schools, which investigated teachers’ understanding of information literacy and their associated classroom practices. Recently published work, while lamenting school students’ lack of information literacy skills, including working with online resources, provides little research investigating classroom teachers’ knowledge of information literacy skills and their related pedagogical practice. The findings of this project indicate that while some of the teachers in this project had a reasonably good understanding of the concept of information literacy, very few reported developing their students’ information literacy skills.

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Do teachers need media-competences instead of ICT competences?

Bert Zwaneveld, Theo Bastiaens (2010) ICT competences of the teacher: About supporting learning and teaching processes with the use of ICT, International Federation for Information

Our starting observation is that there is a lot of literature about the use of ICT in teaching. Much of this literature with frameworks, schemes, flow charts etcetera, is about the process of introducing ICT in teaching. In our view the teacher and his or her main concerns, the learning and teaching processes inside the classroom, deserves much more attention. Our second observation is that there are much relevant new ICT-tools available which can support these learning and teaching processes. So, we focus in this paper on these aspects: what are the most important competences with respect to ICT for a teacher in order to support these learning and teaching processes? Because there are nowadays so many modern digital media available we propose the term media-competences for the teachers instead of ICT competences.

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How can the symbolic power of ICT be negotiated?

S Rye (2009) Negotiating the symbolic power of information and communication technologies: The spread of Interent-supported distance education, Information Technology for Development (2009) Volume: 15, Issue: 1, Pages: 17-31

The Internet may be, as typically suggested, important in distance education for facilitating connections between groups of students, educational institutions, and external learning resources. This article, however, reveals why this is not the only reason for applying information and communication technologies (ICT) in higher education in a remote area in a developing country. In addition, the Internet seems to be of great importance in symbolizing modernization and progress, thereby adding symbolic power to such education. Empirical sources originate from an explorative case study of an Internet-supported distance education program in the province of Bangka Belitung in Indonesia. Based on a translation perspective on the spread of pheromones, the analyses of empirical sources show how the Internet has contributed to the spread of distance education, but paradoxically this has not had much effect on the use of Internet by students in peripheral areas, at least not in the short term.

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How can we help students become aware of appropriate online behavior?

Randy Hollandsworth, Lena Dowdy, Judy Donovan et al. (2011) Digital citizenship: It takes a village, 37-47. In TechTrends 55 (4).

Digital citizenship encompasses a wide range of behaviors with varying degrees of risk and possible negative consequences. Lack of digital citizenship awareness and education can, and has, led to problematic, even dangerous student conduct. If our educational village does not address these issues, the digital culture establishes its own direction, potentially pushing a productive, long-term solution further out of provides the reader with a number of suggestions that can help the professional to help their students become better digital citizens.

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How can Youtube help Flipping a Classroom?

Carlisle, M. C., (2010) Using YouTube to Enhance Student Class Preparation in an Introductory Java Course, Proceedings of the 41st ACM technical symposium on Computer science education

We provided 21 short YouTube videos for an Introduction to Programming in Java course. Students were surveyed on how often they watched the videos and did the readings, and how much these activites contributed to their learning. When professors reduced lecture time and increased lab time, students watched videos and read significantly more. Their test scores were at least as high and they indicated they would prefer to not have more lecture. The YouTube videos also provided a source of outreach for the university, drawing a large number of views, including the 13-17 year-old demographic.

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How does a Flipped Classroom Compare with a Traditional Classroom?

Strayer, J. F. (2007) The Effects of the Classroom Flip on the Learning Environment: A Comparison of Learning Activity in a Traditional Classroom and a Flip Classroom that used an Intelligent Tutoring System, Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy in the Graduate School of The Ohio State University

Based on the conclusions of this study, I recommend that teachers who plan to implement the classroom flip consider the following suggestions. First, the flip structure seems to be more productive when students have a choice between multiple ways of interacting with the content of the course outside of class. When the focus of the flip is on giving students the freedom to interact with the content according to their own learning style preferences, the flip seems to be more successful. Second, if the flip is used in an introductory course, the in-class activities should be less open ended and more “step by step” in structure. If some activities are open ended, try to keep them brief: one to two class periods. Students in introductory courses will often have little tolerance for prolonged uncertainty in the course content and the course structure. In more advanced classes, students will be more willing to push through prolonged investigations, but the structure of the classroom must support their meaning making in the activity. This leads to the third recommendation. A flip classroom is structured so differently that students will become more aware of their own learning process than students in more traditional settings. Students will therefore need to have more space to reflect on their learning activities so they can make the necessary connections to course content. The teacher must structure a major component into the course structure that will allow for this reflection to take place and for the teacher to be able to see and comment on specific aspects of student reflection. This feedback cycle will be crucial for student learning.

