Using the power of research to inform ICT integration in education

Posts tagged ‘information and computer technology’

How can a cognitive lens help better understand technical change?

Sarah Kaplana, Mary Tripsas (2008) Thinking about technology: Applying a cognitive lens to technical change, Research Policy 37 (2008) 790–805

We apply a cognitive lens to understanding technology trajectories across the life cycle by developing a co-evolutionary model of technological frames and technology. Applying that model to each stage of the technology life cycle, we identify conditions under which a cognitive lens might change the expected technological outcome predicted by purely economic or organizational models. We also show that interactions of producers, users and institutions shape the development of collective frames around the meaning of new technologies. We thus deepen our understanding of sources of variation in the era of ferment, conditions under which a dominant design may be achieved, the underlying architecture of the era of incremental change and the dynamics associated with discontinuities.

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What are the Opportunities in Human-centric Sensing?

Mani Srivastava, Tarek Abdelzaher, and Boleslaw Szymanski (2012) Human-centric Sensing, Philosophical Transactions of Royal Society, 370 ser. A (1958), 2012 pp. 176-197

The first decade of the century witnessed a proliferation of devices with sensing and communication capabilities in the possession of the average individual. Examples range from camera phones and wireless GPS units to sensor-equipped, networked fitness devices and entertainment platforms (such as Wii). Social networking platforms emerged, such as Twitter, that allow sharing information in real time. The unprecedented deployment scale of such sensors and connectivity options usher in an era of novel data-driven applications that rely on inputs collected by networks of humans or measured by sensors acting on their behalf. These applications will impact domains as diverse as health, transportation, energy, disaster recovery, intelligence, and warfare. This paper surveys the important opportunities in human-centric sensing, identifies challenges brought about by such opportunities, and describes emerging solutions to these challenges.

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What are possible pitfalls of the 2.0 movement for Libraries?

Tanja Merčun (2010) “Libraries in the Changing Online Environment “, In: A. Belan‐Simić & A. Horvat (Eds.), Slobodan pristup informacijama : 9. okrugli stol : zbornik radova. Zagreb : Hrvatsko knjižničarsko društvo (Izdanja Hrvatskoga knjižničarskog društva, 53), p. 69‐81.

In the last few years, libraries have been faced with a rapidly changing online environment that offered users a number of engaging and competitive services. This, together with the fact that more and more users are moving and interacting online, has forced libraries to start thinking about their role and presence in this virtual world. Although applying the Web 2.0 concepts has been repeatedly proposed as a solution for many of the libraries’ problems, it now seems that it may not be enough. We will look at the advantages and possible pitfalls of the 2.0 movement and ask ourselves of the future prospects it may offer in the context of virtual library environment. We will also discuss on what the 2.0 and future movements really mean for libraries and librarians and how the new concepts have been accepted and employed in Slovenia.

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How do Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch compare?

Ian Utting, Stephen Cooper, Michael Kölling, John Maloney, Mitchel Resnick (2010) “Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch — A Discussion”, ACM Transactions on Computing Education (2010) Volume: 10, Issue: 4, Pages: 1-11

This article distills a discussion about the goals, mechanisms, and effects of three environments which aim to support the acquisition and development of computing concepts (problem solving and programming) in pre-University and non-technical students: Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch. The conversation started in a special session on the topic at the 2010 ACM SIGCSE Symposium on Computer Science Education and continued during the creation of the resulting Special Issue of the ACM Transactions on Computing Education.

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How can Librarians prepare for mobile technology?

Angela Dresselhaus and Flora Shrode (2012) “Mobile Technologies & Academics: Do Students Use Mobile Technology in their Academic Lives and are Librarians Ready to Meet this New Challenge?” Information Technology and Libraries Forthcoming (2012)

In this paper we report on two surveys and offer an introductory plan that librarians may use to begin implementing mobile access to selected library databases and services. Results from the first survey helped us to gain insight into where students at Utah State University (USU) in Logan, Utah stands regarding their use of mobile devices for academic activities in general and their desire for access to library services and resources in particular. A second survey that we conducted with librarians gave us an idea of the extent to which responding libraries offer mobile access, their future plans for mobile implementation, and librarians’ opinions about whether and how mobile technologies may be useful to library patrons. In the last segment of the paper, we outline steps librarians can take as they “go mobile.”

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Can Scratch be used to teach Computer Science Concepts?

Orni Meerbaum-Salant, Michal Armoni, Mordechai (Moti) Ben-Ari (2010) Learning Computer Science Concepts with Scratch, ICER 2010, August 9–10, 2010

We investigated the use of Scratch to teach concepts of computer science. We developed new learning materials based upon the constructionist philosophy of Scratch, and evaluated their use in middle-school classrooms. The results showed that most students are able to understand CS concepts, thus supporting the claims of Scratch to be a viable platform for teaching CS.

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How should Libraries prepare for eBooks and mobile devices?

