Using the power of research to inform ICT integration in education

Posts tagged ‘online social networks’

Do the benefits of children using social networking services outweigh the risks?

Livingstone, Sonia, Kjartan Ólafsson, and Elisabeth Staksrud. “Risky Social Networking Practices Among “Underage” Users: Lessons for Evidence‐Based Policy.” Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication (2013).

There are growing public calls for social networking services (SNS) providers to remove age restrictions and to recognize that children want – and have the right to – use these services. Facebook’s CEO recently announced his wish to remove age restrictions. Also, some child welfare organizations argue that if children can be accurately identified by age on registration, then providers could be required to and would be able to deliver targeted age-appropriate protective advice/measures including upgraded control features, child-friendly user tools and safety information, privacy settings by default, and easy-to-use reporting mechanisms. If age restrictions are removed, the numbers of young children using SNS would likely rise substantially, passing regulatory responsibility to parents who, based on the evidence from this survey, might find this difficult. About half of parents want to restrict their children’s use of SNS. More fundamentally, this conclusion implies that it is in children’s best interests that younger ones do not use SNSs (or at least, those used also by adults) unless appropriate safety features are in place. In other words, we suggest that the risk (to privacy, safety and self-esteem of children) is likely to outweigh the benefits of SNS use. Although the evidence for this claim is sparse, we would call for qualitative research to explore the unfolding interaction among children’s desires, parental concerns, technological affordances, and observable outcomes. There is scope also for further research into the effectiveness and legitimacy of self-regulation for child protection on the internet.

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How and Why Do Teenagers Use Video Chat?

Tatiana Buhler, Carman Neustaedter, and Serena Hillman (2013) How and Why Teenagers Use Video Chat, Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing, ACM Press

Teenagers are increasingly using video chat systems to communicate with others, however, little research has been conducted to explore how and why they use the technology. To better understand this design space, we present the results of a study of twenty teenagers and their use of video chat systems such as Skype, FaceTime, and Google Hangouts. Our results show that video chat plays an important role in helping teenagers socialize with their friends after school and on weekends where it allows them to see emotional reactions and participate in activities like shared homework sessions, show and tell, and performances over distance.

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What are the sharing behaviors and perceptions of G+ users?

Jason Watson, Andrew Besmer, Heather Richter Lipford (2012) +Your Circles: Sharing Behavior on Google+ , Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security (SOUPS) 2012, July 11-13

Users are sharing and consuming enormous amounts of information through online social network interaction every day. Yet, many users struggle to control what they share to their overlapping social spheres. Google+ introduces circles, a mechanism that enables users to group friends and use these groups to control their social network feeds and posts. We present the results of a qualitative interview study on the sharing perceptions and behavior of 27 Google+ users. These results indicate that many users have a clear understanding of circles, using them to target information to those most interested in it. Yet, despite these positive perceptions, there is only moderate use of circles to control information flow. We explore reasons and risks associated with these behaviors and provide insight on the impact and open questions of this privacy mechanism.

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How can Social Networking be a Vehicle for Teacher Professional Development?

Michael Sammartano (2011) Social Networking as a Vehicle for Teacher Professional Development, New York Institute of Technology, Masters of Science in Instructional Technology

Social networking has the potential to transform education-related professional development by connecting teachers quickly and inexpensively, regardless of the physical distance or other barriers that may seperate them. Incorporating these digital tools into teachers learning can expand and improve existing professional relationships, while fostering an environment in which new ones can be built. This study explores the extent to which K-12 teachers currently utilize a variety of social media tools to further their professional learning. (..) Overall, the research revealed that few educators utilize social networking tools for professional reasons. Data showed that there is a desire amongst the respondents to incorporate more digital media into future professional development activities, though a significant population wanted to maintain at least some level of face-to-face interaction. Implications suggest that increased integration of social media as a vehicle for professional development will better meet the needs of many educators.

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What can we learn from Google Image Labeler?

