Using the power of research to inform ICT integration in education

Posts tagged ‘professional development’

How can Personal, Professional Coaching transform Professional Development for Teacher and Administrative Leaders?

Janet Patti, Allison A. Holzer,  Robin Stern, Marc A. Brackett (2012) Personal, Professional Coaching: Transforming Professional Development for Teacher and Administrative Leaders, Journal of Leadership Education, Volume 11, Issue 1 – Winter 2012

This article makes the case for a different approach to the professional development of teachers and school leaders called personal, professional coaching (PPC). Personal, professional coaching is grounded in reflective practices that cultivate self-awareness, emotion management, social awareness, and relationship management. Findings from two case studies support the benefits perceived by teachers and administrative leaders who participated in coaching to enhance their leadership potential and performance. A description of the content and process of coaching is provided.

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How can Explicit and Implicit Pedagogy inform teaching practices?

John Mason (2011) Explicit and Implicit Pedagogy: variation theory as a case study,  Smith, C. (Ed.) Proceedings of the British Society for Research into Learning Mathematics 31(3) November 2011

Variation theory proposes that learners must experience variation in the critical aspects of a concept, within limited space and time, in order for the concept to be learnable. But the presence of variation does not in itself guarantee that that variation will be experienced. As Kant implied, a sequence of experiences does not guarantee an experience of that sequence. Implicit variation theory assumes that the presentation of variation is sufficient in order for learners to learn what is intended, whereas explicit variation theory incorporates some degree of explicitness in the interaction between teacher and student. The conjecture is proposed that tension between explicitness and implicitness is present in all attempts both to implement theories in practice and to justify or analyse pedagogical choices using theories, of whatever kind.

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How do high school math teachers use technology to teach geometry?

Melanie Lolli (2012) The Views of High School Geometry Teachers regarding the Effect of Technology on Student Learning, Honors Thesis Final Project, Ohio Dominican University

The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics claims that technology is necessary to student learning in math and, in fact, enhances it. There are some studies to support this claim, but these studies leave some unanswered questions. The purpose of this study was to find out from current high school math teachers, of geometry specifically, what their views of technology are. The goal of the study was to ask these teachers which technologies they use and whether they believe technology has beneficial effects on student learning. This study did find a consensus among the participants as to which technologies they felt were the most beneficial in their classrooms, as well as those that might not be needed at all in a classroom.

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How productive is learning in networked environments?

Alevizou, Panagiota; Galley, Rebecca and Conole, Grainne (2012). Collectivity, performance and self- representation: analysing Cloudworks as a public space for networked learning and reflection. In: Dirckinck- Holmfeld, Lone; Hodgson, Vivien and McConnell, David eds. Exploring the Theory, Pedagogy and Practice of Networked Learning. New York: Springer, pp. 75–97.

It has been argued that processes of participatory culture, afforded by social media and technologies blur the boundaries between creative production and consumption, and open up novel, public spaces for, and styles of, networked learning; social spaces that promote collaborative knowledge building, and shared assets. However, empirical evidence on the application of such technologies for supporting teaching and learning in higher education contexts is only slowly emerging. The chapter explores these concepts in the context of analysis of emergent patterns of behaviour and activity in Cloudworks, a specialised networking site, and a public space for aggregating and sharing resources and exchanging ideas about the scholarship and practice of education, with particular emphasis on the relationship between ICTs and teaching and learning. Combining notions of self-representation and collective intelligence with dimensions of expansive learning, activity patterns, performance and expression within the site are analysed. The chapter contextualises findings through a critical lens and offers insights that can shape the future research agenda for productive learning in networked environments.

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How can Libraries adopt ‘Information in Context’ structures to facilitate organizational learning?

Somerville, M.M.& Howard,Z. (2010) Information in context: Co- designing workplace structures and systems for organizational learning. Information Research, 15(4).

This paper discusses an ‘information in context’ design project at Auraria Library in Denver, Colorado which aims to collaboratively create organizational structures and communication systems with and for library employees. This project resulted in several of the co-designed knowledge initiatives being implemented within Auraria Library to enhance communication, decision making and planning systems. These included both face to face and technology enabled initiatives such as such as ‘brown bag’ lunches to a new wiki based intranet system. This project advances professional practice through better understanding how to create workplace contexts that cultivate individual and collective learning through situated ‘information in context’ experiences. An appreciative framework was developed which values information sharing and enables knowledge creation through shared leadership.

