Using the power of research to inform ICT integration in education

Posts tagged ‘computer uses in education’

How could Stimulated Recall Interviews increase authentic understandings of technology integration?

Tondeur, J.; L. H. Kershaw; R. Vanderlinde; J. van Braak (2013) Changing Assessment — Towards a New Assessment Paradigm Using ICT, European Journal of Education, Vol. 48, No. 1, 2013

This study explored the black box of technology integration through the stimulated recall of teachers who showed proficiency in the use of technology to support teaching and learning. More particularly, the aim of the study was to examine how these teachers use technology in their lessons and to gain deeper insights into the multifaceted influences affecting their current practices. In order to explore this black box, observations and stimulated recall interviews with primary school teachers were conducted in schools which were selected by the inspectorate on the basis of advances they had made in educational technology use. Stimulated recall interviews – a verbal reporting technique in which the teachers were asked to verbalize their thoughts while looking at their own classroom practice on video – seemed to be a promising approach to increase authentic understandings of technology integration. The results emphasize that (a) the teachers involved in this study were pedagogically proficient and flexible enough to fit technology in with the varying demands of their educational practices, (b) the teachers’ ongoing learning experiences rather than training affected the development of the quality of their practices, and (c) the role of the school and the broader context of teachers’ personal lives played an important role. By interpreting the results of the study, recommendations are discussed for teacher technology integration and future research.
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New Media Use in Brazil: Digital Inclusion or Digital Divide?

Sueila Pedrozo, University of Turku, Finland (2013) New Media Use in Brazil: Digital Inclusion or Digital Divide?, Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, Volume: 3 – Issue: 1 – January – 2013

The emergence of ICTs brought economic growth and development for many countries, but brought the digital divide as well. In Brazil, there was a democratization effect with the adoption of mobile phones reaching all social classes but the internet still lags behind. No doubt there is a correlation between digital exclusion and other forms of inequalities – social, economic, educational, and demographic. Technology access is just the first step to digital inclusion but digital literacy is even more important and has to follow it; the full inclusion for all depend not only on public policies but mainly on quality education and teachers’ training, to enable underprivileged youth to learn and use ICT resources and potential.

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Computers in Education: What for?

Eevi E. Beck (2011) Computers in Education: What for? Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy / 2011 / Special Issue

The assumption that increased use of computing technologies is beneficial per se has been questioned in research on workplace computing since the early 1970ies. The intention of this paper is to encourage stopping and pausing to consider what is happening (an empirical question), and whether what is seen is desirable (a normative question). The paper calls for more debate (among researchers, teachers, parents, school leaders, governmental bodies, and other interested parties) as to what we would want computers for and how to get there. Points of view would differ; possibly never fully settling on agreement. This would constitute an ideal and a practice of attempting to bring Bildung and democracy to computing use in education, and would be a worthwhile lead to equip the young for participation in a technology-intensive society.

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What Do Students Use Their Laptops for During Teacher Instruction?

Marte Blikstad-Balas (2012) Digital Literacy in Upper Secondary School – What Do Students Use Their Laptops for During Teacher Instruction? Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, Vol 7, 2012, Nr 02, 81-96

Many schools assume that the technology will fit into school practices, and thus use the computer as a supplement to the “regular” instruction. However, the students have their own vernacular practices concerning the use of the same technology, which they bring to school and wherever they go. This means that if schools fail to create the need of relevant educational Internet-based practices, the students will continue to use the Internet mainly for their personal vernacular practices, even at school. It goes without saying that banning Internet activity will not contribute to developing students’ literacy skills. What might need more explicit attention, is that neither will allowing unlimited Internet access without any guidance or clear educational purpose.

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Integrating Digital Technology: What Are Students Really Learning?

Tara L. Evans (2012) Integrating Digital Technology: What Are Students Really Learning? Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand

The present study investigated the learning that occurred as students interacted with teacher-planned lessons which included digital technologies (DTs). An Activity Theory (AT) framework was utilised to analyze the data collected and to make sense of the complex environment that teachers and students work within to identify factors within the sociocultural setting affected student learning when DTs were utilized. Results indicated that students gained technical skills, reinforced and developed conceptual understandings, built cooperative skills, thought critically and creatively, learned to troubleshoot when technical errors occurred, developed a sense of autonomy and agency in the classroom, and engaged in self-regulated learning through the use of DTs. A number of factors impacted on these outcomes including aspects of the school environment, teachers’ knowledge and beliefs, and teaching methods used when DTs were included in classroom activities.

