Using the power of research to inform ICT integration in education

Dehaene, Stanislas. “Inside the Letterbox: How Literacy Transforms the Human Brain.” Cerebrum (2013).

Learning to read is a major event in a child’s life. Cognitive neuroscience shows why: compared to the brain of an illiterate person, the literate brain is massively changed, mostly for the better—through the enhancement of the brain’s visual and phonological areas and their interconnections—but also slightly for the worse, as the displacement of the brain’s face-recognition circuits reduces the capacity for mirror invariance. Once children learn to read, their brains are literally different. Now that we understand exactly which circuits are changed by reading education, we may start thinking about how to optimize this process, particularly for children who struggle in school. Training preschoolers with just a few hours of GraphoGame—fun software that links graphemes and phonemes—is enough to enhance the representation of letters in the cortex. By monitoring children’s progress by their behavior as well as by brain imaging, we now have all the necessary tools to better understand what schools do and facilitate enhanced learning strategies.

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Blikstad-Balas, Marte. “Digital Literacy in Upper Secondary School-What Do Students Use Their Laptops for During Teacher Instruction.” Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy 2 (2012): 2012.

The present study uses video recordings and qualitative interviews to examine the digital literacy practices of Norwegian students who have a personal laptop for school use. It uses the dichotomy between dominant school texts and vernacular out-of-school texts to examine the new school literacy practices. Findings indicate that the teachers’ use of visual technologies such as Power Point presentations in whole-class settings generates a variety of individual digital literacy practices among the students.

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Jahnke, Isa, Lars Norqvist, and Andreas Olsson. “Designing for iPad-classrooms.” ECSCW 2013 Adjunct Proceedings (2013).

Our study explores Digital Didactics Designs using mobile technology in co- located settings. Classroom observations and qualitative data were collected in a Danish community where 200 teachers and 2,000 students aged 6-16 use iPads in classrooms implemented in 2012. Based on the theoretical framework called Digital Didactics (DD), five patterns of Digital Didactical Designs and following the innovative designs, three key aspects could be explored: The teachers’ digital didactical designs embrace a) new learning goals where more than one correct answer exists, b) focus on learning as a process in informal-in-formal learning spaces, c) making learning visible in different products (e.g., text, comics, podcasts). The study informs system developers for mobile learning applications in schools and teachers as workplace designers.

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Beatty, Mia. “Integrating Google Blogs into the K-6 Language Arts Classroom To Promote Interactive Learning Communities.” (2013).

Bringing literacies into a classroom is not an easy task for a teacher, especially when two-thirds of teachers feel underprepared to use technology in the classroom (Barone & Wright, 2008). This online instructional module was designed to introduce K-6 educators to using Google Blogs (Blogger) in the classroom to promote interactive learning communities. Google Blogs was selected because of its enormous user base, ease of use, free access, and privacy features. Graduate students and educators voluntarily participated in this web-based module by taking pre- and post-assessments, and attitudinal surveys. The module engaged participants using short quizzes, videos, and images. The results indicate that after the module, participants felt more comfortable integrating an online tool such as Google Blogs into their classroom to promote interactive learning communities.

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Hodgson, Sarah. “Early Years students can use higher order thinking skills to independently create content in music using touch interface technology.” (2013).

This action research project was initiated to examine the use of touch interface technology,  namely tablet computers, with students in the Early Years. It was an attempt to discover how tablets could best be utilized with young learners. The research indicates that young learners are capable of using higher order thinking skills to create their own content, in this case musical compositions, using tablet technology. It proposes that Early Years students should take active and independent roles in the creation of their own works in order to demonstrate a more powerful understanding of their world.

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Carter, Edward L. “ARGENTINA’S RIGHT TO BE FORGOTTEN.” Emory Int’l L. Rev. 27 (2013): 23-661.

The twentieth century Argentine author Jorge Luis Borges wrote a fictional short story about a boy named Ireneo Funes who suffered the curse of remembering everything. For Funes, the present was worthless because it was consumed by his memories of the past. One contemporary author has described the lesson of Funes: “Borges suggests that forgetting—that is, forgetting ceaselessly—is essential and necessary for thought and language and literature, for simply being a human being.” The struggle between remembering and forgetting is not unique to Borges or Argentina, but that struggle has manifested itself in Argentina in poignant ways, even outside the writings of Borges. In recent years, the battle has played out in Argentina’s courts in the form of lawsuits by celebrities against the Internet search engines Google and Yahoo.

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Cohen, Julie. “What Privacy Is For.” Harvard Law Review 126 (2013).

Privacy has an image problem. Over and over again, regardless of the forum in which it is debated, it is cast as old-fashioned at best and downright harmful at worst – antiprogressive, overly costly, and inimical to the welfare of the body politic. The consequences of privacy’s bad reputation are predictable: when privacy and its purportedly outdated values must be balanced against the cutting-edge imperatives of national security, efficiency, and entrepreneurship, privacy comes up the loser. The list of privacy’s counterweights is long and growing. The recent additions of social media, mobile platforms, cloud computing, data mining, and predictive analytics now threaten to tip the scales entirely, placing privacy in permanent opposition to the progress of knowledge. Yet the perception of privacy as antiquated and socially retrograde is wrong…

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Livingstone, Sonia, Kjartan Ólafsson, and Elisabeth Staksrud. “Risky Social Networking Practices Among “Underage” Users: Lessons for Evidence‐Based Policy.” Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication (2013).