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How can Flipping the Classroom support Active Learning?

Zappe, S., Leicht, R., Messner, J., Litzinger, T., and Lee, H.W., (2009) “’Flipping’ the Classroom to Explore Active Learning in a Large Undergraduate Course,” Proceedings, American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exhibition, 2009.

In traditional approaches to teaching engineering classes, the instructor plays the role of information conveyor, while the students assume a receiver role with primary responsibilities of listening and note-taking. Research into how students learn suggests that students need to be more actively engaged with the course material to maximize their understanding. The literature contains many examples of active learning strategies, such as teams solving problems in class and the use of student response systems with conceptual questions. Incorporating active learning strategies into a class means that there will be less time for delivering material via lecture. Therefore, instructors who choose to utilize active learning strategies must find ways to ensure that all required course content is still addressed. This paper discusses an instructional technique called the “classroom flip” model which was assessed in a larger, undergraduate architectural engineering class. In this model, lecture content is removed from the classroom to allow time for active learning, and the content that was removed is delivered to students via on-line video. This approach ‘flips’ the traditional use of lecture and more active learning approaches. Lecture occurs outside of class, and more active learning, such as problem solving, happens during class. Assessment data was collected to examine students’ use of the video lectures and perceptions of the classroom flip. The students’ feedback suggests that while the active learning and additional project time available in class improved their understanding, they would prefer that only about half the classes be flipped and some use of traditional lectures should be maintained.

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How can students’ emotions determine effective use of ICT in education?

Cenk Akbiyik (2009) Can Affective Computing Lead to More Effective Use of ICT in Education? Technology (2009) Issue: 352

Impact of technology on learning has not been answered clearly many years after the introduction of ICT into classrooms. Today there are optimist and pessimist views regarding the use of ICT in education. Academic research has a position between these two opposing views. Although promising results on benefits of ICT use in education, ICT is not used in teaching in such extend as it could be appropriate according the potentials in the literature. The expected impact of ICT has not been realized mainly because massive investments in equipment and training have not been accompanied by the necessary radical organizational restructuring. The integration of ICT is a complex and multidimensional process including many dynamics such as ICT tools, teachers, students, school administration, educational programs and school culture. Another difficulty in front of this integration is the lack of interactivity and emotionality of currently used ICT. While using these devices students of today want active participation and emotionality instead of staying in a passive role. They are also looking for emotional satisfaction from using and interacting with the products. The main purpose of this article is to make an inquiry on affective computing with an educational viewpoint. The literature review is showing that emotions may serve as a powerful vehicle for enhancing or inhibiting learning and there are optimistic expectations towards affective computing among researchers. Affective computing systems are expected to have positive impacts on learning. Many researchers now feel strongly that intelligent tutoring systems would be significantly enhanced if computers could adapt to the emotions of students. Affective computing and detection of human emotions are areas still maturing and there various are difficulties in front of implementing affective computing systems in real educational settings.

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What does literature say about the barriers to the successful integration of ICT?

Khalid Bingimlas (2009) Barriers to the Successful Integration of ICT in Teaching and Learning Environments: A Review of the Literature, Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education

The use of ICT in the classroom is very important for providing opportunities for students to learn to operate in an information age. Studying the obstacles to the use of ICT in education may assist educators to overcome these barriers and become successful technology adopters in the future. This paper provides a meta-analysis of the relevant literature that aims to present the perceived barriers to technology integration in science education. The findings indicate that teachers had a strong desire for to integrate ICT into education; but that, they encountered many barriers. The major barriers were lack of confidence, lack of competence, and lack of access to resources. Since confidence, competence and accessibility have been found to be the critical components of technology integration in schools, ICT resources including software and hardware, effective professional development, sufficient time, and technical support need to be provided to teachers. No one component in itself is sufficient to provide good teaching. However, the presence of all components increases the possibility of excellent integration of ICT in learning and teaching opportunities. Generally, this paper provides information and recommendation to those responsible for the integration of new technologies into science education.
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Is web-based homework more effective than paper and pencil homework?

