Using the power of research to inform ICT integration in education

Posts tagged ‘digital citizenship’

Computers in Education: What for?

Eevi E. Beck (2011) Computers in Education: What for? Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy / 2011 / Special Issue

The assumption that increased use of computing technologies is beneficial per se has been questioned in research on workplace computing since the early 1970ies. The intention of this paper is to encourage stopping and pausing to consider what is happening (an empirical question), and whether what is seen is desirable (a normative question). The paper calls for more debate (among researchers, teachers, parents, school leaders, governmental bodies, and other interested parties) as to what we would want computers for and how to get there. Points of view would differ; possibly never fully settling on agreement. This would constitute an ideal and a practice of attempting to bring Bildung and democracy to computing use in education, and would be a worthwhile lead to equip the young for participation in a technology-intensive society.

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What Do Students Use Their Laptops for During Teacher Instruction?

Marte Blikstad-Balas (2012) Digital Literacy in Upper Secondary School – What Do Students Use Their Laptops for During Teacher Instruction? Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, Vol 7, 2012, Nr 02, 81-96

Many schools assume that the technology will fit into school practices, and thus use the computer as a supplement to the “regular” instruction. However, the students have their own vernacular practices concerning the use of the same technology, which they bring to school and wherever they go. This means that if schools fail to create the need of relevant educational Internet-based practices, the students will continue to use the Internet mainly for their personal vernacular practices, even at school. It goes without saying that banning Internet activity will not contribute to developing students’ literacy skills. What might need more explicit attention, is that neither will allowing unlimited Internet access without any guidance or clear educational purpose.

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How does media multitasking impact children’s learning and development?

Wallis, C. (2010). The impacts of media multitasking on children’s learning and development: Report from a research seminar, New York, NY: The Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop.

New technology sometimes brings change that is so swift and so sweeping, that the impact and implications are hard to grasp. So it is with the rapid expansion of media use by children and adults—at work and at play, alone and in groups, for ever larger portions of their waking hours. Media multitasking—engaging in more than one media activity at a time—has rapidly become a way of life for American youth, accord- ing to a 2005 report from the Kaiser Family Foundation (Roberts, Foehr, & Rideout, 2005), and yet little is known about how this behavior affects their learning and development, their ability to attend, to plan, to think, and to relate to other people. The same may be said for adults, many of whom have taken to media multitasking to the point of “crackBerry” obsession. Aside from the recent alarming reports about the dangers of cell phone use while driving1 or the impact of web surfing on worker productivity, little is known about the larger implications of this now ubiquitous behavior. To begin to address this gap in knowledge and to frame a coherent research agenda, a multidisciplinary group of scholars in the emerging field of multitasking assembled for a one-day seminar on media multitasking and its impact on children’s learning and development at Stanford University on July 15, 2009.

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Are young learners ready for virtual learning?

Leppisaari, I., & Lee, O. (2012) Modeling Digital Natives’ International Collaboration: Finnish-Korean Experiences of Environmental Education. Educational Technology & Society, 15 (2)

A new generation of young learners often described as digital native school children are attitudinally and technically equipped to employ social media as a social process in learning. However, few international virtual learning projects have been implemented and researched. This article examines a trial which aimed to combine viable technology with future pedagogic solutions for primary students from Korea and Finland and create an international collaboration model in virtual learning for environmental education. The results show various challenges of the operational model and suggest effective implementation strategies. The challenges were organisational, language, technical and collaboration barriers. The operational model illustrates possibilities of implementing cyber space pedagogy, visualization of knowledge using technology, cyber spaces for collaboration, and the motivational impetus provided by the model. This pilot study demonstrates the need to increase greater interactivity between teachers from the partner countries during the planning phase and provide more authentic interaction for inter-learner dialogue.

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Is school participation good for children?

Aingeal de Ro ́iste, Colette Kelly, Michal Molcho, Aoife Gavin and Saoirse Nic Gabhainn (2012) Is school participation good for children? Associations with health and wellbeing, Health Education Vol. 112 No. 2, 2012

There is increasing recognition of children’s abilities to speak for themselves. School democracy, as demonstrated by genuine participation, has the potential to benefit both teachers and students; leading to better relationships and improved learning experiences. The aim of this study is to investigate whether participation in schools in Ireland is linked with perceived academic performance, liking school and positive health perceptions. Findings – Participation in school was significantly associated with liking school and higher perceived academic performance, better self-rated health, higher life satisfaction and greater reported happiness.

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How is internet safety promoted and managed within schools?

Don Passey  (2011) Internet Safety in the Context of Developing Aspects of Young People’s Digital Citizenship, Department of Educational Research, Lancaster University

In the study reported here, specific evidence has been gathered about perceived and real risks of using the internet and digital devices, how issues are managed, issues concerned with access to and uses of social networking sites, the use of mobile telephones or handheld devices, and how internet safety is promoted and managed within schools.

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How is technology allowing students to become engaged citizens in a global age?

Brad M. Maguth (2012) Investigating Student Use of Technology for Engaged Citizenship in A Global Age, Education Sciences 20122(2), 57-76

This study undertook a five month qualitative investigation into technology use amongst twelve high school social studies students in two different sites in the Midwestern United States. This study examined students’ use of technology and its relationship to three dimensions of citizenship in a global age: understand global events, issues, and perspectives, participate in global networks to communicate and collaborate with global audiences, and advocate on global problems and issues to think and act globally. Collecting data through semi-structured student interviews, online-threaded discussions and document analysis, I triangulated findings, and employed a qualitative approach. The study finds a relationship between student participants’ use of technology and their serving as engaged citizenship in a global age. In using technology, students accessed international news and information, joined global networks to communicate and collaborate with global audiences, and produced digital content for international audiences.

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Can engaging students in digital mapping of local history increase their civic engagement?

Katharyne Mitchell and Sarah Elwood (2012)  Engaging Students through Mapping Local History, Journal of Geography 111: 148–157

This article argues that the integration of local history and geography through collaborative digital mapping can lead to greater interest in civic participation by early adolescent learners. In the study, twenty-nine middle school students were asked to research, represent, and discuss local urban sites of historical significance on an interactive Web platform. As students learned more about local community events, people, and historical forces, they became increasingly engaged with the material and enthusiastic about making connections to larger issues and processes. In the final session, students expressed interest in participating in their own communities through joining nonprofit organizations and educating others about community history and daily life.

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How negative is media multitasking on the Well-Being of 8- to 12-Year-Old Girls?

Pea, R., Nass, C., Meheula, L., Rance, M., Kumar, A., Bamford, H., Nass, M., Simha, A., Stillerman, B., Yang, S., & Zhou, M. (2012). Media Use, Face-to-Face Communication, Media Multitasking, and Social Well-Being Among 8- to 12-Year-Old Girls. Developmental Psychology. Advance online publication.

An online survey of 3,461 North American girls ages 8–12 conducted in the summer of 2010 through Discovery Girls magazine examined the relationships between social well-being and young girls’ media use—including video, video games, music listening, reading/homework, e-mailing/posting on social media sites, texting/instant messaging, and talking on phones/video chatting—and face-to-face communication. This study introduced both a more granular measure of media multitasking and a new comparative measure of media use versus time spent in face-to-face communication. Regression analyses indicated that negative social well-being was positively associated with levels of uses of media that are centrally about interpersonal interaction (e.g., phone, online communication) as well as uses of media that are not (e.g., video, music, and reading). Video use was particularly strongly associated with negative social well-being indicators. Media multitasking was also associated with negative social indicators. Conversely, face-to-face communication was strongly associated with positive social well-being. Cell phone ownership and having a television or computer in one’s room had little direct association with children’s socioemotional well-being. We hypothesize possible causes for these relationships, call for research designs to address causality, and outline possible implications of such findings for the social well-being of younger adolescents.

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What affects teachers’ use of technology?