There are growing public calls for social networking services (SNS) providers to remove age restrictions and to recognize that children want – and have the right to – use these services. Facebook’s CEO recently announced his wish to remove age restrictions. Also, some child welfare organizations argue that if children can be accurately identified by age on registration, then providers could be required to and would be able to deliver targeted age-appropriate protective advice/measures including upgraded control features, child-friendly user tools and safety information, privacy settings by default, and easy-to-use reporting mechanisms. If age restrictions are removed, the numbers of young children using SNS would likely rise substantially, passing regulatory responsibility to parents who, based on the evidence from this survey, might find this difficult. About half of parents want to restrict their children’s use of SNS. More fundamentally, this conclusion implies that it is in children’s best interests that younger ones do not use SNSs (or at least, those used also by adults) unless appropriate safety features are in place. In other words, we suggest that the risk (to privacy, safety and self-esteem of children) is likely to outweigh the benefits of SNS use. Although the evidence for this claim is sparse, we would call for qualitative research to explore the unfolding interaction among children’s desires, parental concerns, technological affordances, and observable outcomes. There is scope also for further research into the effectiveness and legitimacy of self-regulation for child protection on the internet.

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Kamleitner, Bernadette, et al. “Information bazaar: a contextual evaluation.”ACM HotPlanet workshop. 2013.

The rise in the number of smart devices has created a large  ecosystem centred on users’ personal information and online activities. Numerous smartphone applications and social networking sites harvest and catalogue users’ personal information, enabling brokers such as Google and Facebook to provide a platform for advertisers to use this information for targeted advertising. Despite the fact that the users of these services are at the heart of this ecosystem, there has been little effort in understanding individuals’ perception of the value of their personal data in different contexts and situations. In this work, we present the results of our large-scale, contextual study over ten days that used smartphones to collect data on user activities, location, and companionship, as well as the amount of money that individuals attach to such information. Our results indicate that people can be remarkably sensitive to situational cues and also be prone to valuation biases. This study represents a first step towards providing insights into the usefulness of a marketplace for information, where users, or their agents, can freely decide to auction off various pieces of their information within established contexts.

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Hermstrüwer, Yoan, and Stephan Dickert (2013) Tearing the Veil of Privacy Law: An Experiment on Chilling Effects and the Right to Be Forgotten. No. 2013_15. Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods, 2013.

Privacy law relies on the argument that consent does not entail any relevant impediments for the liberty of the consenting individual. Challenging this argument, we experimentally investigate whether consent to the publication of personal information in cyberspace entails self-coercion on a social norm level. Our results suggest that the monetary benefits from consent constitute a price that people are willing to accept for increased compliance with social norms.

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Maria Paino and Linda A. Renzulli (2012)  Digital Dimension of Cultural Capital: The (In)Visible Advantages for Students Who Exhibit Computer Skills, Sociology of Education 2013 86: 124 

In this article we draw on insights from the study of information technology and teacher expectations to examine how computer usage may influence student achievement both directly and indirectly. Specifically, we suggest that Bourdieu’s theoretically robust idea of cultural capital may include a digital dimension. Computer proficiency may influence academic achievement directly because of the skills it develops, but it may also influence achievement indirectly through teachers’ evaluation. We explore the following questions: How does computer proficiency affect academic achievement? How does computer proficiency affect teachers’ evaluations of students? And finally, to what extent do teachers’ evaluations mediate the relationship between computer proficiency and academic achievement?

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Theophanis C. Stratopoulos, Mihir A. Parikh, Peter Lane (2009) Information Technology Outsourcing Alliances: A Strategic Alternative for IT-Capable Companies

While previous research has focused on choosing between insourcing or outsourcing, no systematic attempt has been made to find a viable alternative for IT-capable companies, which need to realize optimum value from their IT capabilities. This study identifies information technology outsourcing alliances (ITOA) as a strategic alternative to generate additional value from the capabilities of internal IT organizations. By building an ITOA with complementing partners, an IT-capable company can go beyond its internal market for IT services to provide similar and, even new, IT services to third parties. Grounded in transaction cost economics, relational theory, production theory and reciprocal learning alliances view, this study suggests that the IT-capable company can earn the collaboration-, transaction-, and firm-specific quasi rents through ITOA.