Nassim Jafarinaimi (2012) Exploring the Character of Participation in Social Media: The Case of Google Image Labeler, Proceeding iConference ’12 Proceedings of the 2012 iConference

Social media are transforming interpersonal and social interactions, enabling new forms of engagement and participation. However, we know little about how the specific design qualities of social media affect social interaction in these environments. Considering the diversity of social media today, there is a need to engage with specific cases to discern possible patterns of relationship between designed characteristics of social media and the character of participation in them. To illustrate, this paper draws on a case study of the game, “Google Image Labeler.” The design of the game is studied through a close reading of arguments made by its designers followed by an Internet study of what users and critics say about their interactions with the game. These studies, in conjunction with theories of social interaction by John Dewey and Robert Putnam, provide a foundation for a critical stance toward the quality of participation in this game that informs design theory and practice.

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How do scholars use their YouTube channels?

Mariana Martinho, Marta Pinto, Yuliya Kuznetsova (2012) Scholars’ YouTube channels: content analysis of educational videos, Internet Latent Corpus Journal VOL. 2 N. 2 (2012)

YouTube is a Web 2.0 platform of distributed video sharing, widely used by students, universities and scholars. This article looks into the YouTube channels set by three scholars whose research interests are linked to technology enhanced learning. The focus of analysis is on the sample of videos each scholar uploaded and categorized as “education” in their YouTube channels. The data collected from the content analysis allows to understand what content is being shared and with what approach.

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Can Facebook and other social media really support education?

Friesen, N. and Lowe, S. (2012), The questionable promise of social media for education: connective learning and the commercial imperative. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 28: 183–194

Facebook and other social media have been hailed as delivering the promise of new, socially engaged educational experiences for students in undergraduate, self-directed, and other educational sectors. A theoretical and historical analysis of these media in the light of earlier media transformations, however, helps to situate and qualify this promise. Specifically, the analysis of dominant social media presented here questions whether social media platforms satisfy a crucial component of learning – fostering the capacity for debate and disagreement.

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How can Online Tools Support Critical Collaborative Inquiry in a Blended Learning Environment?

Khoo, E., Johnson, E. M., & Zahra, A. (2012). I learnt a whole lot more than churning out an essay: Using online tools to support critical collaborative inquiry in a blended learning environment. Journal of Open, Flexible and Distance Learning, 16(1), [pp. 127–140].

This paper reports on a qualitative case study of a teacher and her students in a postgraduate Tourism course in New Zealand in which a learning management system, discussion forums, and wikis were used to facilitate student engagement and deeper learning of course content. Although the teacher was experienced in face-to-face teaching contexts, she was a novice in the design and delivery of online learning. However, she believed that technology could foster deeper and more meaningful critical collaborative inquiry among course participants and was keen to explore how this could be facilitated. Evaluative data were gathered from teacher interviews, student focus groups, and an online student survey. Findings indicate that the use of different online tools was effective for engaging students and helped them develop critical insights into key course concepts. However, careful planning and reflection on different pedagogical approaches were needed so that student learning could be supported in meaningful and relevant ways. Implications for supporting educators and students in blended, online learning in Tourism education are offered.

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How negative is media multitasking on the Well-Being of 8- to 12-Year-Old Girls?

Pea, R., Nass, C., Meheula, L., Rance, M., Kumar, A., Bamford, H., Nass, M., Simha, A., Stillerman, B., Yang, S., & Zhou, M. (2012). Media Use, Face-to-Face Communication, Media Multitasking, and Social Well-Being Among 8- to 12-Year-Old Girls. Developmental Psychology. Advance online publication.

An online survey of 3,461 North American girls ages 8–12 conducted in the summer of 2010 through Discovery Girls magazine examined the relationships between social well-being and young girls’ media use—including video, video games, music listening, reading/homework, e-mailing/posting on social media sites, texting/instant messaging, and talking on phones/video chatting—and face-to-face communication. This study introduced both a more granular measure of media multitasking and a new comparative measure of media use versus time spent in face-to-face communication. Regression analyses indicated that negative social well-being was positively associated with levels of uses of media that are centrally about interpersonal interaction (e.g., phone, online communication) as well as uses of media that are not (e.g., video, music, and reading). Video use was particularly strongly associated with negative social well-being indicators. Media multitasking was also associated with negative social indicators. Conversely, face-to-face communication was strongly associated with positive social well-being. Cell phone ownership and having a television or computer in one’s room had little direct association with children’s socioemotional well-being. We hypothesize possible causes for these relationships, call for research designs to address causality, and outline possible implications of such findings for the social well-being of younger adolescents.