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How can 5th graders’ science content knowledge and self-efficacy be enhanced through game-based learning?

Angela Meluso, Meixun Zheng, Hiller A. Spires, James Lester (2012) Enhancing 5th graders’ science content knowledge and self-efficacy through game-based learning, Computers & Education 59 (2012) 497–504

Many argue that games can positively impact learning by providing an intrinsically motivating and engaging learning environment for students in ways that traditional school cannot. Recent research demonstrates that games have the potential to impact student learning in STEM content areas and that collaborative gameplay may be of particular importance for learning gains. This study investigated the effects of collaborative and single game player conditions on science content learning and science self- efficacy. Results indicated that there were no differences between the two playing conditions; however, when conditions were collapsed, science content learning and self-efficacy significantly increased. Future research should focus on the composition of collaboration interaction among game players to assess what types of collaborative tasks may yield positive learning gains.

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Is multitasking of technology a support or a distraction to learning?

Ajao, Peter Olayinka Oluwasegun (2012)  Multitasking-Impact of ICT on learning, Case Study (LUAS), Lahti University of Applied Sciences, Degree programme in Business Information Technology

The purpose of this paper is to use a questionnaire/survey, interview, and observations, and a test to examine how multitasking using various technologies impact or affects students. Multitasking of technology becomes a distraction when it is not managed well, such as when multitasking is heavily done, it leads to ineffectiveness, inefficiency, and affect productivity because the brain is subject to many things. Heavy multitasking is reported to cause even stress to the multitasker. In the case of students, more mental work is required since there is divided attention and concentration. So, it is possible that the education productivity goes on the dwindling side. On the other hand, multitasking that is done moderately, and that is controlled, is seen as a support.

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What is the role of instructional practices in successful implementation of a 1:1 program?

Jenifer O. Corn, Jennifer T. Tagsold, Ruchi K. Patel (2011) The Tech‐Savvy Teacher: Instruction in a 1:1 Learning Environment, Journal of Educational Research and Practice, 2011, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 1–22

A research team conducted an evaluation of a laptop initiative in 18 North Carolina high schools through administrator, teacher, and student focus groups; teacher and student surveys; and classroom observations. The study aimed to provide information about the value of the laptop initiative in enhancing student learning. In addition, it intended to identify challenges to the successful implementation of 1:1 programs, strategies for meeting those challenges, and services and supports needed to enable successful 1:1 programs throughout the state. This paper explores how the initiative affected instructional practice in areas such as technology use, communication, the role of the teacher, and the learning environment. It also discusses unique challenges for teachers in a 1:1 environment, as well as implications for educators and administrators.

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What is the value of intrinsic integration in educational games?

Hagbood, MP Jacob and Ainsworth, Shaaron E (2011) Motivating children to learn effectively: exploring the value of intrinsic integration in educational games, Journal of the Learning Sciences, 20 (2), 169-206.

The concept of intrinsic motivation has been considered to lie at the heart of the user engagement created by digital games. Yet despite this, educational software has traditionally attempted to harness games as extrinsic motivation by using them as a sugar-coating for learning content. This paper tests the concept of intrinsic integration as a way of creating a more productive relationship between educational games and their learning content. Two studies assessed this approach by designing and evaluating an educational game for teaching mathematics to seven to eleven year olds called Zombie Division. The results of these studies showed that children learned more from the intrinsic version of the game under fixed time limits and spent seven times longer playing it in free time situations. Together they offer evidence for the genuine value of an intrinsic approach for creating effective educational games. The theoretical and commercial implications of these findings are discussed.

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How is Media Literacy approached in Germany?

Gerard Tulodziecki, Silke Grafe (2012) Approaches to Learning with Media and Media Literacy Education – Trends and Current Situation in Germany, The National Association for Media Literacy Education’s Journal of Media Literacy Education 4:1 (2012) 44 – 60

German approaches to media literacy education are concerned with the questions, how the variety of media can be used in a meaningful way for learning and teaching and what educational tasks result from the extensive use of media. Considering these questions there are various conceptual ideas, research and development projects as well as implementations into practice in the field of education and teacher training. The development and the current situation of approaches to media literacy education in Germany are described and discussed in the article. Thereby, the focus is on media literacy education in schools.

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Can Android App Inventor Bring Computational Thinking to K-12 learners?