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Why Do Teachers Participate in Self-generated Online Communities?

Jung Won Hur, Thomas A. Brush (2009) Teacher Participation in Online Communities: Why Do Teachers Want to Participate in Self-generated Online Communities of K–12 Teachers?, Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 41(3), 279–303

The purpose of this study was to examine reasons for teacher participation in on- line communities of K–12 teachers. The authors interviewed 23 teachers from three self-generated online communities and analyzed more than 2,000 postings in those communities. The findings indicated five reasons for participation: (a) sharing emotions, (b) utilizing the advantages of online environments, (c) combating teacher isolation, (d) exploring ideas, and (e) experiencing a sense of camaraderie. In conclusion, the findings imply that when designing teacher professional development programs, more emphasis needs to be placed on teachers’ emotional sharing and promotion of self-esteem.

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What support do teachers need to use ICT meaningfully?

Anne-Grete Nøhr Elliot (2011) From Preservice Teacher Education to the Primary Classroom: An Investigation into Beginning Teachers’ Experiences with Information and Communication Technology, A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education at Massey University, Palmerston North New Zealand

The findings suggest the meaningful use of ICT requires beginning teachers to possess a high level of complex knowledge, including pedagogical content knowledge. They also highlight the importance of a supportive school culture, strong leadership and induction systems for beginning teachers’ development. Notably, participants report relatively fragile conceptions of the potential of ICT for learning and lack knowledge of national and school policies in this area. Most of the beginning teachers were unable to make connections between their work as teachers and the broader policy goals for education. Overall the study offers valuable insights into the experiences of a group of beginning teachers over their first year of teaching, which has implications for tutor teachers, principals, teacher educators and policy makers. Through a new line of research, the thesis reveals the complexity of learning to be an ICT-using teacher and the type of factors that contribute to teacher development.

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What conditions foster ICT implementation in the curriculum?

Rafi Nachmias, David Mioduser, Alona Forkosh-Baruch (2008) Innovative Pedagogical Practices Using Technology: The Curriculum Perspective, INTERNATIONAL HANDBOOK OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, Springer International Handbooks of Education, 2008, Volume 20, 2, 163-179,

Information and communication technologies (ICT) have affected our lives for over half a century. Yet, the school’s curriculum is still perceived as traditional in its structure and implementation. Attempts to assimilate ICT into schools’ curricula are frequently supported by policymakers. However, significant change in content, teaching and learning processes and assessment methods can actually be detected mainly in focal innovative initiatives within schools. This chapter analyzes case studies of innovative IT-supported pedagogical practices from 28 countries. The analysis refers to conditions required for fostering ICT implementation in the curriculum, with regards to new demands for teaching and learning. This suggests analysis of ICT-related curricular issues in separate subject areas, as well as in integrated subject domains. Further, we discuss desired changes in existing curricula, which may lead to innovative ICT implementation within schools.

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What is the Truth about 1:1 Laptop Initiatives?

Mark E. Weston & Alan Bain (2010) The Naked Truth about 1:1 Laptop Initiatives and Educational Change, The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, Volume 9, Number 6 · January 2010

This analysis responds to a generation of criticism leveled at 1:1 laptop computer initiatives. The article presents a review of the key themes of that criticism and offers suggestions for reframing the conversation about 1:1 computing among advocates and critics. Efforts at changing, innovating, and reforming education provide the context for reframing the conversation. Within that context, we raise questions about what classrooms and schools need to look and be like in order to realize the advantages of 1:1 computing. In doing so, we present a theoretical vision for self-organizing schools in which laptop computers or other such devices are essential tools.