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Just how negative is Facebook’s effect on students’ overall academic performance?

Reynol Junco (2011) Too much face and not enough books: The relationship between multiple indices of Facebook use and academic performance,  Computers in Human Behavior

Because of the social media platform’s widespread adoption by college students, there is a great deal of interest in how Facebook use is related to academic performance. A small number of prior studies have examined the relationship between Facebook use and college grade point average (GPA); however, these studies have been limited by their measures, sampling designs and failure to include prior academic ability as a control variable. For instance, previous studies used non-continuous measures of time spent on Facebook and self-reported GPA. This paper fills a gap in the literature by using a large sample (N = 1839) of college students to examine the relationship among multiple measures of frequency of Facebook use, participation in Facebook activities, and time spent preparing for class and actual overall GPA. Hierarchical (blocked) linear regression analyses revealed that time spent on Facebook was strongly and significantly negatively related to overall GPA, while only weakly related to time spent preparing for class. Furthermore, using Facebook for collecting and sharing information was positively predictive of the outcome variables while using Facebook for socializing was negatively predictive.

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What is the relationship between multitasking and academic performance?

Reynol Junco, Shelia R. Cotten (2011) The relationship between multitasking and academic performance, Computers & Education 59 (2012) 505–514

The proliferation and ease of access to information and communication technologies (ICTs) such as Facebook, text messaging, and instant messaging has resulted in ICT users being presented with more real-time streaming data than ever before. Unfortunately, this has also resulted in individuals increasingly engaging in multitasking as an information management strategy. The purpose of this study was to examine how college students multitask with ICTs and to determine the impacts of this multitasking on their college grade point average (GPA). Using web survey data from a large sample of college students at one university (N 1⁄4 1839), we found that students reported spending a large amount of time using ICTs on a daily basis. Students reported frequently searching for content not related to courses, using Face- book, emailing, talking on their cell phones, and texting while doing schoolwork. Hierarchical (blocked) linear regression analyses revealed that using Facebook and texting while doing schoolwork were negatively associated with overall college GPA. Engaging in Facebook use or texting while trying to complete schoolwork may tax students’ capacity for cognitive processing and preclude deeper learning. Our research indicates that the type and purpose of ICT use matters in terms of the educational impacts of multitasking.

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Does the structure of the brain help explain why some people are more distractible?

Kanai, R., Dong, M. Y., Baharami, B. & Rees, G. (2011) Distractibility in daily life is reflected in the structure and function of human parietal cortex. J. Neurosci. 31, 6620 – 6626.

Inter-individual variability in perception, thought and action is frequently treated as a source of ‘noise’ in scientific investigations of the neural mechanisms that underlie these processes, and discarded by averaging data from a group of participants. However, recent MRI studies in the human brain show that inter- individual variability in a wide range of basic and higher cognitive functions — including perception, motor control, memory, aspects of consciousness and the ability to introspect — can be predicted from the local structure of grey and white matter as assessed by voxel-based morphometry or diffusion tensor imaging. We propose that inter-individual differences can be used as a source of information to link human behaviour and cognition to brain anatomy.

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How can Second Life enhance astronomy in education?

Adrienne J. Gauthier (2007) Astronomy in Second Life: A User’s Perspective,  CAP Vol. 1, No. 1, October 2007

Second Life (SL) is a multi-user virtual environment that is not limited to adult social entertainment. SL is also a 3D playground for innovative instructors and education/outreach professionals in the sciences. Astronomy and space science have a presence in SL, but it could be so much more. This paper describes some of the current astronomy themed spaces in SL and briefly discusses future innovations.

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At what level does social capital impact workgroups?