R. Morelli, T. de Lanerolle, P. Lake, N.Limardo, B. Tamotsu, C. Uche (2010) Can Android App Inventor Bring Computational Thinking to K-12?  Unpublished, September 2010.

App Inventor for Android is a new visual programming plat- form for creating mobile applications for Android-based smart phones. This paper reports on the summer component of an ongoing project aimed at addressing whether App Inven- tor would be a suitable platform for bringing computational thinking to K-12 students. The project brought together a team consisting of two high school CS teachers, two novice undergraduate computing students, a community outreach leader, and a college CS instructor. The students were eas- ily able to develop complex mobile apps completely on their own initiative. Overall, the team found App Inventor to be an accessible and powerful platform that could well support introductory level courses at the college and K-12 levels.

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How can Google Fusion facilitate data sharing and collaboration?

Hector Gonzalez, Alon Y. Halevy, Christian S. Jensen, Anno Langen, Jayant Madhavan, Rebecca Shapley, Warren Shen, Jonathan Goldberg-Kidon (2010) Google Fusion Tables: Web-Centered Data Management and Collaboration,  SIGMOD’10, June 6–11

Google Fusion Tables represents an initial answer to the question of how data management functionality that focussed on enabling new users and applications would look in today’s computing environment. This paper characterizes such users and applications and highlights the resulting principles, such as seamless Web integration, emphasis on ease of use, and incentives for data sharing, that underlie the design of Fusion Tables. We describe key novel features, such as the sup- port for data acquisition, collaboration, visualization, and web-publishing.

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Do video games effect the sleep and mental health of Czech and Japanese children?

Milada Krejci, Kai Wada, Miyo Nakade, Hitomi Takeuchi, Teruki Noji, Tetsuo Harada  (2011)  Effects of Video Game Playing on the Circadian Typology and Mental Health of Young Czech and Japanese Children, Psychology 2011. Vol.2, No.7, 674-680

The objective of this study is to examine the effects of video game playing on sleep-wake cycles and mental health of young Czech and Japan children. A cross-sectional survey with 497 Czech children (240 girls, 257 boys; mean age of 4.60 years; 49 ̊ – 51 ̊N) and 599 Japanese children (314 girls, 285 boys: 3.79 years; 33 ̊N) from 20 kindergartens and nursery schools. Habitual video game playing in the evening may make children more evening-typed and it may also be speculated to make them more aggressive in both countries.

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What affects teachers’ use of technology?

Debbie Beaudry (2011) Technology and Fifth Grade Teaching: a Study of Teacher Reported Classroom Practice, Professional Development, Access, and Support, A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the College of Education in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Florida Atlantic University Boca Raton, FL December 2011

This mixed methods study investigated 5th-grade teachers’ reported use of computer technology and variables that have been identified by researchers as affecting teachers’ use of technology, including professional development activities, physical access to computer technology, and technical and instructional support provided for teachers. Quantitative data were collected from 80 5th-grade teachers from a Florida public school district through an online survey in which teachers reported how frequently they used and had their students use computer technology for 27 different purposes. The teachers also reported the amount of emphasis those 27 different topics received during their technology-related professional development experiences, the number of hours they participated in technology-related professional development, the number of months they participating in a technology coaching/mentoring program, the access their students had to computers in the classroom and in a one-to-one computing environment, and the frequency that they received technical and instructional support. Information from the school district’s technology plan provided a context for the study.

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What is the role of blogging for twenty first century professional academic practitioners?

Kirkup, Gill (2010). Academic blogging, academic practice and academic identity. London Review of Education, 8(1), pp. 75–84.

This paper describes a small scale study which investigates the role of blogging in professional academic practice in higher education. It draws on interviews with a small sample of academics (scholars, researchers and teachers) who have blogs and on the author’s own reflections on blogging to investigate the professional benefits and costs of academic blogging. It argues that blogging offers a new genre of authoritative and accessible academic textual production, and in this way is changing the nature of what it is to be a twenty first century academic practitioner.

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Does 1:1 laptop computing positively impact student academic engagement and learning?