Mandy Callow and Kaye England (2011)  Preparing your library for mobile devices m-libraries Conference, 11 – 13 May, 2011

This paper had its beginnings in a discussion at the USQ Library about the necessity, or not, to provide information on the Library‟s website about how eBooks can or cannot be used on mobile devices, specifically eBook readers. Varying sides in the discussion had differing opinions about our students‟, and staff, abilities in using mobile devices and eBooks. The systems team, who were involved in the development of a mobile Library interface, and were themselves proficient users of technology, felt that students and staff needed no instruction, whilst Information Services staff felt that they did.

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Evidence-Based Practice for Libraries: Evolution or Revolution?

David V. Loertscher (2009) Evidence-Based Practice: Evolution or Revolution? Evidence Based Library and Information Practice 2009, 4:2 

For some years, school library media specialists, like other educators, have been urged to raise their sights from the work-a-day world to the think-a-day world of reflective practice. The concepts of evidence-based practice and action research along with the general educational ideas of data mining, data-based decision making, diagnostic assessment, and a host of other terms encourage everyone to concentrate on results or the impact of actions and programs on teaching and learning. Perhaps the true EBP strategies must operate simultaneously in both an evolutionary manner and a revolutionary manner simultaneously

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How is technology changing literacy?

Guy Merchant (2009) Literacy in virtual worlds, Journal of Research in Reading, Volume 32, Issue 1, 2009, pp 38–56

Introducing new digital literacies into classroom settings is an important and challenging task, and one that is encouraged by both policy-makers and educators. This paper draws on a case study of a 3D virtual world which aimed to engage and motivate primary school children in an immersive and literacy-rich on-line experience. Planning decisions, early experimentation and the experience of avatar interaction are explored. Using field notes, in-world interviews and observations I analyse pupil and teacher perspectives on the use of digital literacy and its relationship to conventional classroom literacy routines, and use these to trace the potential and inherently disruptive nature of such work. The paper makes the case for a wider recognition of the role of technology in literacy and suggests that teachers need time for experimentation and professional development if they are to respond appropriately to new digital literacies in the classroom.

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What are the Obstacles to Technology-Enhanced Problem-Based Learning (PBL)?

Sung Hee Park and Peggy A. Ertmer (2008) Examining barriers in technology-enhanced problem-based learning: Using a performance support systems approach, British Journal of Educational Technology Vol 39 No 4 2008

This study focused on the barriers that middle school teachers faced when implementing technology-enhanced problem-based learning (PBL) in their classrooms. Using a human performance-based model, we interviewed teachers, administrators, university faculty and technical support staff to determine the perceived importance of multiple barriers to the implementation of technology-enhanced PBL. Twenty-one teachers, two school administrators and a project manager, two faculty members, and two technical support staff participated in the study. Interview data were supported by surveys, classroom observations and researchers’ reflective journals. Results suggested that lack of a clear, shared vision was the primary barrier. Additional barriers included lack of knowledge and skills, unclear expectations and insufficient feedback. Recommendations to support teachers’ efforts to integrate technology- enhanced problem-based learning are presented.

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Why aren’t computers an essential tool in every classroom?

Jennifer Groff (2008) A Framework for Addressing Challenges to Classroom Technology Use, AACE Journal (2008) Volume: 16, Issue: 1

Creating effective learning environments with technology remains a challenge for teachers. Despite the tremendous push for educators to integrate technology into their classrooms, many have yet to do so and struggle to find consistent success with technology-based instruction. The challenges to effective technology integration have been well documented in the literature. In this article we present a comprehensive review of the literature on the challenges associated with effective technology integration in the classroom and the ways in which they interact with one another. Based on this review we have developed a framework, the Individualized Inventory for Integrating Instructional Innovations (i5), to help teachers predict the likelihood of success of technology-based projects in the classroom and identify potential barriers that can hinder their technology integration efforts. Identifying potential barriers upfront can empower teachers to seek solutions early in the process, thereby increasing the likelihood of experiencing success with technology integration.

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What skills do students, teachers, and librarians need to build media literacy?

Jennifer M. Henson (2011) Media Literacy, Department of Educational Leadership and Human Development University of Central Missouri

An important aspect of application of media literacy for teaching and learning is for teachers to step back, support, and encourage students to be inventive and creative with such tools. Beginning media literacy education in early childhood and including parents is critical, as parents are their teachers at home. Young children are exposed to media literacy though television commercials, hand held games, the Internet, and even movies. Parents are the fist people to explain to children what they see, hear, and understand from these different types of media. An important aspect of application of media literacy for teaching and learning is for teachers to step back, support, and encourage students to be inventive and creative with such tools. Teachers should be knowledgeable in media literacy skills and how to integrate them into the curriculum. The librarian has a key role in supporting the integration of media literacy into the curriculum. School librarians partnering with other educators to identify and teach the media literacy will enable students to be effective digital learners.

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Is Learning Analytics the most dramatic factor shaping the future of education?

Phil Long, George Siemens (2011) Penetrating the Fog: Analytics in Learning and Education, Educause Review Volume: 46, Issue: 5, Pages: 31-40

Attempts to imagine the future of education often emphasize new technologies ubiquitous computing devices, flexible classroom designs, and innovative visual displays. But the most dramatic factor shaping the future of higher education is something that we cant actually touch or see: big data and analytics. Basing decisions on data and evidence seems stunningly obvious, and indeed, research indicates that data-driven decision-making improves organizational output and productivity.