Y. Connie Yuan (2011) Social Capital and Transactive Memory Systems in Workgroups: A Multilevel Approach, Cornell UniversityDepartment of Communication, Best Papers Proceedings of the Sixty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management

A multilevel, multi-theoretical model of transactive memory was developed by integrating the mergence model with social capital theories. Empirical tests showed that individual social capital significantly impacted the development of the micro-level component of transitive memories, but collective social capital did not significantly influence the development of macro-level transitive memories.

How productive is learning in networked environments?

Alevizou, Panagiota; Galley, Rebecca and Conole, Grainne (2012). Collectivity, performance and self- representation: analysing Cloudworks as a public space for networked learning and reflection. In: Dirckinck- Holmfeld, Lone; Hodgson, Vivien and McConnell, David eds. Exploring the Theory, Pedagogy and Practice of Networked Learning. New York: Springer, pp. 75–97.

It has been argued that processes of participatory culture, afforded by social media and technologies blur the boundaries between creative production and consumption, and open up novel, public spaces for, and styles of, networked learning; social spaces that promote collaborative knowledge building, and shared assets. However, empirical evidence on the application of such technologies for supporting teaching and learning in higher education contexts is only slowly emerging. The chapter explores these concepts in the context of analysis of emergent patterns of behaviour and activity in Cloudworks, a specialised networking site, and a public space for aggregating and sharing resources and exchanging ideas about the scholarship and practice of education, with particular emphasis on the relationship between ICTs and teaching and learning. Combining notions of self-representation and collective intelligence with dimensions of expansive learning, activity patterns, performance and expression within the site are analysed. The chapter contextualises findings through a critical lens and offers insights that can shape the future research agenda for productive learning in networked environments.

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How does technology lead individuals to disclose sensitive information?

Laura Brandimarte, Alessandro Acquisti, George Loewenstein (2010) Misplaced Confidences: Privacy and the Control Paradox, In: Ninth Annual Workshop on the Economics of Information Security (WEIS) June 7-8 2010 Harvard University, Cambridge, MA

We introduce and test the hypothesis that increasing perceived control over the release of private information will decrease individuals’ concern about privacy and increase their propensity to disclose sensitive information, even when the objective risks associated with such disclosures do not change or worsen. Three online experiments manipulated participants’ control over information release, but not over access and usage by others. The experiments show paradoxical effects whereby increased (decreased) control over the release of private information increases (decreases) willingness to publish sensitive information, even when the probability that strangers will access that information stays the same or increases (decreases). Our findings highlight how technologies that make individuals feel more in control over the release of personal information may have the unintended consequence of eliciting greater disclosure of sensitive information.

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How does mobile text messaging allow youth to overcome adult-control?

Mizuko Ito, Daisuke Okabe (2004) Intimate Connections: Contextualizing Japanese Youth and Mobile Messaging, Forthcoming in Richard Harper, Leysia Palen and Alex Taylor Eds., Inside the Text: Social Perspectives on SMS in the Mobile Age

This paper describes social, cultural, and historical contexts that structure current mobile text messaging practices of Japanese youth. First are ways in which mobile messaging has been structured by the power geometries of existing places of home, school, and public places. Second, the paper presents the central social context in which youth peer messaging practice is situated, that of the intimate peer group. Finally, the paper describes how these practices are situated in a postwar history of intergenerational struggle and cultural politics over youth street and communication cultures. Our central argument is that youth technology use is driven not only by certain psychological and developmental imperatives, but also by youths’ position in historically specific social structures. Mobile messaging provides a mechanism through which youth can overcome some of the adult-controlled power structures that govern their everyday lives.

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What is the impact of Media on the lives of 8- to 18-year-olds?

Victoria J. Rideout, Ulla G. Foehr, Donald F. Roberts, (2010) Generation M2: Media in the Lives of 8- to 18-Year-Olds, Kaiser Family Foundation

Over the past five years, young people have increased the amount of time they spend consuming media by an hour and seventeen minutes daily, from 6:21 to 7:38—almost the amount of time most adults spend at work each day, except that young people use media seven days a week instead of five. Use of every type of media has increased over the past 10 years, with the exception of reading. In just the past five years, the increases range from 24 minutes a day for video games, to 27 minutes a day for computers, 38 minutes for TV content, and 47 minutes a day for music and other audio. During this same period, time spent reading went from 43 to 38 minutes a day, not a statistically significant change. Today, 20% of media consumption (2:07) occurs on mobile devices—cell phones, iPods or handheld video game players.