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Jorg Verbaas (2010)  “It takes two to tango”.  A Review of the Empirical Literature on Information Technology Outsourcing Relationship Satisfaction. Ph.D. dissertation, Tilburg University, Draft Paper

There is growing recognition that the overall client-vendor relationship, and not only the contract, plays a critical role in Information Technology Outsourcing (ITO) success. However, our understanding of how ITO relationships function is limited. This paper contributes to this understanding by reviewing empirical literature on ITO success in terms of relationship satisfaction. A key finding is that the majority of reviewed studies concentrates on client satisfaction, thus neglecting the vendor perspective. We argue that this raises questions about the construct validity of these studies. Consequently, concerns exist about the validity and reliability of their empirical findings. Some scholars have acknowledged the problem and use a dyadic perspective. However, a review of these studies reveals that the authors have underestimated their contributions and do not explain why there is a problem. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to highlight their contributions by comparing the findings of the dyadic perspective studies with those of the “client perspective” research. In doing so, we assess whether the dyadic studies produce better explanations for ITO success than the client-oriented studies. We argue that this is indeed the case, by producing a better view on how underlying mechanisms of ITO relationships work.

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Chang, Young Bong, and Vijay Gurbaxani (2012) “Information technology outsourcing, knowledge transfer, and firm productivity: An empirical analysis.”MIS Quarterly 36.4 (2012): 1043-1053.

Our study has important implications for practice. We demonstrate that IT outsourcing does lead to productivity gains for firms that select this mode of service delivery. Our results also suggest that IT-related knowledge held by IT services vendors enables these productivity gains, the magnitude of which is moderated by a firm’s IT intensity. Moreover, the value of outsourcing to a client firm increases with its propensity for outsourcing, which in turn depends on firm-specific attributes including efficiency level, financial leverage, and variability in business conditions. We show that IT outsourcing is a valuable delivery option, but not for all firms. Client firms must assess potential service providers not just using the traditional criteria of price and service levels, but also their knowledge capabilities. In addition, client firms must focus on building in-house assets that complement the provider’s capabilities.

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Benoit A. Aubert, Jean-François Houde, Michel Patrya, Suzanne Rivarda (2012) A multi-level investigation of information technology outsourcing, Journal of Strategic Information Systems 21 (2012) 233–244

This paper presents a model explaining the IT outsourcing decision. Some findings highlight unique characteristics of IT outsourcing. For instance, firms in knowledge intensive industries using less outsourcing than firms in less knowledge intensive ones suggests that information processing activities might be treated somewhat differently from other activities. In addition, results show that the activities are not totally independent. Any outsourcing decision has to take into account activities within an ensemble. Managing these activities without acknowledging this would lead to coordination problems and inefficiencies. This might explain why some activities that seem perfect candidates for outsourcing are actually better managed inside the firm. Finally, the results suggest practitioners to consider their unique situation (notably the demand uncertainty and the knowledge intensity of the domain in which their firm operates). Recipes that have worked in one organization might not work in the other. Managers have to be aware of these influences that are independent from the activities themselves.

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Coffin, Caroline (2010). Language support in EAL contexts. Why systemic functional linguistics? (Special Issue of NALDIC Quarterly). NALDIC, Reading, UK.

Language can stand between a student and success in school learning. However, questions concerning the kind of language support to provide, the extent and timing of that support and who should provide it are vexed questions. In particular the first question (what kind of language support should be provided) has many implications for curriculum development, departmental strategy, classroom pedagogy, text book design and approaches to assessment. One major issue is how explicitly or implicitly the language support should be, and related to this, what kind of language for talking about language (what kind of meta-language) is needed – both by teachers and by students.

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Ferguson, Christopher J. (2013) Violent video games and the Supreme Court: Lessons for the scientific community in the wake of Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Association, American Psychologist, Vol 68(2), Feb-Mar 2013, 57-74

In June 2011 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that video games enjoy full free speech protections and that the regulation of violent game sales to minors is unconstitutional. The Supreme Court also referred to psychological research on violent video games as “unpersuasive” and noted that such research contains many methodological flaws. Recent reviews in many scholarly journals have come to similar conclusions, although much debate continues. Given past statements by the American Psychological Association linking video game and media violence with aggression, the Supreme Court ruling, particularly its critique of the science, is likely to be shocking and disappointing to some psychologists. In this article the author argues that the psychological community would be better served by reflecting on this research and considering whether the scientific process failed by permitting and even encouraging statements about video game violence that exceeded the data or ignored conflicting data. Although it is likely that debates on this issue will continue, a move toward caution and conservatism as well as increased dialogue between scholars on opposing sides of this debate will be necessary to restore scientific credibility. The current article reviews the involvement of the psychological science community in the Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Association case and suggests that it might learn from some of the errors in this case for the future.

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Peggy A. Ertmer, Anne T. Ottenbreit-Leftwichb, Olgun Sadik, Emine Sendurur, Polat Sendurur (2012) Teacher beliefs and technology integration practices: A critical relationship, Computers & Education 59 (2012) 423–435

Although efforts are still needed to provide ubiquitous technology access to teachers and their students, little will be gained if second-order barriers (knowledge and skills, attitudes and beliefs) are not addressed.  We are still woefully short of classroom environments that permit students to engage with technology in a way that prepares them to use technology in the real world. The results of this study suggest we should be utilizing the same technology tools for professional development that teachers are able to use in their classrooms: “It is time for our education workforce to engage in learning the way other professionals do continually, collaboratively, and on the job to address common problems and crucial challenges where they work”.  Web 2.0 technologies, such as blogs and wikis, enabled many of the teachers in this study to develop new ideas for their classrooms. Teachers should be introduced to the idea of joining and/or developing their own professional learning networks. PLNs allow teachers to select one or multiple Web 2.0 technologies by which they can “follow” individual teachers or organizations. This method of professional development is effective due to the “individualized focus, context-based learning, and empowerment of teachers”.