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How do Systems Hinder or Engender Change? The case of Professional Learning Communities

Joan E. Talbert (2009) Professional Learning Communities at the Crossroads: How Systems Hinder or Engender Change, Springer International Handbooks of Education, 2009, Volume 23, Part 3

My observations stem from 10 years of research in the Center for Research on the Context of Teaching (CRC) at Stanford University. Scholars at CRC have been studying initiatives to create teacher PLCs in schools and to change school districts into learning organizations. All are struggling to get it right – to achieve the vision of teachers collaborating to continually improve student achievement. We find that system conditions that support the work of PLCs – such as a comprehensive education plan, integrated learning resources, local knowledge resources, robust data and accountability system, extended time for teacher collaboration, and leaders committed to PLCs – are not sufficient to engender change in professional culture and teachers’ work lives. This chapter addresses the question of why teachers respond negatively to PLC initiatives that aim to increase their professional judgment and accountability. First, I discuss core principles of a PLC and how they challenge typical school culture. Then I describe two paradigmatic approaches to PLC development and how participants typically respond to each approach. And finally, I draw lessons from school district experience with PLCs and identify the obstacles that must be overcome if this approach to improved student learning outcomes is to be successful.

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How can podcasts support inverted classrooms?

Gannod, G. C. (2007) Work in progress — Using podcasting in an inverted classroom, Frontiers in education conference global engineering knowledge without borders opportunities without passports 2007 FIE07 37th annual (2007)

An inverted classroom is a teaching environment that mixes the use of technology with hands on activities. In an inverted classroom, typical in-class lecture time is replaced with laboratory and in-class activities. Outside of class, lectures are delivered over some other medium such as video on-demand. As such, learning activities, which typically are done outside of class, are done in-class in the presence of the instructor. Passive activities, such as listening to lectures, are performed outside of class. In this paper, we describe the use of podcasting in an inverted classroom environment with the explicit goal of reclaiming lecture time for in-class laboratories and learning activities. This Work-in- Progress paper focuses primarily upon the description of the approach being piloted, technologies being utilized, and the characteristics of the pilot course.

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A Systemic Approach to Technology-Based School Innovations

(2010). Educational Research and Innovation Inspired by Technology, Driven by Pedagogy: A Systemic Approach to Technology-Based School Innovations. SourceOECD Education Skills2010(27), 164. OECD – Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

This report highlights key issues to facilitate understanding of how a systemic approach to technology-based school innovations can contribute to quality education for all while promoting a more equal and effective education system. It focuses on the novel concept of systemic innovation, as well as presenting the emerging opportunities to generate innovations that stem from Web 2.0 and the important investments and efforts that have gone into the development and promotion of digital resources. It also shows alternative ways to monitor, assess and scale up technology-based innovations. Some country cases, as well as fresh and alternative research frameworks, are presented.Today, sufficient return on public investments in education and the ability to innovate are more important than ever. This was the conclusion of the international conference on “The School of Tomorrow, Today” organised by the OECD Centre for Educational Research and Innovation with the support of the Secretariat of Education of the State Santa Catarina (Brazil), in November 2009. The conference and this resulting report share the overall goal of addressing the issue of how education systems achieve technology-based innovations.

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How can students’ emotions determine effective use of ICT in education?

Cenk Akbiyik (2009) Can Affective Computing Lead to More Effective Use of ICT in Education? Technology (2009) Issue: 352

Impact of technology on learning has not been answered clearly many years after the introduction of ICT into classrooms. Today there are optimist and pessimist views regarding the use of ICT in education. Academic research has a position between these two opposing views. Although promising results on benefits of ICT use in education, ICT is not used in teaching in such extend as it could be appropriate according the potentials in the literature. The expected impact of ICT has not been realized mainly because massive investments in equipment and training have not been accompanied by the necessary radical organizational restructuring. The integration of ICT is a complex and multidimensional process including many dynamics such as ICT tools, teachers, students, school administration, educational programs and school culture. Another difficulty in front of this integration is the lack of interactivity and emotionality of currently used ICT. While using these devices students of today want active participation and emotionality instead of staying in a passive role. They are also looking for emotional satisfaction from using and interacting with the products. The main purpose of this article is to make an inquiry on affective computing with an educational viewpoint. The literature review is showing that emotions may serve as a powerful vehicle for enhancing or inhibiting learning and there are optimistic expectations towards affective computing among researchers. Affective computing systems are expected to have positive impacts on learning. Many researchers now feel strongly that intelligent tutoring systems would be significantly enhanced if computers could adapt to the emotions of students. Affective computing and detection of human emotions are areas still maturing and there various are difficulties in front of implementing affective computing systems in real educational settings.