Jared Keengwe, Gary Schnellert, Chris Mills (2012) Laptop initiative: Impact on instructional technology integration and student learning,  EDUCATION AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES Volume 17, Number 2 (2012), 137-146,

The purpose of this study was to examine how 1:1 laptop initiative affected student learning at a selected rural Midwestern high school. A total of 105 high school students enrolled in 10th–12th grades during the 2008–2009 school year participated in the study. A survey instrument created by the Mitchell Institute was modified and used to collect data on student perceptions and faculty perceptions of the impact of 1:1 laptop computing on student learning and instructional integration of technology in education. Study findings suggest that integration of 1:1 laptop computing positively impacts student academic engagement and student learning. Therefore, there is need for teachers to implement appropriate computing practices to enhance student learning. Additionally, teachers need to collaborate with their students to learn and understand various instructional technology applications beyond basic Internet browsing and word processing.

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Does Second Life allow for a constructivist approach to learning?

Mallan, Kerry M. and Foth, Marcus and Greenaway, Ruth and Young, Greg T. (2010) Serious playground : using Second Life to engage high school students in urban planning. Journal of Learning, Media and Technology, 35(2).

Virtual world platforms such as Second Life have been successfully used in educational contexts to motivate and engage learners. This article reports on an exploratory workshop involving a group of high school students using Second Life for an urban planning project. Young people are traditionally an under-represented demographic when it comes to participating in urban planning and decision making processes. The research team developed activities that combined technology with a constructivist approach to learning. Real world experiences and purposes ensured that the workshop enabled students to see the relevance of their learning. Our design also ensured that play remained an important part of the learning. By conceiving of the workshop as a ‘serious playground’ we investigated the ludic potential of learning in a virtual world.

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Multimodal literacy: What does it mean for classroom practice?

Maureen Walsh (2010) Multimodal literacy: What does it mean for classroom practice?, Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, Vol. 33, No. 3, 2010, pp. 211–239

Changes to literacy pedagogy are gradually occurring in classrooms in response to contemporary communication and learning contexts. These changes are diverse as teachers and educational researchers attempt to design new pedagogy to respond to the potential of digital technologies within existing curriculum and assessment policies. This paper discusses evidence from recent classroom research where 16 teachers worked in teams in nine primary school classrooms to develop new ways of embedding technology for literacy learning. Data from the nine case studies provides evidence that teachers can combine the teaching of print-based literacy with digital communications technology across a range of curriculum areas. Findings from this research confirm that literacy needs to be redefined within current curriculum contexts, particularly in light of the emergence of a national curriculum. New descriptors of language and literacy criteria are proposed within the framework of multimodal literacy, the literacy that is needed in contemporary times for reading, viewing, responding to and producing multimodal and digital texts.

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What is the impact of Media on the lives of 8- to 18-year-olds?

Victoria J. Rideout, Ulla G. Foehr, Donald F. Roberts, (2010) Generation M2: Media in the Lives of 8- to 18-Year-Olds, Kaiser Family Foundation

Over the past five years, young people have increased the amount of time they spend consuming media by an hour and seventeen minutes daily, from 6:21 to 7:38—almost the amount of time most adults spend at work each day, except that young people use media seven days a week instead of five. Use of every type of media has increased over the past 10 years, with the exception of reading. In just the past five years, the increases range from 24 minutes a day for video games, to 27 minutes a day for computers, 38 minutes for TV content, and 47 minutes a day for music and other audio. During this same period, time spent reading went from 43 to 38 minutes a day, not a statistically significant change. Today, 20% of media consumption (2:07) occurs on mobile devices—cell phones, iPods or handheld video game players.

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Why should games have a place in formal education?

Thorkild Hanghøj (2008) Playful Knowledge: An Explorative Study of Educational Gaming, PhD Dissertation, Institute of Literature, Media and Cultural Studies University of Southern Denmark

This dissertation can be read as an attempt to explore the widespread assumption that games have educational value within the context of formal schooling. More specifically, this study tries to answer a number of questions related to this assumption: Why should games have a place in formal education? How should educational games support teaching and learning? And what characterises “good” educational game design? These questions are repeatedly being addressed by game designers, policy makers, educators, news media and researchers in an attempt to explore – and often promote – the assumed learning potential of games. To bring matters to a head, such questions are often driven by an attempt to legitimise the educational use of games instead of actually exploring whether this goal is desirable or how it can be achieved.

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What are the legal risks facing young people using network sites?