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Can teachers use online commercial games to help students with their learning?

Wiklund, M., Ekenberg, L. (2009) Going to school in World of Warcraft. Observations from a trial programme using off-the-shelf computer games as learning tools in secondary education, Designs for Learning, No. 109

The use of commercial, off-the-shelf computer games as teaching tools is an interesting possibility, but one that may alter the teacher’s role. Unlike specially adapted, game- like educational software, students’ attitudes toward the learning potential of computer games may be very different in the presence or absence of an accompanying teacher. The purpose of this work is to investigate whether commercial, unmodified computer games have potential as a tool for learning enhancement, whether varying properties of game genres have an impact on study results, and how the students perceive the teachers role in a learning environment using computer games. Twenty-one students, all of them participants in a longer-term trial programme in game-based education, were inter- viewed concerning their perceptions of the learning environment, their preferred game genres, and the outcome of their studies. Our findings show that this form of learn- ing results in significantly increased knowledge. It also appears that accompanying teacher activities are important, especially when successfully linked to in-game activities.

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What are the legal risks facing young people using network sites?

David Lindsay, Melissa de Zwart, Michael Henderson, Michael Phillips (2011) Understanding legal risks facing children and young people using social network sites, Telecommunications Journal of Australia, Vol.61, No1 (2011)

Children and young people are increasingly participating in everyday use of Social Networking Sites (SNS), such as Facebook or MySpace, to the extent that such interactions have come to be seen as an essential part of growing up. To date, mainstream discussion and policy debates about young people and SNS have tended to focus on high profile risks associated with these activities, such as cyber-bullying and online grooming of children by adults. While not dismissing the potential risks of SNS use by young people, it is important to understand the potential benefits that may accrue from online social interactions, including the acquisition of social and technical skills that are likely to be important for future digital citizens. Moreover, it is also important not to ignore other potential, albeit less dramatic, risks that may arise from SNS use. This article focuses on the range of legal risks that children and young people may face in their everyday use of SNS.  The article concludes with an analysis of the research findings, and some suggestions as to how the popularity of SNS with young people may be used to engage students in learning about, and debating, the application of the law to online activities, especially the use of SNS.

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What does Peer-Based Learning in a Networked Age look like?

Mizuko Ito  (2010) Peer-Based Learning in a Networked Age, Keynote address for University of Michigan’s Enriching Scholarship 2010

Networked media offers an unprecedented opportunity to support learning that is highly personalized and learner-centered, driven by passionate interest and social engagement. But very few learners and educators are taking advantage of this opportunity. And the reason for this is that too often we separate the worlds of young people and adults, play and education. We hold onto the old boundaries between schooling, peer-culture, and home life, between what looks and feels like learning and education that we grew up with, and what looks and feels like socializing, hanging out, and playing. Even if those boundaries were never that real to begin with, in today’s networked world, they are even more untenable.

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Is Mobile Communication leading to a New Insularity?

Kenneth J. Gergen (2010) Mobile Communication and the New Insularity,  QWERTY 5, 1 (2010) 14-28

This paper focuses on the reverberations of mobile communication, and most particularly the mobile phone. It examines the role of mobile phone usage in bringing about transformations in communal life. It introduces the metaphor of the floating world, which will facilitate an understanding of a new form of communal life made possible by the mobile phone. The creation of floating worlds generates a new form of insularity. It is not an insularity of individuals, of organizations, or nations, but an informal, micro-social fragmentation. There are implications of this insularity for the socio-political landscape. Cell phone technology may effectively reduce political engagement. However, where political issues are highly salient, it may serve to both harden political divisions and reduce potentials for dialogue.

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Is there such a thing as Mobile Multimedia 2.0?