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What does literature say about the barriers to the successful integration of ICT?

Khalid Bingimlas (2009) Barriers to the Successful Integration of ICT in Teaching and Learning Environments: A Review of the Literature, Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education

The use of ICT in the classroom is very important for providing opportunities for students to learn to operate in an information age. Studying the obstacles to the use of ICT in education may assist educators to overcome these barriers and become successful technology adopters in the future. This paper provides a meta-analysis of the relevant literature that aims to present the perceived barriers to technology integration in science education. The findings indicate that teachers had a strong desire for to integrate ICT into education; but that, they encountered many barriers. The major barriers were lack of confidence, lack of competence, and lack of access to resources. Since confidence, competence and accessibility have been found to be the critical components of technology integration in schools, ICT resources including software and hardware, effective professional development, sufficient time, and technical support need to be provided to teachers. No one component in itself is sufficient to provide good teaching. However, the presence of all components increases the possibility of excellent integration of ICT in learning and teaching opportunities. Generally, this paper provides information and recommendation to those responsible for the integration of new technologies into science education.
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Do teachers really implement their constructivist beliefs about learning when they integrate technology?

Judson, E. (2006) How Teachers Integrate Technology and Their Beliefs About Learning : Is There a Connection? Knowledge Creation Diffusion Utilization (2006) Volume: 14, Issue: 3, Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education

Research indicates that teachers who readily integrate technology into their instruction are more likely to possess constructivist teaching styles. Evidence suggests there is a parallel between a teachers student-centered beliefs about instruction and the nature of the teachers technology-integrated lessons. This connection between the use of technology and constructivist pedagogy implies constructivist-minded teachers maintain dynamic student-centered classrooms where technology is a powerful learning tool. Unfortunately, much of the research to date has relied on self-reported data from teachers and this type of data too often presents a less than accurate picture. Versus self-reported practices, direct observations that gauge the constructivist manner in which teachers integrate technology are a more precise, albeit protracted, measurement. In this study 32 classroom teachers completed a survey to measure their beliefs about instruction, but they were also directly observed and rated with the Focus on Integrated Technology: Classroom Observation Measurement (FIT:COM). The FIT:COM measures the degree to which technology integrated lessons are aligned with constructivist principles. Analysis did not reveal a significant relationship between practices and beliefs. Although most teachers identified strongly with constructivist convictions they failed to exhibit these ideas in their practices.

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How can technology be used to facilitate work in professional learning communities?

Feger, S., Arruda, E. (2008) Professional Learning Communities: Key Themes from the Literature, Review conducted by The Education Alliance at Brown University under a subcontract from Hezel Associates, LLC, general evaluation contractor for PBS TeacherLine.

Over the past twenty-five years, the educational literature has devoted considerable attention to the topic of professional learning communities (PLCs). A search of the literature on PLCs reveals a broad range of publications from guidelines for organizing PLCs, to research on their implementation. However, rigorous research and evaluation studies of PLCs are limited in number. Much of the practitioner literature on PLCs has described the processes and stages that occur along their developmental trajectory. As learning communities evolve as a strategy for professional development on a larger scale, there is a small but emerging literature that looks critically at PLC models and their impact on teaching practice and student learning. Collectively, the literature on PLCs is a rich and promising body of work that offers valuable opportunities for further exploration.

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How do school cultures influence technology transformation?

Kitchenham, A. D., (2009) School cultures, teachers, and technology transformation, Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology (2009) 35(2) Spring

This article outlines a recent study on school culture and technology adoption. Adapting Hargreaves’ (2003) model of school cultures, research findings are presented on three schools involved in a study on teacher transformation using educational technology to explain how each school represents a separate school culture and school regime. Each school is profiled to demonstrate, through direct quotes from the participants, how a specific school culture or regime can reflect varying degrees of transformation, and subsequent technology adoption.

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What is the TPACK Framework?