David Lindsay, Melissa de Zwart, Michael Henderson, Michael Phillips (2011) Understanding legal risks facing children and young people using social network sites, Telecommunications Journal of Australia, Vol.61, No1 (2011)

Children and young people are increasingly participating in everyday use of Social Networking Sites (SNS), such as Facebook or MySpace, to the extent that such interactions have come to be seen as an essential part of growing up. To date, mainstream discussion and policy debates about young people and SNS have tended to focus on high profile risks associated with these activities, such as cyber-bullying and online grooming of children by adults. While not dismissing the potential risks of SNS use by young people, it is important to understand the potential benefits that may accrue from online social interactions, including the acquisition of social and technical skills that are likely to be important for future digital citizens. Moreover, it is also important not to ignore other potential, albeit less dramatic, risks that may arise from SNS use. This article focuses on the range of legal risks that children and young people may face in their everyday use of SNS.  The article concludes with an analysis of the research findings, and some suggestions as to how the popularity of SNS with young people may be used to engage students in learning about, and debating, the application of the law to online activities, especially the use of SNS.

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What does Peer-Based Learning in a Networked Age look like?

Mizuko Ito  (2010) Peer-Based Learning in a Networked Age, Keynote address for University of Michigan’s Enriching Scholarship 2010

Networked media offers an unprecedented opportunity to support learning that is highly personalized and learner-centered, driven by passionate interest and social engagement. But very few learners and educators are taking advantage of this opportunity. And the reason for this is that too often we separate the worlds of young people and adults, play and education. We hold onto the old boundaries between schooling, peer-culture, and home life, between what looks and feels like learning and education that we grew up with, and what looks and feels like socializing, hanging out, and playing. Even if those boundaries were never that real to begin with, in today’s networked world, they are even more untenable.

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Hanging Out, Messing Around, and Geeking Out. How do kids live and learn with new media?

Mizuko Ito, Sonja Baumer, Matteo Bittanti, danah boyd, Rachel Cody, Becky Herr-Stephenson, Heather A. Horst, Patricia G. Lange, Dilan Mahendran, Katynka Z. Martinez, C. J. Pascoe, Dan Perkel, Laura Robinson, Christo Sims and Lisa Tripp (2009) Hanging Out, Messing Around, and Geeking Out, The MIT Press

Despite the widespread assumption that new media are tied to fundamental changes in how young people are engaging with culture and knowledge, there is still relatively little research that investigates how these dynamics operate on the ground. This book reports on a three-year ethnographic investigation of youth new media practice that aims to develop a grounded, qualitative evidence base to inform current debates over the future of learning and education in the digital age.

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How are secondary school students using the internet in Nigeria?

Ukpebor Osaretin Christopher and Emwanta Maria-Gorretti (2012) Availability and the use of computer and internet by secondary school students in Benin City, Nigeria, International Journal of Library and Information Science Vol. 4(2), pp. 16-23, February 2012

This study identifies the availability of internet use among 1000 secondary schools students Benin City, Nigeria. Internet has become a useful tool for education. Access to information communication technology (ICT), the internet in particular, has provided people especially students with a foundation for meeting their information needs. Many private schools can boast of computer laboratories, but only few can pride themselves on Internet access. Another frustration is the capacity to use the Internet. 1000 students were selected from 20 private secondary schools across the two (out of three) local government of Benin City. Result showed that students have the capacity to use the internet which they learnt from friends and family members. However, the level of internet access in schools is poor despite the schools having computer laboratories. Students access the internet from their homes and cyber cafes since they are denied access in their respective schools while most of the students use the internet for educational activities. Internet availability should be considered as one of the most important scientific tools in schools.

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How is ICT Impacting Education in Pakistan?

M. Wasif Nisar, Ehsan Ullah Munir and Shafqat Ali shad (2012) Usage and Impact of ICT in Education Sector; A Study of Pakistan,  Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(12): 578-583, 2011

In many countries, information and communication technology (ICT) has a lucid impact on the development of educational curriculum. This is the era of Information Communication Technology, so to perk up educational planning it is indispensable to implement the ICT in Education sector. Student can perform well throughout the usage of ICT. ICT helps the students to augment their knowledge skills as well as to improve their learning skills. To know with reference to the usage and Impact of ICT in Education sector of Pakistan, we accumulate data from 429 respondents from 5 colleges and universities, we use convenient sampling to accumulate the data from district Rawalpindi of Pakistan. The consequences show that Availability and Usage of ICT improves the knowledge and learning skills of students. This indicates that existence of ICT is improving the educational efficiency as well as obliging for making policies regarding education sector.

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Has the One Laptop per Child Program (OLPC) Made a Difference in Peru?