Ilpo Koskinen (2011)  Mobile Multimedia 2.0?  School of Design, Industrial Design. University of Art and Design Helsinki

Mobile communication is an important constituent of what Gergen calls “the proactive Mittelbau,” opinion-formation and action that is rooted in the independent realities of civil society rather than in the opinions of political elites or mass media. In his opinion, mobile phones change the nature of mediated communication. However, Gergen also paints a darker picture. In this vision, civil society is replaced by small communication clusters, which increasingly take the role previously played by public venues. This paper attempts to look at some of the more recent developments of mobile multimedia. The first question is whether mobile multimedia, to use commercial computer slang, is in its second phase, and what kind of thing it is, if it exists. The second question deals with its social consequences.

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Is photo sharing via handheld devices about communication or co-presence?

Mizuko Ito (2005) Intimate Visual Co-Presence, Position paper for the Seventh International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing, Tokyo, 11–14 September 2005

Photo sharing via handheld devices has unique limitations and affordances that differ from paper-based sharing and PC-based archive and moblog sites. Based on studies of camphone use in Japan, this paper suggests an emergent visual sharing modality that is uniquely suited to the handheld space. Intimate visual co- presence involves the sharing of an ongoing stream of viewpoint- specific photos with a handful of close friends or with an intimate other. The focus is on co-presence and viewpoint sharing rather than communication, publication, or archiving.

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What does a social and cultural archeology of the internet look like?

Geert Willem Lovink (2009) Dynamics of Critical Internet Culture (1994-2001), Submitted in total fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, November 2002 English Department University of Melbourne

Unlike much of the cultural studies literature and early media theory, I will not describe what an email is, what MUDs and MOOs are and compare the Internet with book culture or television. In my view the question of what the Internet is all about has been sufficiently dealt with. It is time for critical research to move on, away from the general level of functionality. It is no longer the technical possibilities that characterize the medium. Instead of, yet again, going through general possibilities my research is based on empirical data: emails, webpages, events and personal encounters with the players in the field—both real and virtual. Where possible and useful I have made references to other (online) literature. It is my aim to write a contemporary form of media archeology in which I map the social and cultural usages of the Internet. I am writing early histories of a selected group of techno-cultural networks.

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How is Digital Media changing the way young people learn?

Mizuko Ito (2011) Mobilizing the Imagination in Everyday Play: The Case of Japanese Media Mixes, Draft of a chapter to appear in the International Handbook of Children, Media, and Culture, edited by Sonia Livingstone and Kirsten Drotner

The spread of digital media and communications in the lives of children and youth have raised new questions about the role of media in learning, development and cultural participation. In post-industrial societies, young people are growing up in what Henry Jenkins (2006) has dubbed “convergence culture”—an increasingly interactive and participatory media ecology where Internet communication ties together both old and new media forms.  My focus in this chapter is on outlining the contours of these shifts. How do young people mobilize the media and the imagination in everyday life? And how do new media change this dynamic?

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Hanging Out, Messing Around, and Geeking Out. How do kids live and learn with new media?

Mizuko Ito, Sonja Baumer, Matteo Bittanti, danah boyd, Rachel Cody, Becky Herr-Stephenson, Heather A. Horst, Patricia G. Lange, Dilan Mahendran, Katynka Z. Martinez, C. J. Pascoe, Dan Perkel, Laura Robinson, Christo Sims and Lisa Tripp (2009) Hanging Out, Messing Around, and Geeking Out, The MIT Press

Despite the widespread assumption that new media are tied to fundamental changes in how young people are engaging with culture and knowledge, there is still relatively little research that investigates how these dynamics operate on the ground. This book reports on a three-year ethnographic investigation of youth new media practice that aims to develop a grounded, qualitative evidence base to inform current debates over the future of learning and education in the digital age.

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How do professionals manage their personal professional networks?

Kamakshi Rajagopal, Desirée Joosten–ten Brinke, Jan Van Bruggen, and Peter B. Sloep (2012) Understanding personal learning networks: Their structure, content and the networking skills needed to optimally use them, First Monday, Volume 17, Number 1 – 2 January 2012

Networking is a key skill in professional careers, supporting the individual’s growth and learning. However, little is known about how professionals intentionally manage the connections in their personal networks and which factors influence their decisions in connecting with others for the purpose of learning. In this article, we present a model of personal professional networking for creating a personal learning network, based on an investigation through a literature study, semi–structured interviews and a survey.