Debbie Beaudry (2011) Technology and Fifth Grade Teaching: a Study of Teacher Reported Classroom Practice, Professional Development, Access, and Support, A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the College of Education in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Florida Atlantic University Boca Raton, FL December 2011

This mixed methods study investigated 5th-grade teachers’ reported use of computer technology and variables that have been identified by researchers as affecting teachers’ use of technology, including professional development activities, physical access to computer technology, and technical and instructional support provided for teachers. Quantitative data were collected from 80 5th-grade teachers from a Florida public school district through an online survey in which teachers reported how frequently they used and had their students use computer technology for 27 different purposes. The teachers also reported the amount of emphasis those 27 different topics received during their technology-related professional development experiences, the number of hours they participated in technology-related professional development, the number of months they participating in a technology coaching/mentoring program, the access their students had to computers in the classroom and in a one-to-one computing environment, and the frequency that they received technical and instructional support. Information from the school district’s technology plan provided a context for the study.

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Why do we need new critical approaches to information technology in librarianship?

Gloria J. Leckie, John E. Buschman (2009) Information technology in librarianship : new critical approaches, Libraries Unlimited

In the last 15 years, the ground – both in terms of technological advance and in the sophistication of analyses of technology – has shifted. At the same time, librarianship as a field has adopted a more skeptical perspective; libraries are feeling market pressure to adopt and use new innovations; and their librarians boast a greater awareness of the socio-cultural, economic, and ethical considerations of information and communications technologies. Within such a context, a fresh and critical analysis of the foundations and applications of technology in librarianship is long overdue.

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What is the Potential of Google+ as a Media Literacy Tool?

J. Cohen (2012) The Potential of Google+ as a Media Literacy Tool, Journal of Media Literacy Education 4:1 (2012) 93 – 96

Utilizing Google+ as a media literacy tool means understanding its use as an access point to analyze messages to engage critical thinking about everyday issue people face. Google+ combines the elements of long-form posts, following others, reposting, video and images sharing in one social network. The following is a discussion of how to utilize the features available on Google+ to benefit media literacy.

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How does information literacy relate to learning?

Mandy Lupton (2008) Information Literacy and Learning, PhD thesis, Queensland University of Technology.

This thesis explores the relationship between information literacy and learning. In formal education, students are frequently required to independently find and use information to learn about a topic, and information literacy is often claimed to be a generic skill and graduate attribute. However, to date; the experienced relationship between information literacy and learning has not been investigated. My primary research question was ‘What is the experienced relationship between information literacy and learning?’ The secondary research question was “What are the generic and situated aspects of information literacy?’

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How does technology lead individuals to disclose sensitive information?

Laura Brandimarte, Alessandro Acquisti, George Loewenstein (2010) Misplaced Confidences: Privacy and the Control Paradox, In: Ninth Annual Workshop on the Economics of Information Security (WEIS) June 7-8 2010 Harvard University, Cambridge, MA

We introduce and test the hypothesis that increasing perceived control over the release of private information will decrease individuals’ concern about privacy and increase their propensity to disclose sensitive information, even when the objective risks associated with such disclosures do not change or worsen. Three online experiments manipulated participants’ control over information release, but not over access and usage by others. The experiments show paradoxical effects whereby increased (decreased) control over the release of private information increases (decreases) willingness to publish sensitive information, even when the probability that strangers will access that information stays the same or increases (decreases). Our findings highlight how technologies that make individuals feel more in control over the release of personal information may have the unintended consequence of eliciting greater disclosure of sensitive information.

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Multimodal literacy: What does it mean for classroom practice?

Maureen Walsh (2010) Multimodal literacy: What does it mean for classroom practice?, Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, Vol. 33, No. 3, 2010, pp. 211–239

Changes to literacy pedagogy are gradually occurring in classrooms in response to contemporary communication and learning contexts. These changes are diverse as teachers and educational researchers attempt to design new pedagogy to respond to the potential of digital technologies within existing curriculum and assessment policies. This paper discusses evidence from recent classroom research where 16 teachers worked in teams in nine primary school classrooms to develop new ways of embedding technology for literacy learning. Data from the nine case studies provides evidence that teachers can combine the teaching of print-based literacy with digital communications technology across a range of curriculum areas. Findings from this research confirm that literacy needs to be redefined within current curriculum contexts, particularly in light of the emergence of a national curriculum. New descriptors of language and literacy criteria are proposed within the framework of multimodal literacy, the literacy that is needed in contemporary times for reading, viewing, responding to and producing multimodal and digital texts.

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A developmental approach to new media literacy?

Diana Graber (2012) New Media Literacy Education (NMLE): A Developmental Approach, Journal of Media Literacy Education 4:1 (2012) 82 – 92

Waldorf-inspired schools may have a successful formula for the development of ethical thinking and new media literacy skills. By providing rich sensory experiences and social interactions for students from the time they are very young, these schools are sowing the seeds of new media literacy without any technology in sight. The challenge they face now is taking the next step. In doing so, Waldorf-inspired could be the model for Ohler’s (2010) vision of a “whole school approach to behavior that sets the entirety of being digitally active within an overall ethical and behavioral context” (145). Maybe some of these practices will even find their way into traditional schools, giving more students a chance to experience a developmental approach to new media literacy that will equip them to be creative, capable, and ethical users of today’s technology, or technologies that are yet seeds in their imaginations.

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Should Laptops be banned from classrooms?

Robin A. Boyle  (2011) Should Laptops be Banned? Providing a Robust Classroom Learning Experience Within Limits, Vol. 20, No 1, Perspectives: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 8

Laptops, iPods, iPads, and BlackBerrys are just a few of the newly developed modes of communication, note-taking, and music-storing devices that creep into our vocabulary–and students’ backpacks. Given the competitive nature of law school, students understandably bring laptops to class hoping to maximize their performance. Unfortunately for all involved, students use their laptops beyond the task of note-taking. The distractions that present themselves in class have led law professors to complain on various fora about the frequency of laptop use in the classroom. Some posit that students’ inappropriate use of laptops in the classroom has exceeded acceptable limits.

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Can teachers use online commercial games to help students with their learning?

Wiklund, M., Ekenberg, L. (2009) Going to school in World of Warcraft. Observations from a trial programme using off-the-shelf computer games as learning tools in secondary education, Designs for Learning, No. 109

The use of commercial, off-the-shelf computer games as teaching tools is an interesting possibility, but one that may alter the teacher’s role. Unlike specially adapted, game- like educational software, students’ attitudes toward the learning potential of computer games may be very different in the presence or absence of an accompanying teacher. The purpose of this work is to investigate whether commercial, unmodified computer games have potential as a tool for learning enhancement, whether varying properties of game genres have an impact on study results, and how the students perceive the teachers role in a learning environment using computer games. Twenty-one students, all of them participants in a longer-term trial programme in game-based education, were inter- viewed concerning their perceptions of the learning environment, their preferred game genres, and the outcome of their studies. Our findings show that this form of learn- ing results in significantly increased knowledge. It also appears that accompanying teacher activities are important, especially when successfully linked to in-game activities.

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What are the legal risks facing young people using network sites?

David Lindsay, Melissa de Zwart, Michael Henderson, Michael Phillips (2011) Understanding legal risks facing children and young people using social network sites, Telecommunications Journal of Australia, Vol.61, No1 (2011)

Children and young people are increasingly participating in everyday use of Social Networking Sites (SNS), such as Facebook or MySpace, to the extent that such interactions have come to be seen as an essential part of growing up. To date, mainstream discussion and policy debates about young people and SNS have tended to focus on high profile risks associated with these activities, such as cyber-bullying and online grooming of children by adults. While not dismissing the potential risks of SNS use by young people, it is important to understand the potential benefits that may accrue from online social interactions, including the acquisition of social and technical skills that are likely to be important for future digital citizens. Moreover, it is also important not to ignore other potential, albeit less dramatic, risks that may arise from SNS use. This article focuses on the range of legal risks that children and young people may face in their everyday use of SNS.  The article concludes with an analysis of the research findings, and some suggestions as to how the popularity of SNS with young people may be used to engage students in learning about, and debating, the application of the law to online activities, especially the use of SNS.