Cox, S., & Graham, C. (2009). An elaborated model of the TPACK framework. Proceedings of Society for Information Technology Teacher Education International Conference 2009 (pp. 4042-4049). AACE

The introduction of the TPACK Framework has facilitated new and more rigorous study of teachers knowledge and use of technology in the classroom. However, the community interested in TPACK is still striving to develop a common understanding of what each construct in the framework means. A review of the research surrounding TPACK shows that there are still widely differing perceptions regarding how to operationalize the TPACK constructs and define boundaries between them. This paper reports on a conceptual analysis that was done to clarify construct definitions and boundaries in the TPACK framework. The research review and interviews with leading researchers have helped the authors to create an elaborated TPACK framework with case examples that further articulates the TPACK constructs and boundaries between them. The authors also suggest directions for future TPACK research.

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What is the Perspective of Early Childhood Professionals on Assistive Technology User Groups?

Parette, H., & Stoner, J., Watts, E. (2009). Assistive Technology User Group Perspectives of Early Childhood Professionals, Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 2009, 44(2), 257–270

With the increasing usage of assistive technology (AT) usage in early childhood education settings serving children who are at-risk or who have developmental disabilities, there is a corresponding need for effective professional development experiences such as user groups to develop skills in using AT. Using a collective case study approach, 10 teachers who had participated in AT user groups and who were using an AT toolkit in their classrooms were interviewed and provided responses regarding (a) perspectives of user groups, (b) use of the toolkit, (c) benefits of user groups, (d) concerns regarding user groups, (e) perceived effects of AT on teaching and decision-making, and (f) perceived effects of AT on the classroom. Themes of interviews are presented, supported by statements from teachers.

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Do experienced middle-aged teachers integrate more ICT into their teaching than younger teachers with a more positive attitude toward computers?

Hung, Y.,  and  Hsu, Y., (2007) Examining Teachers’ CBT Use in the Classroom: A Study in Secondary schools in Taiwan, Journal of Educational Technology & Society Volume 10 Number 3 2007

The purpose of this study was to analyze the current status of computer-based technology (CBT) use in secondary schools in Taiwan. A questionnaire was developed to investigate teachers’ attitudes toward computers and their application of CBT in instruction. We randomly sampled 100 secondary school science teachers and found that in general they did use CBT for accessing the internet and other teaching-related work. The surveyed teachers had a very positive attitude toward computers, yet we found their attitude was significantly correlated with their age and seniority. The older and more senior teachers generally held a less positive attitude toward computers. As for the application of computer-based technology in classroom instruction, most teachers claimed at least a moderate degree of implementation of CBT in the classroom. In gender difference, male teachers in general used more CBT in their instructional strategies than did female teachers. As far as age was concerned, middle-aged and more experienced teachers tended to integrate more CBT into their instruction than younger and novice teachers, even though the latter group held a more positive attitude toward computers. In correlation analysis we discovered that with male but not with female teachers, there was a direct correlation between degree of positive attitude toward computers and degree of application of CBT in classroom instruction.

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Is technology leadership about teaching technology or reorganizing teaching?

Davies, P. M. (2010). On school educational technology leadership. Management in Education, 24(2), 55-61.
This analysis of the literatures on school educational technology leadership addresses definitions of school technology leaders and leadership, their role in educational change, and why schools are now changing as a result of 21st century advancements in technology. The literatures disagree over the definition of educational technology leadership. Further examination revealed that technology leadership is about the reorganization of teaching rather than the process of teaching itself. Several gaps relating to who is doing research on technology leadership are identified, and an attempt is made to assemble a model showing how schools can organize technology leadership so that teaching and learning remain the central focus.

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How can Technology Leaders help their faculty implement appropriate ICT tools?

Keengwe, J., Kidd, T., & Kyei-Blankson, L. (2008). Faculty and Technology: Implications for Faculty Training and Technology Leadership. Journal of Science Education and Technology18(1), 23-28.

The purpose of this study was to explore the factors affecting ICT adoption process and the implications for faculty training and technology leadership. Respondents represented a wide range of academic and professional positions. They identi ed themselves as Assistant, Associate, and Professor as well as Instructional Designer, Director of Technology, Information Manager, eLearning Manager, Assistant Department Chair, Associate Vice President of Academic Affairs and Consultant. The respondents identi ed Organizational Support, Leadership, Training and Development, and Resources as the predominate themes affecting Information and Communication Technology (ICT) adoption process in higher education. Evidence from this study offers insights on how higher education administrators and technology leaders could help their faculty and staff to implement appropriate ICT tools and practices to improve student learning

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