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Do Learners benefit from using Online Social Networks as Formal Learning Environments?

George Veletsianos, Cesar C. Navarrete (2012) Online Social Networks as Formal Learning Environments: Learner Experiences and Activities, The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, Vol.13, No1 (2012)

While the potential of social networking sites to contribute to educational endeavors is highlighted by researchers and practitioners alike, empirical evidence on the use of such sites for formal online learning is scant. To fill this gap in the literature, we present a case study of learners’ perspectives and experiences in an online course taught using the Elgg online social network. Findings from this study indicate that learners enjoyed and appreciated both the social learning experience afforded by the online social network and supported one another in their learning, enhancing their own and other students’ experiences. Conversely, results also indicate that students limited their participation to course-related and graded activities, exhibiting little use of social networking and sharing. Additionally, learners needed support in managing the expanded amount of information available to them and devised strategies and “workarounds” to manage their time and participation.

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How Has YouTube Provided New Ways to Consume, Create, and Share Music?

Christopher Cayari (2011) The YouTube Effect: How YouTube Has Provided New Ways to Consume, Create, and Share Music, International Journal of Education & the Arts, 12(6).

This case study about a teenage musician, Wade Johnston, suggests how YouTube has affected music consumption, creation, and sharing. A literature review connects education, technology, and media. Informal learning, digital literacy, and twenty-first century technology are also connected in the review. Data reveals how Wade started his channel, gained popularity, interacted with others, and promoted his musical career through YouTube. Original songs, covers, collaborations, documentaries, self- interviews, video blogs (vlogs), and live performances are observed by the researcher. Interviews with the subject, key actors in his life, fans, and first time listeners were transcribed and results were used to triangulate. Previous musical media research is expanded upon to include YouTube and video sharing. The idea of amateur and professional musician, musical venue, and audience member are being changed through YouTube. Current practices of how YouTube is used in the classroom are discussed, and future research is suggested.

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How does social capital affect individual performance in academic collaboration?

A Abbasi, L Hossain, R Wigand (2011) Social Capital and Individual Performance: A Study of Academic Collaboration, Arxiv preprint arXiv11122460

Studies on social networks highlight the importance of network structure or structural properties of a given network and its impact on performance outcome. The empirical validation of the association between network structures and performance has been well documented in a number of recent studies. One of the important properties of this network structure is referred as “social capital” which is the “network of contacts” and the associated values attached to these networks of contacts. There are very few systematic empirical studies suggesting a role of co-authors, as social capital in their scientific collaboration network and their effect on performance. In this study, our aim is to provide empirical evidence of the influence of social capital and performance within the context of academic collaboration. Results suggest that research performance of authors is positively correlated with their social capital measures. This study highlights the importance of scholars’ social capital characteristics on their performance suggesting stronger links to more powerful contacts will lead to better performance and, therefore, their respective professional social network shows indicative outcomes to evaluate and predict the performance of scholars. It further highlights that the Power-diversity Index, which is introduced as a new hybrid centrality measure, serves as an indicator of power and influence of an individual’s ability to control communication and information.

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Can Google docs effectively support Project Based Learning?

Daire Ó Broin, Damien Rafter (2011) Using Google Docs To Support Project-Based Learning, AISHE-J, Volume 3, Number 1 (Spring 2011)

Project-Based Learning is a wide-ranging approach that uses authentic problems to engage students. One of its main benefits is that it enables ideas in the classroom to be linked with real-life. Among its limitations: it is difficult for students to collaborate on artefacts outside of class time and it is problematic for the teacher both to monitor the progress of the project and to assess the individual contribution of each student. These limitations are partly overcome by Google Docs, a suite of free online applications that facilitate collaboration. Firstly, Google Docs enables students in different locations to work simultaneously but independently on the same artefact. Secondly, we, as teachers, can be included as observers on each project group and thus track the development of the work. This year, various groups of students across the Science and Business departments used the Google Docs word-processor to work both collaboratively and individually on a diverse range of projects. We present a case study of one of these class groups, the results of which were largely positive. However, some problems arose that will inform our approach with future student groups.

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