Julián P. Cristia Pablo Ibarrarán Santiago Cueto Ana Santiago Eugenio Severín (2012) Technology and Child Development: Evidence from the One Laptop Per Child Program,  IZA DP No. 6401

Although many countries are aggressively implementing the One Laptop per Child (OLPC) program, there is a lack of empirical evidence on its effects. This paper presents the impact of the first large-scale randomized evaluation of the OLPC program, using data collected after 15 months of implementation in 319 primary schools in rural Peru. The results indicate that the program increased the ratio of computers per student from 0.12 to 1.18 in treatment schools. This expansion in access translated into substantial increases in use both at school and at home. No evidence is found of effects on enrollment and test scores in Math and Language. Some positive effects are found, however, in general cognitive skills as measured by Raven’s Progressive Matrices, a verbal fluency test and a Coding test.

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How Significant is the Web as a Learning Resource?

Si Fan (2011) Significance of the Web as a Learning Resource in an Australian University Context, Submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University of Tasmania June 2011

This research involved the participation of 502 students and 100 teaching staff from seven faculties/disciplines at the University of Tasmania. The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of the Web as a learning resource in this university context. It examined the views of teaching staff and students toward the significance of the Web in teaching and learning practices, and identified the environment in which the Web was used to facilitate teaching and learning. The results of this study indicated a strong recognition of the role of the Web as a learning resource at the University of Tasmania. The Web was recognised as performing an essential role in the processes of communication, information retrieval, collaborative learning and assessment. Also, the Web and web-based technologies were seen as an important supplementary tool for face-to-face learning. However, there were differences between perceived expectations of web-based education by teaching staff and students, and the ways in which it was conducted and managed. By discussing the end-users‟ views and evaluations, recommendations are made on the further development and modification of the Web adoption. It suggests that taking student expectations and needs into consideration can help create a more supportive and meaningful web-based learning environment. Training for both staff and students is also desired to enhance their skills in using the Web as a learning resource and to provide standard web-based support in all courses.

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How are ICT-rich learning environments changing teacher practice in India, Turkey, and Chile?

Daniel Light with Scott Strother and Deborah Keisch Polin (2009) Emerging 
changes 
in 
ICT‐rich 
learning 
environments:
 The 
Intel®
Teach 
Essentials 
Course
 and
 changing 
teacher
practice 
in 
India, 
Turkey,
 and
 Chile, Center for Children and Technology Education Development Center

Understanding how technology fits into the complex realities of classrooms was a critical factor in creating real change in the industrialized nations, yet little is known about how educational technology projects are impacting the classrooms of the developing world. This study looked at successful schools from the Intel® Teach Essentials Course in Chile, India and Turkey to explore how schools and teachers have been able to integrate ICT and the pedagogical approaches from the Essentials Course into their schools and how these changes are, in turn, changing what happens in the classroom. The teachers are developing new beliefs about teaching and improving their knowledge of new practices; their students are engaging with content in new ways; and the relationships between teachers and students are changing relationships. And, both groups are using new ICT tools to support learning.


How are Web 2.0 tools changing the culture of learning?

Daniel  Light, Deborah  Keisch  Polin, (2010) Integrating Web 2.0 tools into the classroom: Changing the culture of learning, EDC Center for Children and Technology

While this study suggests great potential for Web 2.0 tools, it also demonstrates that careful planning is required to align  instructional activities and the affordances of these tools. Teachers need to design activities in which the communication facilitated by the Web 2.0 tools is meaningful and relates to students’ learning of the content or to their own lives. One of the most salient themes, consistent among more sophisticated users across all of our sites, is that we are perhaps beginning to see a Web  2.0 approach or mentality. It may not be the tool itself that defines Web 2.0, but how it is used to support teaching and learning, both in individual classrooms and as part of a school’s or district’s larger vision. All the tools employed within this approach do not necessarily have to be what immediately comes to mind when one thinks of  “Web 2.0” (e.g., blogs and wikis). However, the philosophy that has developed through the use of these tools embraces a Web 2.0 mentality. The tools are  interactive, they can be used  asynchronously, they are collected together as a suite of resources within a virtual platform, and teachers are integrating them seamlessly into their classrooms to extend and  deepen the educational environment.

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Can Google Apps support a Professional Learning Community?