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What does Peer-Based Learning in a Networked Age look like?

Mizuko Ito  (2010) Peer-Based Learning in a Networked Age, Keynote address for University of Michigan’s Enriching Scholarship 2010

Networked media offers an unprecedented opportunity to support learning that is highly personalized and learner-centered, driven by passionate interest and social engagement. But very few learners and educators are taking advantage of this opportunity. And the reason for this is that too often we separate the worlds of young people and adults, play and education. We hold onto the old boundaries between schooling, peer-culture, and home life, between what looks and feels like learning and education that we grew up with, and what looks and feels like socializing, hanging out, and playing. Even if those boundaries were never that real to begin with, in today’s networked world, they are even more untenable.

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Is Mobile Communication leading to a New Insularity?

Kenneth J. Gergen (2010) Mobile Communication and the New Insularity,  QWERTY 5, 1 (2010) 14-28

This paper focuses on the reverberations of mobile communication, and most particularly the mobile phone. It examines the role of mobile phone usage in bringing about transformations in communal life. It introduces the metaphor of the floating world, which will facilitate an understanding of a new form of communal life made possible by the mobile phone. The creation of floating worlds generates a new form of insularity. It is not an insularity of individuals, of organizations, or nations, but an informal, micro-social fragmentation. There are implications of this insularity for the socio-political landscape. Cell phone technology may effectively reduce political engagement. However, where political issues are highly salient, it may serve to both harden political divisions and reduce potentials for dialogue.

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Is photo sharing via handheld devices about communication or co-presence?

Mizuko Ito (2005) Intimate Visual Co-Presence, Position paper for the Seventh International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing, Tokyo, 11–14 September 2005

Photo sharing via handheld devices has unique limitations and affordances that differ from paper-based sharing and PC-based archive and moblog sites. Based on studies of camphone use in Japan, this paper suggests an emergent visual sharing modality that is uniquely suited to the handheld space. Intimate visual co- presence involves the sharing of an ongoing stream of viewpoint- specific photos with a handful of close friends or with an intimate other. The focus is on co-presence and viewpoint sharing rather than communication, publication, or archiving.

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How is Digital Media changing the way young people learn?

Mizuko Ito (2011) Mobilizing the Imagination in Everyday Play: The Case of Japanese Media Mixes, Draft of a chapter to appear in the International Handbook of Children, Media, and Culture, edited by Sonia Livingstone and Kirsten Drotner

The spread of digital media and communications in the lives of children and youth have raised new questions about the role of media in learning, development and cultural participation. In post-industrial societies, young people are growing up in what Henry Jenkins (2006) has dubbed “convergence culture”—an increasingly interactive and participatory media ecology where Internet communication ties together both old and new media forms.  My focus in this chapter is on outlining the contours of these shifts. How do young people mobilize the media and the imagination in everyday life? And how do new media change this dynamic?

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Should school policies protect students from social networking?

Jacqueline Vickery (2011) Why can’t we be (Facebook) friends? Social Networking, risk & school policies, Presented at the EU Kids Online ConferenceLondonSept22-232011

This paper analyzes educational policies within the United States in order to assess how risk is constructed in various social media policies. Policies tend to overstate the role of technology as both the problem and the solution which leads to techno-phobic policies. Additionally, such policies shut down opportunities for student and teacher engagement in both the formal and informal learning spaces. A more nuanced understanding of risk and the role of teachers as mediators is needed to ensure policies are empowering rather than hindering kids’ online engagement.

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Do teachers believe they are competent to promote healthy ICT use among their students?

R. Zlamanskia, M. Ciccarelli (2012) Do teachers believe they are competent to promote healthy ICT use among their students?  Work, A Journal of Prevention, Assessment and Rehabilitation Vol, 41 (2012) 869-875

Information and communication technologies (ICT), including computers, are becoming common place tools for learning by school children in Australia and around the world. Teachers are responsible for integrating ICT into the school learning environment; however, they may not recognize how and when ICT use may compromise their students’ physical health. Children’s exposure to physical harm through the unhealthy use of ICT may have liability implications for the education sector.  All Catholic Education school principals in Western Australia were sent an email link to the survey for distribution to teachers at their respective schools. Fifty-five percent of teachers agreed they were concerned about their students’ physical health when using ICT. Only 19% of teachers reported they frequently or always provided their students with information on how to use computers in their class in a way, so as to promote physical health. Teachers identified barriers to promoting healthy computing use among students including; insufficient time (47%), non-adjustable furniture (46%), and insufficient knowledge (41%).  Designing and implementing school-based computer ergonomics education programmes may assist teachers fulfil their duty of care in regard to the physical health and well-being of their students.

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What are the Opportunities in Human-centric Sensing?

Mani Srivastava, Tarek Abdelzaher, and Boleslaw Szymanski (2012) Human-centric Sensing, Philosophical Transactions of Royal Society, 370 ser. A (1958), 2012 pp. 176-197

The first decade of the century witnessed a proliferation of devices with sensing and communication capabilities in the possession of the average individual. Examples range from camera phones and wireless GPS units to sensor-equipped, networked fitness devices and entertainment platforms (such as Wii). Social networking platforms emerged, such as Twitter, that allow sharing information in real time. The unprecedented deployment scale of such sensors and connectivity options usher in an era of novel data-driven applications that rely on inputs collected by networks of humans or measured by sensors acting on their behalf. These applications will impact domains as diverse as health, transportation, energy, disaster recovery, intelligence, and warfare. This paper surveys the important opportunities in human-centric sensing, identifies challenges brought about by such opportunities, and describes emerging solutions to these challenges.

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Can a Virtual Reality Library help students develop information literacy skills?

Jamshid Beheshti (2012) Teens, Virtual Environments and Information Literacy, Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, Volume 38, Issue 3

As digital natives, the vast majority of teens are used to cellphones, text messaging, social networking sites and other forms of electronic communications and technologies. Though rooted in the digital world for many of their daily activities, teens lack basic information literacy skills for academic tasks and other demands. Specific instruction through the educational system may not be feasible, but it may be possible to build teens’ information competence through interactive virtual learning environments. Game-style virtual environments are highly motivating and engaging, providing opportunities for repeated practice and reward for persistence and achieving goals. A virtual reality library, VRLibrary, was constructed, collaboratively designed by young teens and adults, based on the metaphor of a physical library. Teens could wander the virtual space and browse links to age-appropriate websites presented as virtual books. VRLibrary was very positively received and succeeded at engaging teen users. A librarian avatar could be incorporated to provide help as needed with a user’s information seeking.

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Do ICT Competences Support Educational Attainment at University?

Kurt De Wit, Dirk Heerwegh (2012) Do ICT Competences Support Educational Attainment at University?, Journal of Information Technology Education: Research Volume 11, 2012

Taking into account that universities assume students will have at least some basic knowledge of the use of computers and the Internet, we hypothesize that the command of ICT skills by freshmen could have an influence on their educational attainment. To test this hypothesis an online questionnaire was used, which was answered by a representative sample of 1,529 freshmen studying at a large university. Four factors are very powerful in predicting a student’s educational attainment: the GPA in secondary school, the number of hours spent weekly on the study of maths in secondary school, the study of classical languages in secondary school, and any ambivalent feelings about the chosen study subject. Contrary to our expectations, ICT social contact skills and basic ICT skills do not provide a better prediction of educational attainment, whereas maintenance skills do.

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How do parents perceive preschool children’s screen time?