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Tondeur, J.; L. H. Kershaw; R. Vanderlinde; J. van Braak (2013) Changing Assessment — Towards a New Assessment Paradigm Using ICT, European Journal of Education, Vol. 48, No. 1, 2013

This study explored the black box of technology integration through the stimulated recall of teachers who showed proficiency in the use of technology to support teaching and learning. More particularly, the aim of the study was to examine how these teachers use technology in their lessons and to gain deeper insights into the multifaceted influences affecting their current practices. In order to explore this black box, observations and stimulated recall interviews with primary school teachers were conducted in schools which were selected by the inspectorate on the basis of advances they had made in educational technology use. Stimulated recall interviews – a verbal reporting technique in which the teachers were asked to verbalize their thoughts while looking at their own classroom practice on video – seemed to be a promising approach to increase authentic understandings of technology integration. The results emphasize that (a) the teachers involved in this study were pedagogically proficient and flexible enough to fit technology in with the varying demands of their educational practices, (b) the teachers’ ongoing learning experiences rather than training affected the development of the quality of their practices, and (c) the role of the school and the broader context of teachers’ personal lives played an important role. By interpreting the results of the study, recommendations are discussed for teacher technology integration and future research.

Christine Redecker & Øystein Johannessen (2013) Changing Assessment — Towards a New Assessment Paradigm Using ICT, European Journal of Education, Vol. 48, No. 1, 2013

This article argues for a paradigm shift in the use and deployment of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in assessment. While there is still a need to advance in the development of emerging technological solutions to support embedded assessment, such as Learning Analytics, and integrated assessment formats, the more pressing task is to make the conceptual shift between traditional and 21st century testing and develop (e-)Assessment pedagogies, frameworks, formats and approaches that reflect the core competences needed for life in the 21st century, supported by coherent policies for embedding and implementing eAssessment in daily educational practice.

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D.Abhishekh, B.Ramakantha Reddy, R.Raja Kumar, G.Rajeswarappa (2013) Interactive Learning in Education Using Augmented Reality, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 4, Issue 1, January-2013

In this paper we describe the use of advance technologies in field of education. Augmented reality is such technology which opens a new interactive way of teaching style. It is a technology which adds virtual objects in real world and these objects interacts with real environment. It combines virtual world and real world in 3-dimensional. Recent trends in these technologies enables it use in field of education. Here the tough concepts in engineering and other fields can be explained using these technologies by creating virtual object of  the subject and made an interactive presentation of its working using animation.

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Mark Pegrum, Grace Oakley and Robert Faulkner (2013) Schools going mobile: A study of the adoption of mobile handheld technologies in Western Australian independent schools, Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 2013, 29(1).

This paper reports on the adoption of mobile handheld technologies in ten Western Australian independent schools, based on interviews with staff conducted in 2011. iPads were the most popular device, followed by iPod Touches and iPhones. Class sets were common at lower levels, with 1:1 models becoming increasingly common at higher levels. Mobile learning, or m-learning, was still at an experimental stage in most schools, but common themes were already emerging around the need to integrate mobile devices into a broader learning ecology. Key discussions focused on their role in promoting consumption or production, collaboration or personalisation, and creating seamless learning spaces. Used for both organisational and pedagogical purposes, mobile devices were seen as enhancing student motivation, with empirical evidence of improved student learning also emerging in small-scale studies conducted by two schools. Challenges included the need to carefully manage the technology, ethical issues in its use, and staff roles in its deployment. Pedagogically grounded and adequately contextualised professional development (PD) was seen as vital for time-poor staff, while a desire to set up a professional community of practice was widely expressed. All the schools surveyed planned to extend their use of mobile handheld technologies in the future.

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Wendy Sutherland-Smith (2008) Plagiarism, the Internet, and Student Learning: Improving Academic Integrity, Routledge

Sutherland-Smith presents a model of plagiarism, called the plagiarism continuum, which usefully informs discussion and direction of plagiarism management in most educational settings. The model was developed from a cross-disciplinary examination of plagiarism with a particular focus on understanding how educators and students perceive and respond to issues of plagiarism. The evolution of plagiarism, from its birth in Law, to a global issue, poses challenges to international educators in diverse cultural settings. The case studies included are the voices of educators and students discussing the complexity of plagiarism in policy and practice, as well as the tensions between institutional and individual responses. A review of international studies plus qualitative empirical research on plagiarism, conducted in Australia between 2004-2006, explain why it has emerged as a major issue. The book examines current teaching approaches in light of issues surrounding plagiarism, particularly Internet plagiarism. The model affords insight into ways in which teaching and learning approaches can be enhanced to cope with the ever-changing face of plagiarism. This book challenges Higher Education educators, managers and policy-makers to examine their own beliefs and practices in managing the phenomenon of plagiarism in academic writing.