Michael Mendicino, Leena Razzaq, Neil T Heifernan (2009) A Comparison of Traditional Homework to Computer-Supported Homework, Journal of Research on Technology in Education (2009) Volume: 41, Issue: 3, Pages: 331-359

This study compared learning for fifth grade students in two math homework conditions. The paper-and-pencil condition represented traditional homework, with review of problems in class the following day. The Web-based homework condition provided immediate feedback in the form of hints on demand and step-by-step scaffolding. We analyzed the results for students who completed both the paper-and-pencil and the Web-based conditions. In this group of 28 students, students learned significantly more when given computer feedback than when doing traditional paper-and-pencil homework, with an effect size of .61. The implications of this study are that, given the large effect size, it may be worth the cost and effort to give Web-based homework when students have access to the needed equipment, such as in schools that have implemented one-to-one computing programs.

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Are Teacher Pedagogical Beliefs The Final Frontier in Our Quest for Technology Integration?

Ertmer, P. A, (2005) Teacher Pedagogical Beliefs: The Final Frontier in Our Quest for Technology Integration? Educational Technology Research & Development (2005) Volume: 53, Issue: 4

Although the conditions for successful technology integration finally appear to be in place, including ready access to technology, increased training for teachers, and a favorable policy environment, high-level technology use is still surprisingly low. This suggests that additional barriers, specifically related to teachers pedagogical beliefs, may be at work. Previous researchers have noted the influence of teachers beliefs on classroom instruction specifically in math, reading, and science, yet little research has been done to establish a similar link to teachers classroom uses of technology. In this article, I argue for the importance of such research and present a conceptual overview of teacher pedagogical beliefs as a vital first step. After defining and describing the nature of teacher beliefs, including how they are likely to impact teachers classroom practice, I describe important implications for teacher professional development and offer suggestions for future research.

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Does ICT contribute to powerful learning environments in primary education?

Smeets, E. (2005)  Does ICT contribute to powerful learning environments in primary education? Computers & Education  Volume: 44, Issue: 3, Pages: 343-355

In powerful learning environments, rich contexts and authentic tasks are presented to pupils. Active, autonomous and co-operative learning is stimulated, and the curriculum is adapted to the needs and capabilities of individual pupils. In this study, the characteristics of learning environments and the contribution of ICT to learning environments were investigated. A questionnaire was completed by 331 teachers in the highest grade of primary education. Results show that many teachers apply several elements of powerful learning environments in their classes. This especially goes for the presentation of authentic tasks and the fostering of active and autonomous learning. However, the methods employed by teachers to adapt education to the needs and abilities of individual pupils proved quite limited. The use of ICT in general merely showed characteristics of traditional approaches to learning. Chances of using open-ended ICT applications, which are expected to contribute to the power of learning environments, were greater with teachers who created powerful learning environments for their pupils, and when there were more computers available to pupils. In addition, teachers’ views with regard to the contribution of ICT to active and autonomous learning, teachers’ skills in using ICT, and the teacher’s gender appeared to be relevant background variables in this respect.

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What is the TPACK Framework?

Cox, S., & Graham, C. (2009). An elaborated model of the TPACK framework. Proceedings of Society for Information Technology Teacher Education International Conference 2009 (pp. 4042-4049). AACE

The introduction of the TPACK Framework has facilitated new and more rigorous study of teachers knowledge and use of technology in the classroom. However, the community interested in TPACK is still striving to develop a common understanding of what each construct in the framework means. A review of the research surrounding TPACK shows that there are still widely differing perceptions regarding how to operationalize the TPACK constructs and define boundaries between them. This paper reports on a conceptual analysis that was done to clarify construct definitions and boundaries in the TPACK framework. The research review and interviews with leading researchers have helped the authors to create an elaborated TPACK framework with case examples that further articulates the TPACK constructs and boundaries between them. The authors also suggest directions for future TPACK research.