De Decker, E., De Craemer, M., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Wijndaele, K., Duvinage, K., Koletzko, B., Grammatikaki, E., Iotova, V., Usheva, N., Fernández-Alvira, J. M., Zych, K., Manios, Y., Cardon, G., ToyBox-study group (2012) Influencing factors of screen time in preschool children: an exploration of parents’ perceptions through focus groups in six European countries, Obesity Reviews, Volume 13, Issue Supplement s1, pages 75–84, March 2012

Preschoolers already spend significant proportions of their waking hours being sedentary. Screen time (i.e. television/DVD viewing and computer use) has been negatively associated with several health outcomes but interventions aiming to reduce preschoolers’ sedentary behaviour are scarce. This study aimed to explore parents’ perceptions of their preschool children’s screen time. One hundred twenty-two parents of low and medium-high socioeconomic status from six European countries with children between 4 and 6 years old were involved in 24 focus groups. Following a qualitative content analysis, the available information and key findings were centrally analysed. Results showed that children tend to like watching television (TV) and most parents do not express worries about their children’s TV viewing time. Education is considered to be the main benefit of watching TV and in general, parents only have informal rules about TV viewing. Computer and active games use are less frequent compared with TV viewing. No univocal results are found about the influence of siblings or friends on children’s screen time. Weather conditions and parental habits at home are the most important factors influencing children’s screen time. Alternatives for screen activities and information on how to set rules for screen time should be provided to parents to assist them in decreasing their preschool children’s screen time.

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Can Google docs effectively support Project Based Learning?

Daire Ó Broin, Damien Rafter (2011) Using Google Docs To Support Project-Based Learning, AISHE-J, Volume 3, Number 1 (Spring 2011)

Project-Based Learning is a wide-ranging approach that uses authentic problems to engage students. One of its main benefits is that it enables ideas in the classroom to be linked with real-life. Among its limitations: it is difficult for students to collaborate on artefacts outside of class time and it is problematic for the teacher both to monitor the progress of the project and to assess the individual contribution of each student. These limitations are partly overcome by Google Docs, a suite of free online applications that facilitate collaboration. Firstly, Google Docs enables students in different locations to work simultaneously but independently on the same artefact. Secondly, we, as teachers, can be included as observers on each project group and thus track the development of the work. This year, various groups of students across the Science and Business departments used the Google Docs word-processor to work both collaboratively and individually on a diverse range of projects. We present a case study of one of these class groups, the results of which were largely positive. However, some problems arose that will inform our approach with future student groups.

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With Google Docs is it more effective for students to share or collaborate?

Ina Blau, Avner Caspi (2010) What Type of Collaboration Helps? Psychological Ownership, Perceived Learning and Outcome Quality of Collaboration Using Google Docs

One hundred and eighteen Open University of Israel undergraduate students participated in an experiment that was designed to test the differences between sharing and collaborating on a written assignment. Participants were randomly allocated to one of five groups that differ in types of collaboration: two groups share their draft with either an unknown audience or known peers, two other groups collaborated by either suggesting improvements to or editing each other’s draft, and an additional group in which the participants kept the draft for themselves served as a control group. Findings revealed differences between groups in psychological ownership, perceived quality of the document, but not in perceived learning. In addition, students believe that a document that was written collaboratively might have higher quality than a document written alone. Nonetheless, they reported that while their contribution improved a draft written by a colleague, the colleagues contribution deteriorated their own draft. Perceived quality of the document and the improvement from draft to final version predicted perceived learning. Thus, the present study implications are that collaboration is superior to sharing, that students prefer suggestion over editing.

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How can preschool children’s learning with technology be supported?

Plowman L, Stephen C., McPake, J. (2010). Supporting young children’s learning with technology at home and in preschool. Research Papers in Education 25 (1) 93-113.

We describe two empirical investigations of three- and four-year-old children’s uses of technology, one conducted in family homes and the other in preschool settings, with the aim of comparing the ways in which children’s learning with technology is supported in these different settings. The studies conceptualise learning within a sociocultural framework and use the concept of guided interaction to focus the discussion. Three areas of learning that can be supported by the use of technologies are outlined (extending knowledge of the world, acquiring operational skills, and developing dispositions to learn), with the addition of learning about the cultural roles of technology in the home context. Children encountered a more diverse range of technologies at home, were more likely to request help and could benefit from observing family practices. The limitations on the technologies available in most preschool settings and their lack of use for authentic activities meant that there were fewer opportunities to develop children’s awareness of the different cultural and work-related uses of technology. Preschool and primary school staff have limited knowledge of children’s home experiences with technology.

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How can TAM explain student attitudes towards ICT in and out of school?

Edmunds, Rob; Thorpe, Mary and Conole, Grainne (2012). Student attitudes towards and use of ICT in course study, work and social activity: a technology acceptance model approach. British Journal of Educational Technology, 43(1), pp. 71–84

One of the most well known models investigating resistance to new technologies in the workplace was developed by Davis (1989) in the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). In its simplest 1989 form, Davis devised a scale that produced measures on two factors, ease of use and perceived usefulness. The increasing use of information and communication technology (ICT) in higher education has been explored largely in relation to student experience of coursework and university life. Students’ lives and experience beyond the university have been largely unexplored. Research into student experience of ICT used a validated model – The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) – to explore the influence of work and social/leisure contexts as well as course study, on attitudes towards and take up of technology. The results suggest that usefulness and ease of use are key dimensions of students’ attitudes towards technology in all three contexts but that ICT is perceived most positively in the context of work and technology use at work is an important driver for technology use in other areas.

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How do Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch compare?

Ian Utting, Stephen Cooper, Michael Kölling, John Maloney, Mitchel Resnick (2010) “Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch — A Discussion”, ACM Transactions on Computing Education (2010) Volume: 10, Issue: 4, Pages: 1-11

This article distills a discussion about the goals, mechanisms, and effects of three environments which aim to support the acquisition and development of computing concepts (problem solving and programming) in pre-University and non-technical students: Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch. The conversation started in a special session on the topic at the 2010 ACM SIGCSE Symposium on Computer Science Education and continued during the creation of the resulting Special Issue of the ACM Transactions on Computing Education.

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How can we deal with Plagiarism in a Complex Information Society?

Debbie Wheeler, David Anderson, (2010) Dealing with plagiarism in a complex information society, Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, Vol. 3 Iss: 3, pp.166 – 177

Academic integrity is not something innate, it is something that needs to be learned. Efforts to deal with plagiarism must be systematic, equitable, process-oriented and pervasive at all institutional levels otherwise there is a risk that punitive measures may seem unpredictable, and so will not send a clear message to stakeholders. If this is the case, students are even less likely to appreciate the centrality of academic integrity in the educational context.

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What are the attitudes of academic librarians towards Internet plagiarism?

Rebecca Bartlett, Biddy Casselden (2011) An investigation into the attitudes of academic librarians towards Internet plagiarism of HE students, Library and Information Research Volume 35 Number 110 2011

This research paper aims to report an investigation into the attitudes of academic librarians towards Internet plagiarism of higher education students in the United Kingdom (UK), particularly with regard to how they define Internet plagiarism, their perceived role in combating this phenomenon, and the skills and techniques they have or will adopt to achieve this.

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What does research say about how young people experience privacy online?

Alice E. Marwick, Diego Murgia Diaz, John Palfrey (2010) Youth, Privacy, and Reputation, Harvard Law School Public Law & Legal Theory Working Paper Series Paper No. 10-29

Much popular writing (and some research) includes descriptions of young people, online technologies, and privacy in ways that do not reflect the realities of most children and teenagers’ lives. Our review of the literature suggests that young people care deeply about privacy, particularly with regard to parents and teachers viewing personal information. Young people are heavily monitored at home, at school, and in public by a variety of surveillance technologies. Children and teenagers want private spaces for socialization, exploration, and experimentation, away from adult eyes. Posting personal information online is a way for youth to express themselves, connect with peers, increase popularity, and bond with friends and members of peer groups. Subsequently, young people want to be able to restrict information provided online in a nuanced and granular way.

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Do young people care about online privacy?

Hoofnagle, C., King, J., Li, S. & Turow, J., (2010How Different are Young Adults from Older Adults When it Comes to Information Privacy Attitudes and Policies? University of California, Berkeley.