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Honglu Du, Mary Beth Rosson, John M. Carroll (2012) Augmenting Classroom Participation through Public Digital Backchannels, College of Information Sciences & Technology, University Park, PA, USA

As part of this research thread, we have been investigating the potential of public digital backchannels for building feelings of community among students in university courses. We designed, deployed and evaluated such a tool in a 15-week field study of two undergraduate classes. We found students found using public backchannel during the class is of little distraction, that teachers’ attention to the content posted on the channel influence students’ tendency to use tools of this kind. These feelings in turn are related to students’ perceptions of self efficacy, collective efficacy and course-specific social support.

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Jaime Teevan, Daniel J. Liebling, Ann Paradiso, Carlos Garcia Jurado Suarez, Curtis von Veh, Darren Gehring (2012) Displaying Mobile Feedback during a Presentation, Microsoft Research

Smartphone use in presentations is often seen as distracting to the audience and speaker. However, phones can encourage people participate more fully in what is going on around them and build stronger ties with their companions. In this paper, we describe a smartphone interface designed to help audience members engage fully in a presentation by providing real-time mobile feedback. This feedback is then aggregated and reflected back to the group via a projected visualization, with notifications provided to the presenter and the audience on interesting feedback events. We deployed this system in a large enterprise meeting, and collected information about the attendees’ experiences with it via surveys and interaction logs. Participants report that providing mobile feedback was convenient, helped them pay close attention to the presentation, and enabled them to feel connected with other audience members.

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Bridget K. Welch, Jess Bonnan-White (2012) Twittering to increase student engagement in the university classroom, Knowledge Management & E-Learning: An International Journal, Vol.4, No.3.

We found that in the experimental condition, there was a significant affect of Twitter enjoyment on student engagement with those saying they enjoyed Twitter being significantly more engaged than those who did not enjoy Twitter. This was the case across four large lecture courses across two disciplines (Anthropology and Sociology). Following the work of Krause and Coates (2008), engagement consisted of four dimensions: academic, intellectual, peer, and beyond-class. We discuss our problematic findings in terms of engagement in general and academic engagement in particular. We then discuss our enjoyment findings and provide student comments that help contextualize these results.  

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Judy Robertson (2013) The influence of a game making project on male and female learners’ attitudes to computing, Computer Science, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK

There is a pressing need for gender inclusive approaches to engage young people in computer science. A recent popular approach has been to harness learners’ enthusiasm for computer games to motivate them to learn computer science concepts through game authoring. The results of this study indicate that both boys and girls in the early years of high school have positive attitudes to computing and want to find out more about it. Boys are more likely to be more strongly positive than girls. The pupils thought that the game making project was fun and around half of them would recommend it to a friend. Their teachers believed that the project was a highly positive experience for their pupils in terms of motivation, and that it benefited pupils right across the ability spectrum.

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Lee Yong Tay, Siew Khiaw Lim, & Cher Ping Lim  (2013) Factors Affecting the ICT Integration and Implementation of One-To-One Computing Learning Environment in a Primary School – a Sociocultural Perspective in L.Y. Tay & C.P. Lim (eds.), Creating Holistic Technology-Enhanced Learning Experiences, 1–18.

Even with an elaborate technological infrastructure, teaching and learning would not be possible without committed and skilful teachers who are on the ground implementing the day-to-day lessons in their respective classrooms. In addition, directions for the school leadership and channelling of the necessary resources are all critical factors to be considered. A good curriculum plan also provides the necessary structure and procedure on how to integrate ICT in a more seamless and pervasive manner.

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Cher Ping Lim & Grace Oakley (2013) Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in Primary Education: Opportunities and Supporting Conditions in L.Y. Tay & C.P. Lim (eds.), Creating Holistic Technology-Enhanced Learning Experiences, 1–18.

The authors highlight the opportunities and potentials of ICT for teaching and learning in primary (elementary) education. However, they also acknowledge that ICT in the primary classrooms do not guarantee enhanced learning, though they do outline how ICT could be used to facilitate the learning of 21st century skills, literacy, numeracy and science. In addition, they also listed the necessary and sufficient conditions to support ICT for teaching and learning in primary schools. These necessary and sufficient conditions are: (1) policy and school leadership; (2) physical and technological infrastructure; (3) curriculum and assessment; and (4) professional development for teachers.

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Wright, S., Fugett, A., & Caputa, F. (2013). Using E-readers and Internet Resources to Support Comprehension. Educational Technology & Society, 16 (1), 367–379.

The advancements of technology have led to the use of electronic reading systems for digital text. Research indicates similarities and differences in reading performance and comprehension in digital formats compared to paper formats. This study compared vocabulary understanding and reading comprehension scores from two reading sources (electronic story book and paper-based book). This study also evaluated the use of reading resources available (dictionary, thesaurus, word pronunciation) between the two reading methods.  The results of this study conclude that although vocabulary and reading comprehension is consistent between the two reading methods, students are more likely to utilize reading resources when engaged with digital text. This article supports that comprehension of written materials remains unchanged for students regardless of presentation method (print versus digital).