Barbra Kaimuloa Bates (2011) Using Google Apps in Professional Learning Communities, Educational Technology University of Hawaii at Mānoa Kailua-Kona, Hawaii USA

Being an educator presents challenges, especially when communication is a barrier. Google Apps provide collaboration tools which allow teachers to create, share, collaborate and publish work within their Professional Learning Community (PLC). All documents and revisions saved on Google Apps are easily accessible for each collaborator, eliminating This project sought to implement an instructional design module that can serve as an orientation for new users of Google Apps, so that teachers will be able to gain an understanding of the tools and adopt them into their PLC. Voicethread presentations were embedded into the web-based modules so users would be able to view step-by-step procedures as a tutorial for Google Apps. The project was delivered in a hybrid approach, both synchronous and asynchronous, since teachers’ technology abilities vary. Ten public school teachers participated in and tested the web-based module and its effectiveness was evaluated in a survey completed by participants after they finished the module. Post survey results indicated positive reactions to using Google Apps as a collaboration tool in their PLC, although they have expressed concern that without total “buy in” amongst their colleagues, the collaboration tool would not be effective.

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How can Google Maps support Japanese Language Learners?

Kiyomi Fujii, James Elwood, and Barron Orr (2011) Collaborative Mapping: Google Maps for Language Exchange, Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Central Association of Teachers of Japanese (CATJ22)

One of the many aspects of the burgeoning world of cloud computing, Web 2.0 (e.g. Google Maps), provides an engaging classroom tool that allows student production to be easily exhibited publicly in what Shulman (1997) dubbed the „capstone experience‟ of a learning endeavor. Through the use of Web 2.0 innovations that facilitate place-based communication and social networking, preliminary work suggests it may be possible to encourage language learners in two different countries to interact more, learn more, and engage further in cultural exchange on their own initiative. This paper explores a language exchange activity, using Web 2.0 technology, between university EFL (English as a foreign language) students in Japan and JFL (Japanese as a foreign language) students in America. The approach applies a traditional typing-and- composition lecture to an activity where students interactively and collaboratively map and describe the locations of favorite campus sites using Google Maps.

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How can Google docs be used to support an ESL program?

This paper demonstrates a number of practical applications in which the Google Docs suite is currently being used within a university ESL program in Tokyo. Specifically, it gives examples of the scope and limitations of the free online software on four levels: (1) the program level – management of teaching as- signments and reporting of grades; (2) special program management – online book reports for extensive reading; (3) course management – homework production and submission, and self and peer assessment; and (4) project work – collaborative writing and student-generated questionnaires.

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With Google Docs is it more effective for students to share or collaborate?

Ina Blau, Avner Caspi (2010) What Type of Collaboration Helps? Psychological Ownership, Perceived Learning and Outcome Quality of Collaboration Using Google Docs

One hundred and eighteen Open University of Israel undergraduate students participated in an experiment that was designed to test the differences between sharing and collaborating on a written assignment. Participants were randomly allocated to one of five groups that differ in types of collaboration: two groups share their draft with either an unknown audience or known peers, two other groups collaborated by either suggesting improvements to or editing each other’s draft, and an additional group in which the participants kept the draft for themselves served as a control group. Findings revealed differences between groups in psychological ownership, perceived quality of the document, but not in perceived learning. In addition, students believe that a document that was written collaboratively might have higher quality than a document written alone. Nonetheless, they reported that while their contribution improved a draft written by a colleague, the colleagues contribution deteriorated their own draft. Perceived quality of the document and the improvement from draft to final version predicted perceived learning. Thus, the present study implications are that collaboration is superior to sharing, that students prefer suggestion over editing.

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How can preschool children’s learning with technology be supported?

Plowman L, Stephen C., McPake, J. (2010). Supporting young children’s learning with technology at home and in preschool. Research Papers in Education 25 (1) 93-113.

We describe two empirical investigations of three- and four-year-old children’s uses of technology, one conducted in family homes and the other in preschool settings, with the aim of comparing the ways in which children’s learning with technology is supported in these different settings. The studies conceptualise learning within a sociocultural framework and use the concept of guided interaction to focus the discussion. Three areas of learning that can be supported by the use of technologies are outlined (extending knowledge of the world, acquiring operational skills, and developing dispositions to learn), with the addition of learning about the cultural roles of technology in the home context. Children encountered a more diverse range of technologies at home, were more likely to request help and could benefit from observing family practices. The limitations on the technologies available in most preschool settings and their lack of use for authentic activities meant that there were fewer opportunities to develop children’s awareness of the different cultural and work-related uses of technology. Preschool and primary school staff have limited knowledge of children’s home experiences with technology.