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Can children create new and authentic knowledge?

Bereiter, Carl;  Scardamalia, Marlene. (2010) Can Children Really Create Knowledge? Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, v36 n1 Fall 2010.

Can children genuinely create new knowledge, as opposed to merely carrying out activities that resemble those of mature scientists and innovators? The answer is yes, provided the comparison is not to works of genius but to standards that prevail in ordinary research communities. One important product of knowledge creation is concepts and tools that enable further knowledge creation. This is the kind of knowledge creation of greatest value in childhood education. Examples of it, drawn from elementary school knowledge-building classrooms, are examined to show both the attainability and the authenticity of knowledge creation to enable knowledge creation.It is mainly achieved through students’ theory building, and it is a powerful way of converting declarative knowledge to productive knowledge

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How do High school and Middle school students perceive teachers, ICT and learning?

Stefl-Mabry, J., Radlick, M., Doane, W., (2010) Can You Hear Me Now? Student voice: High school & middle school students’ perceptions of teachers, ICT and learning, International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT), 2010, Vol. 6, Issue 4, pp.64-82.

Information and Communications Technologies have become tightly woven into the fabric of most middle school and high school students’ lives throughout the United States. However this is true, for the most part, only when students step outside the physical and mental confines of school. Today many students find that the technology they have access to outside of school is newer, faster, and far less restrictive than the technology they have access to in school. This dichotomy is creating a situation where, for the first time, students have more access to information and resources out of school than they do in school. This exploratory case study examines the viewpoints of Middle School (MS) and High School (HS) students in a technology-affluent, rural, United States school district relative to Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) use in and out of school. Students in our study 1) perceived technology in school as limited and restrictive, 2) recognized teachers’ ICT skills determined classroom instruction, 3) provided suggestions to help teachers with ICT, 4) articulated the learning environments they prefer, 5) experienced a disconnect between ICT use in school and out of school, and 6) perceived educators as not caring.

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What does research say about integrating technology into K-12 teaching and learning?

Hew, K. F., & Brush, T. (2006). Integrating technology into K-12 teaching and learning: current knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research.Educational Technology Research & Development55(3), 223-252.

Although research studies in education show that use of technology can help student learning, its use is generally affected by certain barriers. In this paper, we first identify the general barriers typically faced by K-12 schools, both in the United States as well as other countries, when integrating technology into the curriculum for instructional purposes, namely: (a) resources, (b) institution, (c) subject culture, (d) attitudes and beliefs, (e) knowledge and skills, and (f) assessment. We then describe the strategies to overcome such barriers: (a) having a shared vision and technology integration plan, (b) overcoming the scarcity of resources, (c) changing attitudes and beliefs, (d) conducting professional development, and (e) reconsidering assessments. Finally, we identify several current knowledge gaps pertaining to the barriers and strategies of technology integration, and offer pertinent recommendations for future research.

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Do experienced middle-aged teachers integrate more ICT into their teaching than younger teachers with a more positive attitude toward computers?

Hung, Y.,  and  Hsu, Y., (2007) Examining Teachers’ CBT Use in the Classroom: A Study in Secondary schools in Taiwan, Journal of Educational Technology & Society Volume 10 Number 3 2007

The purpose of this study was to analyze the current status of computer-based technology (CBT) use in secondary schools in Taiwan. A questionnaire was developed to investigate teachers’ attitudes toward computers and their application of CBT in instruction. We randomly sampled 100 secondary school science teachers and found that in general they did use CBT for accessing the internet and other teaching-related work. The surveyed teachers had a very positive attitude toward computers, yet we found their attitude was significantly correlated with their age and seniority. The older and more senior teachers generally held a less positive attitude toward computers. As for the application of computer-based technology in classroom instruction, most teachers claimed at least a moderate degree of implementation of CBT in the classroom. In gender difference, male teachers in general used more CBT in their instructional strategies than did female teachers. As far as age was concerned, middle-aged and more experienced teachers tended to integrate more CBT into their instruction than younger and novice teachers, even though the latter group held a more positive attitude toward computers. In correlation analysis we discovered that with male but not with female teachers, there was a direct correlation between degree of positive attitude toward computers and degree of application of CBT in classroom instruction.

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