In policy circles, it has become almost a cliché to claim that young people do not care about privacy. Certainly there are many troubling anecdotes surrounding young individuals’ use of the internet, and of social networking sites in particular. Nevertheless, we found that in large proportions young adults do care about privacy. The data show that they and older adults are more alike on many privacy topics than they are different. Public policy agendas should therefore not start with the proposition that young adults do not care about privacy and thus do not need regulations and other safeguards. Rather, policy discussions should acknowledge that the current business environment along with other factors sometimes encourages young adults to release personal data in order to enjoy social inclusion even while in their most rational moments they may espouse more conservative norms.

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Why is the UK banning ICT from schools?

The Royal Society (2012) Shut down or restart? The way forward for computing in UK schools, The Royal Academy of Engineering, January 2012

This report analyses the current state of Computing education in UK schools and sets out a way forward for improving on the present situation. The report states that the term ICT as a brand should be reviewed and the possibility considered of disaggregating this into clearly defined areas such as digital literacy, Information Technology and Computer Science. There is an analogy here with how English is structured at school, with reading and writing (basic literacy), English Language (how the language works) and English Literature (how it is used). The term ‘ICT’ should no longer be used as it has attracted too many negative connotations.

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How can School Librarians be Technology Integration Leaders?

Melissa P. Johnston (2011) School Librarians as Technology Integration Leaders: Enablers and Barriers To Leadership Enactment, Florida State University, A dissertation submitted to the School of Library & Information Studies in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Degree Awarded: Summer Semester, 2011

The highly technological environment of 21st century schools has significantly redefined the role of school librarians by presenting the opportunity to assume leadership through technology integration. School librarians are continually directed to evolve as leaders in order to address the needs of today’s learners and ensure that they are equipped with the knowledge and skills they need to succeed in the 21st century. The purpose of this study is to identify the enablers and barriers that accomplished practicing school librarians, or those who are National Board Certified, experience in relation to crafting a leadership role in technology integration.

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How is e-Learning Improving Secondary Schools in Kenya?

Mildred A. Ayere, F. Y. Odera and J. O. Agak (2010) E-learning in secondary Schools in Kenya: A Case of the NEPAD E-schools, Educational Research and Reviews Vol. 5 (5), pp. 218-223, May, 2010

The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) schools were set up as centres of excellence in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) integration, so that other schools could copy their model in e-learning. It was for this reason that they were provided with computers, e-materials, internet appliances and trained personnel. But to gauge their levels of success as e-learning centres there was need to compare them to other schools offering ICT education in Kenya. It was for this reason that this study compared the application of the e-learning in NEPAD and non-NEPAD schools in Kenya. Specifically, the study: Identified significant differences in levels of integration of ICT in curriculum subjects; surveyed the differences in use of e-materials in education research; examined availability of e-libraries; identified significant differences in academic performance of NEPAD and non-NEPAD schools attributed to e-learning. Based on these findings, it was recommended that schools involved in ICT education should intensify teacher facilitation and support teacher roles that are required in e-learning.

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How can Information Literacy be assessed?

Megan Oakleaf (2008) Dangers and Opportunities: A Conceptual Map of Information Literacy Assessment Approaches, Libraries and the Academy, Vol. 8, No. 3 (2008), pp. 233–253.

The culture of assessment in higher education requires academic librarians to demonstrate the impact of information literacy instruction on student learning. As a result, many librarians seek to gain knowledge about the information literacy assessment approaches available to them. This article identifies three major assessment approaches: (1) fixed-choice tests, (2) performance assessments, and (3) rubrics. It maps the theoretical and educational assumptions on which these options are grounded and charts the dangers and opportunities of each assessment approach.

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Why is it more difficult for students to conduct research in the digital age?

Head, A.J. & Eisenberg, M.B. (2009). Finding context: What today’s college students say about conducting research in the digital age, Project Information Literacy Progress Report, February 2009

So far, we have found that no matter where students are enrolled, no matter what information resources they may have at their disposal, and no matter how much time they have, the abundance of information technology and the proliferation of digital information resources make conducting research uniquely paradoxical: Research seems to be far more difficult to conduct in the digital age than it did in previous times. In this progress report we share some of the perceptions that led to this conclusion and several of the trends in problem-solving strategies that have emerged. The findings and analysis presented here should not be viewed as complete, but rather as part of our ongoing research that will be explored further and tested more rigorously.

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Is there an international framework to measure Information Literacy?

Catts, Ralph; Lau, Jesus (2008) Towards information literacy indicators, UNESCO 2008

UNESCO, through its Information for All Programme (IFAP), decided to engage in the development of an international framework for measuring information literacy in order to demonstrate achievements at both international and national levels, and to better focus future efforts. A considerable effort has already been invested by many international organizations in “measuring the information society”. IFAP’s goal is not to replicate their work but to identify additional indicators to measure the development of knowledge societies and then to collaborate with organizations currently engaged in measurement activities in order to develop a coherent set of indicators. This paper provides a conceptual framework for the identification of indicators of information literacy (IL) and proposes a pathway for cost effective and timely development. It includes a definition of IL; a model that links information literacy with other adult competencies, including information and communication technology (ICT) skills; and a description of IL standards in education. Issues of IL equality and the implications of cultural diversity are also identified.

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How are learners’ ICT literacy skills influenced by their economic, social and cultural capital?

Tiffani Cameron, Sue Bennett & Shirley Agostinho (2011) ICT literacy and the second digital divide: Understanding students’ experiences with technology, AACE, Edmedia 2011

This work in progress paper reports on a doctoral research study investigating the ICT literacy skills of contemporary learners across primary and high school settings, in order to understand the influence of their economic, social and cultural capital to explain their relationship with and use of ICTs. Data collection will comprise a background questionnaire, an ICT proficiency test followed by semi structured interviews and series of in-class activities that will focus on exploring students’ technology use and background. This paper is structured as follows: firstly a review of the related research is presented to describe the context for the study; the research design for the study is then explained, followed by a brief discussion of the studies significance and expected outcomes.

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Are students with higher grades better at multitasking?

Harman, Brittany A., Sato, Toru (2011) Cell phone use and grade point average among undergraduate university students, College Student Journal

The present study examined whether cell phone use frequency is correlated with academic performance as measured by grade point average among undergraduate university students. Participants completed a survey about their cell phone use and also reported their grade point average. Results revealed that text messaging frequency was negatively correlated with grade point average and variables such as academic level while cell phone call frequency was not. The results of this study suggest that the more an individual sends or receives text messages, the lower his or her grade point average typically is. Surprisingly, individuals with higher grade point averages are more comfortable text messaging in class. No significant results were found in regards to individuals placing phone calls on cell phones.

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What is the effect of multitasking on students’ grades?

Yvonne Ellis, Bobbie Daniels, Andres Jauregui (2010) The effect of multitasking on the grade performance of business students, Research in Higher Education Journal (2010) Volume: 8, Issue: 1, Pages: 1-11

Multitasking refers to the concurrent processing of two or more tasks through a process of context switching. However, research by neuroscientists show that multitasking reduces the brain’s ability to effectively retrieve information. The purpose of this study is to empirically examine whether multitasking in class affects the grade performance of business students. Our findings indicate that the exam scores of students who text in class are significantly lower than the exam scores of students who do not text in class. Thus, multitasking during class is considered a distraction that is likely to result in lower grade performance.

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To be truly effective, should Information Literacy (IL) and Media Literacy (ML) be pursued as complementary concepts?

Nieves Gonz ́alez Fernandez-Villavicencio (2010) Helping students become literate in a digital, networking-based society: A literature review and discussion, The International Information & Library Review (2010) 42, 124e136

Without necessarily taking sides in the debate, although expressing a preference for complementarity, the author contends that it is absolutely essential that all persons (not just students) learn to become both Information Literate and Media Literate in this digital world in which we now find ourselves. Additionally, the author contends that Web 2.0 and Social Networking tools, such as Facebook, Tuenti (in Spanish context), MySpace and Twitter, including the rich portfolio of applications they encompass, can substantially assist people in achieving that goal. The author presents a number of case examples to support her thesis, drawn largely from Spanish libraries and Spanish educational institutions that already are using Web 2.0 and Social Networking tools extensively to train people to become digitally competent.