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Why do we need to move towards a Transformative Pedagogy for School Libraries 2.0?

Marlene Asselin,  Ray Doiron (2008) Towards a Transformative Pedagogy for School Libraries 2.0, School Libraries Worldwide – Volume 14, Number 2, July 2008, 1‐18

Today’s students are no longer the people our education system was designed to teach. (Prensky, 2001). As more and more educators face the impact of Web 2.0, and as we see emerging what could be called a Learning 2.0 environment, it becomes urgent to extend teaching to meet the literacy and learning needs of the Net Generation. These ‘new’ learners and their expanding literacy needs have major implications for current models of school library programs which are largely focused on reading promotion and information literacy skills. We join others in recognizing the need to critically question long held tenets of school libraries and to create a new research‐based vision that will accord with the current economic and social directions driving educational change. This paper contributes to that process by proposing a framework for the work of school libraries in new times based on research in new literacies, today’s learners, and emerging concepts of knowledge.

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How are librarians involved in guided inquiry?

Carol Collier Kuhlthau (2010) Guided Inquiry: School Libraries in the 21st Century, School Libraries Worldwide, January 2010, Volume 16, Number 1, 17-28

The 21st century calls for new skills, knowledge and ways of learning to prepare students with abilities and competencies to address the challenges of an uncertain, changing world. Some think that an Internet connection in the classroom is all that is needed to transform a 20th century school into a 21st century learning space. If only it were that simple. Some have assumed that the Internet makes school libraries obsolete. Research shows that this is definitely not the case. A new way of learning is needed that prepares students for living and working in a complex information environment. Our research shows that school libraries are an essential component of information age schools. School librarians are vital partners in creating schools that enable students to learn through vast resources and multiple communication channels. Teachers cannot do this alone. School librarianship has evolved from emphasis on library skills to information skills in the 1980s, to information literacy in the 1990s, to inquiry as a way of learning in the first decade of the 21st century.

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Can phenomenography be a conceptual framework for information literacy in education?

Susie Andretta (2007) Phenomenography: a conceptual framework for information literacy education, ASLIB Proceedings (2007) Volume: 59, Issue: 2

By exploring learning from the learners point of view, and by focusing on the relationship between user/learner and information, the relational model proposes an holistic evaluation of learning exemplified by the qualitative changes in the way a person conceives and interacts with the world, rather than the testing of the amount of knowledge, or measuring the set of skills a learner acquires. The relational model promoted by Bruce et al. (2006), explores the dynamic relationship between learner and information within the context of information literacy, although the conceptual framework of the six frames of information literacy could be applied to any subject-specific scenario. This perspective necessarily calls for a shift of emphasis in Higher Education provision away from a learning what approach and towards a learning how attitude. To facilitate this shift Bruce et al. (2006) suggest that the relational model can be used to moderate other approaches to information literacy, thus promoting a pedagogy based on variation of learning that fosters independent and lifelong learning attitudes.

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How relevant is information literacy in a digital environment?

R N Mishra (2010) Relevance of information literacy in digital environment, Journal of emerging trends in computing and information science (2010) Volume: 1, Issue: 1, Pages: 48-54

Information Literacy (IL) along with information and communication technology has become significant in library environment. Information literacy in library services is required not only to optimize the use of library resources in teaching, learning and research but also train the users to make them aware about information sources and access authentic information from vast array of electronic information sources, etc. Librarians have to impart skills on web searching techniques, evaluation and establishing authenticity and reliability of information retrieved from internet domain to the users. The paper focuses some of the major areas for the relevance of information literacy in contemporary library and information services. Methodology followed for the study is based on the documents available library including on internet. Library professionals need to be aware of using the skills involved in acquiring e-resources from a wide range of information resources including organization and proper dissemination to the users. Further, they require creating awareness among the users about the adaptability of new technologies, capability of information building etc.

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What is the connection between ICT and cultural capital?

Jo Tondeur, Ilse Sinnaeve, Mieke van Houtte, & Johan van Braak (2011) ICT as cultural capital: The relationship between socioeconomic status and the computer-use profile of young people; Published in ‘New Media & Society’

This study explores the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and the computer-use profile of 1241 school students in Flanders, the northern region of Belgium. More specifically, the article examines whether varying patterns of computer access, attitudes, competencies and uses can be seen as constituting differences in cultural capital. Additionally, gender was included in the survey as an important background characteristic in digital divide research. Path analysis was used to model the complex relationships between the influencing factors upon the ICT-related variables. What emerged from the analyses was that SES affects the computer-use profile only moderately. No relationship between SES and computer ownership was found. Moreover, the acquisition of ICT competencies can no longer be attributed to computer ownership. Apart from a small effect on ICT use (a higher SES tends to be associated with more ICT use), SES does not seem to affect the computer-use profile of young people in Flanders. The results of this study indicate that the existing differences in SES on computer-use profile are not sufficiently marked to deduce that ICT can be seen as an indicator of differing cultural capital.

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