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Rebecca J. Hogue (2013) iPad Professional Development Program (iPDP), Proceedings of the 11th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning.

Scholars who have studied the adoption of technology in educational settings, believe that professional development is necessary for its successful adoption. This paper addresses a need for an iPad Professional Development Program (iPDP) to support the adoption of iPad tablet computers in higher education teaching and learning. The proposed iPDP is a hybrid program involving both face-to-face learner interventions and online resources. The program is made up of three interrelated components: (a) an online resource that supports the entire program, (b) an introductory workshop (iPadogogy) targeted at pre-adoption learners; and, (c) a knowledge-sharing event targeted at all learners. This paper describes: the components of an iPDP; the design considerations for each of the components; and, the limitation of the proposed iPDP.

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Tan, L. H., Xu, M., Chang, C. Q., & Siok, W. T. (2013). China’s language input system in the digital age affects children’s reading development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences110(3), 1119-1123.

Written Chinese as a logographic system was developed over 3,000 years ago. Historically, Chinese children have learned to read by learning to associate the visuo-graphic properties of Chinese characters with lexical meaning, typically through handwriting. In recent years, however, many Chinese children have learned to use electronic communication devices based on the pinyin input method, which associates phonemes and English letters with characters. When children use pinyin to key in letters, their spelling no longer depends on reproducing the visuo-graphic properties of characters that are indispensable to Chinese reading, and, thus, typing in pinyin may conflict with the traditional learning processes for written Chinese.  We found that the overall incidence rate of severe reading difficulty appears to be much higher than ever reported on Chinese reading. Crucially, we found that children’s reading scores were significantly negatively correlated with their use of the pinyin input method, suggesting that pinyin typing on e-devices hinders Chinese reading development. The Chinese language has survived the technological challenges of the digital era, but the benefits of communicating digitally may come with a cost in proficient learning of written Chinese.

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Andrea Forte, Melissa Humphreys, Thomas Park (2012) Grassroots Professional Development: How Teachers Use Twitter, College of Information Science and Technology (iSchool), Drexel University

In an exploratory study, we used survey, interviews and content analysis techniques to understand how educators appropriate Twitter and other social media in their practice. We report on teachers’ use of Twitter, structural features of their on and offline professional networks, and the institutional policies that shape their appropriation of social media for professional use. Most importantly, our analysis suggests teachers on Twitter tend to be eager adopters of technologies and well positioned to broker information as bridges between members of their local communities of practice and other networks of educators. Based on these findings, we discuss teachers on Twitter as participants in grassroots professional development efforts and the potential for them to be powerful fomenters and enactors of reform in educational communities.

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Alexander Sjöberg (2012) Making Sense of a Technology, A study of how professionals use, understand and create a sense of Facebook, LinkedIn and Twitter and what factor’s that might influence these processes, University of Gothenburg

The social media technology has during the last years been increasingly introduced into many professionals’ practices, which might place new demands on how individuals and organizations use, perceive, understand and structure this technology in relation to their professional practices. This paper aims to contribute to a deeper understanding of aspects that might influence professionals in their use of, capability to adapt to and ability to create a sense of Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn.

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Wilma Clark and Rosemary Luckin (2013) What the research says, iPads in classrooms, London Knowledge Lab, Institute of Education University of London

The adoption and integration of tablet devices into school systems is not without its controversies, and the purpose of this report is to explore if we know enough to demonstrate if, how and when iPads support learning. Our aim is to identify key ideas from the literature on the effective use of iPads and other ‘Post-PC’ tablet devices, to discuss the implications of tablet technologies for school leaders, network managers, teachers, learners and their parents, and to set this within the wider global context.

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Sigal Eden, Yoram Eshet-Alkalai (2012) Print Versus Digital: The Effect of Format on Performance in Editing Text, Proceedings of the Chais conference on instructional technologies research 2012: Learning in the technological era Y. Eshet-Alkalai, A. Caspi, S. Eden, N. Geri, Y. Yair, Y. Kalman (Eds.), Raanana: The Open University of Israel

In this pioneering study, we examined the active-reading abilities of students, who were asked to read, edit, recognize errors and improve the quality of short articles, in a print and in a digital format. Surprisingly, and in contrast to the common reported findings from print versus digital reading studies, no significant differences were found between the performances of participants in the two formats. A similar no-difference was found for all text-errors categories, as well as for gender differences. We found that digital readers completed their tasks earlier than the print readers, but their performance was not lower. We suggest that the absence of significant differences between print and digital formats indicates that digital reading becomes an everyday practice among users, who gain digital reading proficiency. This process, of closing the gap between print and digital readers is reported in recent literature.