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Can screen time be connected to increased psychological distress in young children?

Mark Hamer, Emmanuel Stamatakis and Gita Mishra (2009) Psychological Distress, Television Viewing, and Physical Activity in Children Aged 4 to 12 Years, Pediatrics 2009;123;1263

Sedentary behavior and physical activity may be independent risk factors for psychological distress in adolescents, although there is no existing information for children. We examined the cross-sectional association between psychological dis- tress, television and screen entertainment time, and physical activity levels among a representative sample of children aged 4 to 12 years from the 2003 Scottish Health Survey. Conclusion: Higher levels of television and screen entertainment time and low physical activity levels interact to increase psychological distress in young children.

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Who should decide how students use technology? Youth-Driven vs. Adult-Driven Genres of Participation

Tripp, Lisa M., and Rebecca Herr-Stephenson (2009) “Making Access Meaningful: Latino Young People Using Digital Media at Home and at School.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 14.4 (2009): 1190-1207.

This research challenges the assumptions held by some that incorporating media into the classroom is somehow inherently motivating for students. Just as Seiter (2005) urges us to be skeptical of the drive and hype to incorporate computers and the Internet into schools, and recommends that we stay attuned to the kinds of economic and pedagogic pressures that teachers and schools face from often ill-conceived efforts to integrate technology into instruction, we suggest that similar concerns exist about incorporating media production into instruction, and we see little value in incorporating digital media into instruction in superficial ways. At the same time, we take Warschauer’s (2007) charge seriously, that we should “promote multimedia literacy and information literacy in schools in ways that simultaneously develop diverse students’ reading, writing, cultural literacy, and academic literacy…” (p. 44). Based on this research, we conclude that media education can help accomplish these goals if it includes production and analysis activities that connect to young people’s existing knowledge and interests in media and technology, although we recognize that doing so successfully requires a great deal of innovation—and resources—often amidst challenging institutional, social, and cultural constraints.

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How are rich, technology-enhanced learning environments changing student learning?

Grainne Conole, Maarten De Laat, Teresa Dillon, Jonathan Darby (2008) ‘Disruptive technologies’, ‘pedagogical innovation’: What’s new? Findings from an in-depth study of students’ use and perception of technology, Computers & Education, Volume: 50, Issue: 2,

The paper describes the findings from a study of students use and experience of technologies. A series of in-depth case studies were carried out across four subject disciplines, with data collected via survey, audio logs and interviews. The findings indicate that students are immersed in a rich, technology-enhanced learning environment and that they select and appropriate technologies to their own personal learning needs. The paper concludes by suggesting that the findings have profound implications for the way in which educational institutions design and support learning activities.

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How can digital backchannels support student participation?

François Bry, Vera Gehlen-Baum, Alexander Pohl (2011) Promoting Awareness and  Participation in Large Class Lectures: The Digital Backchannel Backstage, Proceedings of the IADIS

This article reports on the conception of a novel digital backchannel, code name Backstage, dedicated to large classes aiming at empowering not only the audience but also the speaker, at promoting the awareness of both audience and speaker, and at promoting an active participation of students in the lecture. The backchannel supports different forms of inter-student communication via short microblog messages, social evaluation and ranking of messages by the students themselves, and aggregation of student’s opinions aiming at increasing the students’ community feeling, strengthening the students’ awareness of and co-responsibility for the class work aiming at promoting the students’ participation in the lecture. The backchannel further supports immediate concise feedback to the lecturer of selected and aggregated students’ opinions aiming at strengthening the lecturer’s awareness for students’ difficulties.

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How do high-school students use information literacy skills to find and evaluate scientific information?

Heidi Julien , Susan Barker (2009) How high-school students find and evaluate scientific information: A basis for information literacy skills development, Library & Information Science Research

This study examined the relationship between curricula in secondary-level science classrooms, which support development of information literacy skills, and actual student skills. A vast body of research reflects deep concern with the level of information literacy skill development among secondary and post-secondary students. But even when educational curricula mandate skill development, many students are unable to demonstrate sophisticated information searching and critical evaluation skills. The findings of this study, which we based on analyzing information seeking tasks and conducting interviews with students in three biology classes in a large urban high school, demonstrated a similar lack of skills. Pressure on teachers to “teach to examinations”—that is, to focus on substantive content rather than on information literacy skills and information literacy skills deficits among teachers themselves—is a possible explanation for these results. The study is of particular interest to teachers of the curriculum applicable in the study context, but the broader implications of repeated indications of gaps in students’ information literacy skills are a significant indicator that schools must assume a larger responsibility for information literacy instruction. Leaving skill development to the post-secondary environment will not ensure that citizens are sufficiently skilled to participate fully in 21st century life, in workplaces or in their personal life contexts.

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What does a flexible multi-layered approach to information literacy look like?

Sophie McDonald, Jemima McDonald (2011) Information Literacy For Ubiquitous Learning,  in Information Online 2011 ALIA 15th Conference and Exhibition, 1-3 Feb 2011 

The University of Technology, Sydney (UTS) Library is developing a new approach to delivering information literacy (IL). This paper will discuss the 2010 UTS Library Fun Day and the strategic use of informal information literacy activities such as games, trivia and treasure hunts incorporating the use of Facebook, Twitter and YouTube. These give new and ‘old’ clients an opportunity to explore the Library and get involved with our dynamic new learning environment. The paper will also provide insight into how we are supporting researchers across the research life cycle, embedding ourselves in faculties and using Web 2.0 technologies in training to equip twenty first-century researchers with effective IL skills.

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Why should Librarians be on Twitter?

Forrestal, Valerie(2011) ‘Making Twitter Work: A Guide for the Uninitiated, the Skeptical, and the Pragmatic’, The Reference Librarian, 52: 1, 146 — 151

This article highlights the advantages of librarians and libraries establishing a professional or institutional presence on Twitter. This basic introduction to the web service also discusses innovative ways to shape your Twitter account into a successful professional development, reference, and outreach resource.

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What is the effect of Twitter on student engagement and grades?

R. Junco, G. Heiberger, E. Loken (2011) The effect of Twitter on college student engagement and grades, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, Volume: 27, Issue: 2, Pages: 119-132

Despite the widespread use of social media by students and its increased use by instructors, very little empirical evidence is available concerning the impact of social media use on student learning and engagement. This paper describes our semester-long experimental study to determine if using Twitter the microblogging and social networking platform most amenable to ongoing, public dialogue for educationally relevant purposes can impact college student engagement and grades. The results showed that the experimental group had a significantly greater increase in engagement than the control group, as well as higher semester grade point averages. Analyses of Twitter communications showed that students and faculty were both highly engaged in the learning process in ways that transcended traditional classroom activities. This study provides experimental evidence that Twitter can be used as an educational tool to help engage students and to mobilize faculty into a more active and participatory role.

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Twitter: Intellectual Stimulator or Attention Distracter?

Beaudin, L. & Deyenberg, J. (2011). Twitter: Intellectual Stimulator or Attention Distracter. In M. Koehler & P. Mishra (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2011 (pp. 139-147).

This paper describes how Master’s students completed an informal investigation of the potential of using Twitter to reshape classroom participation in a summer graduate course on Leadership and Technology. As a group of high- technology users, it was natural for the group to be open to exploring the possibility of any new tool to increase their engagement and learning. This paper describes the informal case study and exploration of the potential of backchanneling to enhance seminar presentations in a graduate education course.

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How do Search Engines Impact Literacy Learning?

Jann Carroll (2011) From Encyclopaedias to Search Engines: Technological Change and its Impact on Literacy Learning, Literacy Learning: the Middle Years, Volume 19, Number 2, June 2011

The concept of search engines opening up new worlds of information to our students is an exciting prospect, as long as we realise that the benefits are conditional and rest capriciously on a range of political, economic, technical and personnel related factors. It becomes, therefore, even more important that teachers of literacy equip students with online reading comprehension skills, critical thinking skills and continually provide opportunities for rich, varied and authentic literacy learning, to set students up for the successful future they deserve.