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Triantafillia Natsiopoulou, Chrisoula Melissa-Halikiopoulou, Chrysanthi Lioliou (2013) Effects of Family Socioeconomic Status on Parents’ Views Concerning the Integration of Computers into Preschool Classrooms, International   Journal  of   Caring   Sciences  2013   January – April  Vol 6  Issue 1

The upper socioeconomic level parents thought that the use of computers was appropriate for preschool children more than parents of lower socioeconomic status and that its inclusion in the preschool center’s program would work in favor for children who have no computer at home. Parents with higher socioeconomic status felt more than the others that such a program can support the provision of knowledge, the development of mathematical and linguistic skills and entertain children. Furthermore, the upper socioeconomic level parents as opposed to the other group do not consider that the computer will remove preschool educators from their leading and teaching role or reduce their communication with the preschoolers.

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Ruben Vanderlinde and Johan van Braak (2013) Technology planning in schools: An integrated research-based model, British Journal of Educational Technology, Vol 44 No 1 2013

In this colloquium, an integrated research-based model on technology planning in schools (TPS) is described. This model integrates research results of several studies conducted during the past years on technology planning in primary schools. While all of these studies have their individual scientific merit, this colloquium brings them together in a well-organised and holistic model on technology planning. This overall model is intended for teachers and school leaders when developing their school technology plan, for researchers when investigating technology planning and for policy makers and educational developers when designing initiatives to support schools in the technology planning process.

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Harrison Weisinger (2013) Monday’s medical myth: reading from a screen harms your eyes, The Conversation Latest ideas form Research, posted 1 October 2012, 2.33pm AEST

Once we reach the age of ten years or so, it is practically impossible to injure the eyes by looking at something – the exception, of course, being staring at the sun or similarly bright objects. Earlier in life, what we look at – or rather, how clearly we see – can affect our vision because the neural pathways between the eye and brain are still developing.

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Dario D. Salvucci and Peter Bogunovich (2010) Multitasking and Monotasking: The Effects of Mental Workload on Deferred Task Interruptions, CHI 2010: Multitasking

Recent research has found that forced interruptions at points of higher mental workload are more disruptive than at points of lower workload. This paper investigates a complementary idea: when users experience deferrable interruptions at points of higher workload, they may tend to defer processing of the interruption until times of lower workload. In an experiment, users performed a mail-browser primary task while being occasionally interrupted by a secondary chat task, evenly distributed between points of higher and lower workload. Analysis showed that 94% of the time, users switched to the interrupting task during periods of lower workload, versus only 6% during periods of higher workload. The results suggest that when interruptions can be deferred, users have a strong tendency to “monotask” until primary-task mental workload has been minimized.

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Laura Dabbish, Gloria Mark, Victor Gonzalez (2011) Why Do I Keep Interrupting Myself?: Environment, Habit and Self-Interruption, Association for Computing Machinery — May 7, 2011

Self-interruptions account for a significant portion of task switching in information-centric work contexts. However, most of the research to date has focused on understanding, analyzing and designing for external interruptions. The causes of self-interruptions are not well understood. In this paper we present an analysis of 889 hours of observed task switching behavior from 36 individuals across three high technology information work organizations. Our analysis suggests that self-interruption is a function of organizational environment and individual differences, but also external interruptions experienced. We find that people in open office environments interrupt themselves at a higher rate. We also find that people are significantly more likely to interrupt themselves to return to solitary work associated with central working spheres, suggesting that self interruption occurs largely as a function of prospective memory events. The research presented contributes substantially to our understanding of attention and multitasking in context.

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Tatiana Buhler, Carman Neustaedter, and Serena Hillman (2013) How and Why Teenagers Use Video Chat, Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing, ACM Press

Teenagers are increasingly using video chat systems to communicate with others, however, little research has been conducted to explore how and why they use the technology. To better understand this design space, we present the results of a study of twenty teenagers and their use of video chat systems such as Skype, FaceTime, and Google Hangouts. Our results show that video chat plays an important role in helping teenagers socialize with their friends after school and on weekends where it allows them to see emotional reactions and participate in activities like shared homework sessions, show and tell, and performances over distance.

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Tziafetas Konstantinos, Avgerinos Andreas, Tsampika Karakiza (2013) Views of ICT teachers about the introduction of ICT in Primary Education in Greece, The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

The difficulties in the effective integration of ICT in the classroom make the subject a constant challenge for modern educational systems. The “New School”, an innovative new curriculum applied experimentally in Greek schools, introduces the full and effective use of ICT in all aspects of school reality. Prominent in this effort is the role of ICT teachers. Given the vague framework which describes the integration of ICT in primary schools with reformed curriculum, it is important to investigate the views of ICT teachers in relation to the aims of the Ministry of Education and the obstacles they encounter in their teaching process. The research results reveal that on one hand, there is a considerable confusion among teachers with regard to their role and on the other hand, there are several external and internal barriers to effective teaching

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Sueila Pedrozo, University of Turku, Finland (2013) New Media Use in Brazil: Digital Inclusion or Digital Divide?, Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, Volume: 3 – Issue: 1 – January – 2013

The emergence of ICTs brought economic growth and development for many countries, but brought the digital divide as well. In Brazil, there was a democratization effect with the adoption of mobile phones reaching all social classes but the internet still lags behind. No doubt there is a correlation between digital exclusion and other forms of inequalities – social, economic, educational, and demographic. Technology access is just the first step to digital inclusion but digital literacy is even more important and has to follow it; the full inclusion for all depend not only on public policies but mainly on quality education and teachers’ training, to enable underprivileged youth to learn and use ICT resources and potential.

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Price, Linda and Kirkwood, Adrian (2013). Using technology for teaching and learning in higher education: a critical review of the role of evidence in informing practice. Higher Education Research and Development (in press).

The use of technology for teaching and learning is now widespread, but its educational effectiveness is still open to question. This mixed-method study explores educational practices with technology in higher education. It examines what forms of evidence (if any) have influenced teachers’ practices. It comprises a literature review, a questionnaire and interviews. A framework was used to analyse a wide range of literature. The questionnaires were analysed using content analysis and the interviews were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Findings suggest that evidence has partial influence upon practice with practitioners preferring to consult colleagues and academic developers. The study underscored the difficulty in defining and evaluating evidence, highlighting ontological and epistemological issues. The academic developer’s role appears to be key in mediating evidence for practitioners.

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L. Sha,  C.-K. Looi, W. Chen, & B.H. Zhang (2012) Understanding mobile learning from the perspective of self-regulated learning, Institute of Education, Nanjing University

This paper is an initial effort to expand and enrich the knowledge about mobile learning within the framework of self-regulated learning. One of the largest challenges will be how self-regulated learning (SRL) can be systematically and institutionally applied to curriculum development, instructional design, teacher professional development, and teaching and assessment practices in classrooms that foster student-centred lifelong learning. We propose an analytic SRL model of mobile learning as a conceptual framework for understanding mobile learning, in which the notion of self-regulation as agency is at the core. We draw on work in a 3-year research project in developing and implementing a mobile learning environment in elementary science classes in Singapore to illustrate the application of SRL theories and methodology to understand and analyse mobile learning.

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Margareth Sandvik, Ole Smørdal & Svein Østerud (2012) Exploring iPads in Practitioners’ Repertoires for Language Learning and Literacy Practices in Kindergarten, Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, 03/2012

We have explored the role of a tablet computer (the Apple iPad) and a shared display as extensions of a practitioner’s repertoire for language learning and literacy practices in a multicultural kindergarten. In collaboration with a practitioner, an intervention was designed that included the use of two iPad apps in a language learning and literacy practice session with a group of 5 children aged 5. We have analysed the conversations around the tablet computers and in front of a shared display, trying to identify types of talk. The roles of the iPads, the apps and the shared display are discussed in relation to the types of talk, engagement and playfulness observed in the activities. We argue that the intervention led to valuable activities for language learning and literacy practices. The two selected apps differ in their levels of structure (directed vs. open) and genre (show and tell vs. fairy tale), and this difference will be discussed in relation to the types of conversation they initiate, and the extent to which they enable the children to transfer experiences from books and hence develop their literacy to include digital and multimodal resources.

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Kim Andreasson, Jason Sumner (2012) Smart policies to close the digital divide – Best practices from around the world, A report from the Economist Intelligence Unit

This report, based on extensive desk research and wide-ranging interviews with experts from more than ten developed and emerging-market countries, presents best practices that have been adopted by governments and the private sector globally to bridge digital divides. To seize the full economic and social potential of the information society, this report identifies six areas in which smart policies can improve online take-up. Case studies from the developed world and emerging markets highlighting smart policies are provided in separate sidebars throughout the report.

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Eevi E. Beck (2011) Computers in Education: What for? Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy / 2011 / Special Issue

The assumption that increased use of computing technologies is beneficial per se has been questioned in research on workplace computing since the early 1970ies. The intention of this paper is to encourage stopping and pausing to consider what is happening (an empirical question), and whether what is seen is desirable (a normative question). The paper calls for more debate (among researchers, teachers, parents, school leaders, governmental bodies, and other interested parties) as to what we would want computers for and how to get there. Points of view would differ; possibly never fully settling on agreement. This would constitute an ideal and a practice of attempting to bring Bildung and democracy to computing use in education, and would be a worthwhile lead to equip the young for participation in a technology-intensive society.

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Marte Blikstad-Balas (2012) Digital Literacy in Upper Secondary School – What Do Students Use Their Laptops for During Teacher Instruction? Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, Vol 7, 2012, Nr 02, 81-96

Many schools assume that the technology will fit into school practices, and thus use the computer as a supplement to the “regular” instruction. However, the students have their own vernacular practices concerning the use of the same technology, which they bring to school and wherever they go. This means that if schools fail to create the need of relevant educational Internet-based practices, the students will continue to use the Internet mainly for their personal vernacular practices, even at school. It goes without saying that banning Internet activity will not contribute to developing students’ literacy skills. What might need more explicit attention, is that neither will allowing unlimited Internet access without any guidance or clear educational purpose.

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