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How Can the Contextual Integrity Model of Privacy Be Applied to Personal Blogs?

Frances S. Grodzinsky and Herman T. Tavani (2010) Applying the “Contextual Integrity” Model of Privacy to Personal Blogs in the Blogosphere, International Journal of Internet Research Ethics Vol. 3 (12/2010)

In this paper, we analyze some controversial aspects of blogging and the blogosphere from the perspective of privacy. In particular, we focus on Helen Nissenbaum’s theory of privacy as “contextual integrity” and apply it to personal blogs, in general, and the case of the “Washingtonienne” blogger, in particular. We examine the question of whether personal blogs that are not password protected can be considered “normatively private contexts” according to Nissenbaum’s principles of privacy. We argue that they cannot. Using Nissenbaum’s original model, we conclude that privacy expectations for those who disclose personal information in such blogs are unrealistic. We also suggest that Nissenbaum’s expanded theory (see Nissenbaum, 2010) can inform the contemporary debate about privacy and blogging in a wide variety of newer technological contexts, in addition to personal blogs, and we encourage researchers to apply Nissenbaum’s model in those contexts.

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How can Social Networks be used in schools to enable teens to become responsible digital citizens?

Jayme Waddington (2011) Social Networking: The Unharnessed Educational Tool, Undergraduate Research Journal at UCCS Volume 4.1, May 2011

How can teenagers of today become model digital citizens of tomorrow? In order to ensure that students are modeling safe and healthy online behaviors they must be taught what those behaviors are. Teachers, along with parents, are charged with educating youth and providing them with the skills that are necessary to prosper in the world. Society cannot expect teens to know what to do online and act appropriately without guidance; just as we teach our children what is right and wrong in the “real” world, the same needs to be done in the “virtual” world. While instructing students on how to keep their profiles secure and warning them of the dangers on the internet, educators are providing the first step towards successful digital citizenship. Schools have the opportunity to not only educate and teach students safe digital media usage but also incorporate digital media into everyday classroom experiences.

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Is there such a thing as Privacy Online? Let’s be realistic and talk about Contextual Integrity…

Helen Nissenbaum (2004) Privacy as Contextual Integrity, WASHINGTON LAW REVIEW, 2004

This Article, which extends earlier work on the problem of privacy in public, explains why some of the prominent theoretical approaches to privacy, which were developed over time to meet traditional privacy challenges, yield unsatisfactory conclusions. It posits a new construct, “contextual integrity,” as an alternative benchmark for privacy, to capture the nature of challenges posed by information technologies. Contextual integrity ties adequate protection for privacy to norms of specific contexts, demanding that information gathering and dissemination be appropriate to that context and obey the governing norms of distribution within it. Building on the idea of “spheres of justice,” developed by political philosopher Michael Walzer, this Article argues that public surveillance violates a right to privacy because it violates contextual integrity; as such, it constitutes injustice and even tyranny.

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How can Informed Learning and Informed Learners by supported?

Bruce, Christine S., Hughes, Hilary E., & Somerville, Mary M. (2012) Supporting informed learners in the 21st century. Library Trends, 60(3). (In Press)

This paper elaborates the concept of informed learning and locates it in educational, workplace and community settings. Drawing from existing research into people’s experience of information literacy, it identifies critical experiences of informed learners in each of these three settings. It also explores the support required in educational, community and workplace contexts which makes informed learning possible. Recognising strong implications for policy makers in different sectors, the paper presents a set of guiding principles for developing informed learning and learners.

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How is technology changing literacy?

Guy Merchant (2009) Literacy in virtual worlds, Journal of Research in Reading, Volume 32, Issue 1, 2009, pp 38–56

Introducing new digital literacies into classroom settings is an important and challenging task, and one that is encouraged by both policy-makers and educators. This paper draws on a case study of a 3D virtual world which aimed to engage and motivate primary school children in an immersive and literacy-rich on-line experience. Planning decisions, early experimentation and the experience of avatar interaction are explored. Using field notes, in-world interviews and observations I analyse pupil and teacher perspectives on the use of digital literacy and its relationship to conventional classroom literacy routines, and use these to trace the potential and inherently disruptive nature of such work. The paper makes the case for a wider recognition of the role of technology in literacy and suggests that teachers need time for experimentation and professional development if they are to respond appropriately to new digital literacies in the classroom.

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Should Information Literacy be reframed as a Metaliteracy?

Thomas P. Mackey and Trudi E. Jacobson (2011) Reframing Information Literacy as a Metaliteracy, College & Research Librairies vol. 72 no. 1 62-78

Social media environments and online communities are innovative collaborative technologies that challenge traditional definitions of information literacy. Metaliteracy is an overarching and self-referential framework that integrates emerging technologies and unifies multiple literacy types. This redefinition of information literacy expands the scope of generally understood information competencies and places a particular emphasis on producing and sharing information in participatory digital environments.

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How can Digital Literacies make learning and teaching more effective?

Julia Gillen, David Barton (2010) Digital Literacies: A Research Briefing by the Technology Enhanced Learning phase of the Teaching and Learning Research Programme, English

The concept of digital literacies is fascinating both in its definition and its application. The term captures an arena of rapidly developing practices, as humans interact with technologies in new ways and for innovative purposes. Many time-honoured distinctions such as between producer and consumer, writer and reader blur or virtually disappear as new syntheses emerge. There are a number of valuable approaches to digital literacies that overlap with one another. Rather than look for clear distinctions to demarcate them, it is perhaps more helpful to look for continuities and commonalities.

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Digital Literacy or Digital Literacies?

Colin Lankshear, Michele Knobel (2008) Digital Literacies—Concepts, Policies and Practices, Peter Lang Publishing

This book brings together a group of internationally-reputed authors in the field of digital literacy. Their essays explore a diverse range of the concepts, policies and practices of digital literacy, and discuss how digital literacy is related to similar ideas: information literacy, computer literacy, media literacy, functional literacy and digital competence. It is argued that in light of this diversity and complexity, it is useful to think of digital literacies the plural as well the singular. The first part of the book presents a rich mix of conceptual and policy perspectives; in the second part contributors explore social practices of digital remixing, blogging, online trading and social networking, and consider some legal issues associated with digital media.

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What lies behind the rather different yet now converging approaches of Media Literacy and Information Literacy?

Sonia Livingstone, Elizabeth Van Couvering, and Nancy Thumim (2008) Converging Traditions of Research on Media and Information Literacies: Disciplinary, Critical and Methodological Issues, Department of Media and Communications London School of Economics and Political Science.

As broadcast, audiovisual, and print media converge with telecommunications, computing, and information systems, research on media literacy and information literacy could hardly remain separate. Indeed, despite their contrasting disciplinary backgrounds, theories, and methods, these research traditions have an increasingly similar object of inquiry: the public’s understanding of and effective engagement with media, information and communication technologies of all kinds. We advocate a converged or at least dialogical concept of media and information “literacies”, arguing that each tradition has much to learn from the other, although we accept that some differences must remain. Our focus is on two dominant approaches, media literacy and information literacy. What can each tradition learn from the other? Are they compatible? What methods and directions should be prioritized? In what follows, we compare these approaches in terms of definitions, origins, focus, methods, findings and purposes, our aim being to sketch the agenda for research on these converging literacies.

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Why should we move from ICT skills to Digital Literacy to best support students’ inquiry learning?

Dr. Leo Casey, Professor B. C. Bruce, Allan Martin, Abigail Reynolds (2009) Digital Literacy: New Approaches to Participation and Inquiry Learning to Foster Literacy Skills among Primary School Children, Centre for Research and Innovation in Learning and Teaching, National College of Ireland

Our theoretical review points to two contrasting conceptual approaches to literacy and specifically, digital literacy. The traditional view is to regard digital literacy as a set of specific technical skills such as the ability to use software and to operate devices – this is often referred to as a skills model of literacy. In contrast, more recent and increasingly accepted theories conceive of digital literacy in terms of context and social practice – this is a situated approach to literacy. The starting point of the framework for digital literacy was to reference the practices and activities that take place in the classroom. Obviously, the goal of classroom activity is to bring about learning and as such, we grounded our digital literacy framework in a conception of learning centered on the Inquiry Cycle. The term digital literacy has been popularised by Paul Gilster, who, in his book of the same name defined it as: the ability to understand and use information in multiple formats from a wide range of sources when it is presented via computers. The concept of literacy goes beyond simply being able to read; it has always meant the ability to read with meaning, and to understand. It is the fundamental act of cognition. Based on our review of theory we established the following definition of digital literacy in primary school contexts: Digital literacy in primary schools involves students and teachers using digital technology to enable, sustain and enrich all aspects of the inquiry cycle of learning as: ask, investigate, create, discuss and reflect.

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Can there be a future for learning organisations that neglect Information Literacy?

Bruce, Christine S. (2008) Informed learning : realising the potential of the information society in our 21st century world. In: International Conference on Libraries, Information and Society, 18-19 November 2008, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.

Information literacy has captured the imagination of information professionals. In the last twenty years significant advocacy has occurred putting information literacy issues high on the international agenda. This paper proposes informed learning (the kind of learning made possible by information literacy) as the key to realising the potential of the information society. The paper extends the concept of informed learning in the academic environment, conceptualising its broader role in the information society.

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Why do we need to move towards a Transformative Pedagogy for School Libraries 2.0?

Marlene Asselin,  Ray Doiron (2008) Towards a Transformative Pedagogy for School Libraries 2.0, School Libraries Worldwide – Volume 14, Number 2, July 2008, 1‐18

Today’s students are no longer the people our education system was designed to teach. (Prensky, 2001). As more and more educators face the impact of Web 2.0, and as we see emerging what could be called a Learning 2.0 environment, it becomes urgent to extend teaching to meet the literacy and learning needs of the Net Generation. These ‘new’ learners and their expanding literacy needs have major implications for current models of school library programs which are largely focused on reading promotion and information literacy skills. We join others in recognizing the need to critically question long held tenets of school libraries and to create a new research‐based vision that will accord with the current economic and social directions driving educational change. This paper contributes to that process by proposing a framework for the work of school libraries in new times based on research in new literacies, today’s learners, and emerging concepts of knowledge.

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How much privacy are we willing to relinquish when we trust online?

Adam N. Joinson, Ulf-Dietrich Reips, Tom Buchanan, Carina B. Paine Schofield (2008) Privacy, Trust and Self-Disclosure, in press, human-computer interaction

Despite increased concern about the privacy threat posed by new technology and the Internet, there is relatively little evidence that people’s privacy concerns translate to privacy-enhancing behaviors while online. In Study 1, measures of privacy concern are collected, followed six weeks later by a request for intrusive personal information alongside measures of trust in the requestor and perceived privacy related to the specific request (n= 759). Participants’ dispositional privacy concerns, as well as their level of trust in the requestor and perceived privacy during the interaction, predicted whether or not they acceded to the request for personal information, although the impact of perceived privacy was mediated by trust. In Study 2, privacy and trust were experimentally manipulated, and disclosure measured (n=180). The results indicated that privacy and trust at a situational level interact such that high trust compensates for low privacy, and vice versa. Implications for understanding the links between privacy attitudes, trust, design and actual behavior, are discussed.

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Can Informational Self-determination on the Internet Improve Online Privacy?

Simone Fischer-Hübner1, Chris Hoofnagle, Ioannis Krontiris, Kai Rannenberg, and Michael Waidner (2011) Online Privacy: Towards Informational Self-Determination on the Internet, Manifesto from Dagstuhl Perspectives Workshop 11061

While the collection and monetization of user data has become a main source for funding “free” services like search engines, online social networks, news sites and blogs, neither privacy-enhancing technologies nor its regulations have kept up with user needs and privacy preferences. The aim of this Manifesto is to raise awareness for the actual state of the art of online privacy, especially in the international research community and in ongoing efforts to improve the respective legal frameworks, and to provide concrete recommendations to industry, regulators, and research agencies for improving online privacy. In particular we examine how the basic principle of informational self-determination, as promoted by European legal doctrines, could be applied to infrastructures like the internet, Web 2.0 and mobile telecommunication networks.

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How can we help students become aware of appropriate online behavior?

Randy Hollandsworth, Lena Dowdy, Judy Donovan et al. (2011) Digital citizenship: It takes a village, 37-47. In TechTrends 55 (4).

Digital citizenship encompasses a wide range of behaviors with varying degrees of risk and possible negative consequences. Lack of digital citizenship awareness and education can, and has, led to problematic, even dangerous student conduct. If our educational village does not address these issues, the digital culture establishes its own direction, potentially pushing a productive, long-term solution further out of provides the reader with a number of suggestions that can help the professional to help their students become better digital citizens.

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How can Web 2.0 Tools be used to promote Digital Citizenship?

Reshan Richards (2010) Digital Citizenship and Web 2 . 0 Tools, Learning (2010) Volume: 6, Issue: 2, Pages: 516-522

This concept paper explores citizenship in a digital age. The potential of Web 2.0 tools highlights the importance of educational institutions’ consideration of the use of these tools in school settings to promote citizenship at a time when students are already exposed to powerful online communication platforms. First, a description of three Web 2.0 tools, blogs, wikis, and online social networks, is provided. This is followed by an exploration of digital citizenship. Then, several cases in recent history where Web 2.0 tools played an important part in promoting democracy and social justice are examined. Finally, using a lens of digital citizenship, several instructional suggestions are provided for educators to help students experience and understand multiple layers of citizenship in a 21st  century technological landscape.

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How Risky Are Social Networking Sites?

Michele L Ybarra, Kimberly J Mitchell (2008) How Risky Are Social Networking Sites? A Comparison of Places Online Where Youth Sexual Solicitation and Harassment Occurs, Pediatrics (2008) Volume: 121, Issue: 2, Pages: 2007–357

OBJECTIVE. Recently, public attention has focused on the possibility that social networking sites such as MySpace and Facebook are being widely used to sexually solicit underage youth, consequently increasing their vulnerability to sexual victimization. Beyond anecdotal accounts, however, whether victimization is more commonly reported in social networking sites is unknown. RESULTS. Fifteen percent of all of the youth reported an unwanted sexual solicitation online in the last year; 4% reported an incident on a social networking site specifically. Thirty-three percent reported an online harassment in the last year; 9% reported an incident on a social networking site specifically. Among targeted youth, solicitations were more commonly reported via instant messaging (43%) and in chat rooms (32%), and harassment was more commonly reported in instant messaging (55%) than through social networking sites (27% and 28%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS. Broad claims of victimization risk, at least defined as unwanted sexual solicitation or harassment, associated with social networking sites do not seem justified. Prevention efforts may have a greater impact if they focus on the psychosocial problems of youth instead of a specific Internet application, including funding for online youth outreach programs, school antibullying programs, and online mental health services.

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How exposed are youth to unwanted material on the internet?

Kimberly J Mitchell, David Finkelhor, Janis Wolak (2003) The Exposure Of Youth To Unwanted Sexual Material On The Internet: A National Survey of Risk, Impact, and Prevention, Youth Society (2003) Volume: 34, Issue: 3, Publisher: Sage Publications, Pages: 330-358

This national survey of youth ages 10 to 17 yrs, and their caretakers has several implications for the current debate about young people and Internet pornography. Using an Internet survey, the authors found that 25% of youth had unwanted exposure to sexual pictures on the Internet in the past year, challenging the prevalent assumption that the problem is primarily about young people motivated seek out pornography. Most youth had no negative reactions to their unwanted exposure, but one quarter said they were very of extremely upset suggesting a priority need for more research on and interventions directed toward such negative effects. The use of filtering and blocking software was associated with a modest reduction in unwanted exposure suggesting that it may help but is far from foolproof. Various forms of parental supervision were not associated with any reduction in exposure.

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