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Are boys disadvantaged by handwritten tests and exams?

Fayza S Al-Hammadi (2009) “The impact of multimedia on critical thinking and writing of Saudi secondary school students”, Information Technology Journal (2010) Volume: 9, Issue: 1, Pages: 11-19

A study was carried out to investigate the impact of multi-media on the critical thinking and writing of Saudi secondary school students. The study compared the critical thinking in two writing samples (essays) from adolescents who attended two Saudi secondary schools for boys and girls. The results demonstrated a gender-specific effect of using computers to compose essays. The boys produced significantly more words, sentences and paragraphs by using computers than those who did not use computers to write and received higher ratings on a structured rubric. Girls scored identical grades in both conditions (handwritten and computer) and performed consistently at par with boys using computers.

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What are parents’ perspectives on technology and children’s learning in the home? Habitus and social class.

S. Hollingworth, A. Mansaray, K. Allen, A. Rose, (2011) “Parents’ perspectives on technology and children’s learning in the home: social class and the role of the habitus”, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning Volume 27, Issue 4, pages 347–360, August 2011

Sociologists of education highlight that parent’s ability to engage with their children’s education and learning is not a straightforward issue. Drawing on the work of Pierre Bourdieu, this paper attempts to open up a space for examination of the differential experiences of parents from different social class backgrounds, of technology in the home, and how this informs the potential they see for family learning using technology. We use Bourdieu’s concepts of ‘cultural and economic capital’ and ‘habitus’ to explore several themes. Firstly, the paper explores the impact of material inequalities of access on families and how this structures parental engagement with technology in relation to their children’s schooling; secondly, how the harms and risks of technology are differentially experienced, negotiated and managed by parents from different social class backgrounds – with varying amounts of social and cultural resources available to them; thirdly, through discussion of the ‘generation gap’, we examine the significance of the parents’ working lives (in terms of the privileged forms of engagement with technology, which professional employment increasingly requires and facilitates) in shaping parents’ own relationships to education and learning.

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What are the risks of introducing new technologies to teachers?

Caroline Stockman, Fred Truyen (2011) The Danger of the Downward Spiral: Teachers and Digital Literacy, Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on e-Learning, Brighton 10-11 Nov 2011

The primary purpose of this paper is to provide anyone active in the field of education with a useful tool to assess risks during the integration of new technology in an educational setting, but especially to raise awareness of the danger of a downward spiral, which not only undermines our investment of time and money into these promising new technologies, but which also puts the learners at a great disadvantage when providing useful tools for their benefit which are, in the end, not fully or even wrongly used.

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What are the attitudes of academic librarians towards Internet plagiarism?

Rebecca Bartlett, Biddy Casselden (2011) An investigation into the attitudes of academic librarians towards Internet plagiarism of HE students, Library and Information Research Volume 35 Number 110 2011

This research paper aims to report an investigation into the attitudes of academic librarians towards Internet plagiarism of higher education students in the United Kingdom (UK), particularly with regard to how they define Internet plagiarism, their perceived role in combating this phenomenon, and the skills and techniques they have or will adopt to achieve this.

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What are the effects of teacher self-disclosure via Facebook on student learning?

Joseph P. Mazer, Richard E. Murphy & Cheri J. Simonds (2007) I’ll See You On ‘‘Facebook’’: The Effects of Computer-Mediated Teacher Self-Disclosure on Student Motivation, Affective Learning, and Classroom Climate, Communication Education Vol. 56, No. 1, January 2007, pp. 1-17

This experimental study examined the effects of teacher self-disclosure via Facebook on anticipated college student motivation, affective learning, and classroom climate. Participants who accessed the Facebook website of a teacher high in self-disclosure anticipated higher levels of motivation and affective learning and a more positive classroom climate. In their responses to open-ended items, participants emphasized possible negative associations between teacher use of Facebook and teacher credibility. Participants offered recommendations for teachers regarding the use of Facebook and other weblog services.

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Is there Equity in the Access to Digital Technology?

Mark Warschauer and Tina Matuchniak (2010) New Technology and Digital Worlds: Analyzing Evidence of Equity in Access, Use, and Outcomes, Review of Research in Education 2010; 34; 179

There is a widespread belief that the falling cost of computers and Internet access is rapidly narrowing a digital divide in U.S. society. However, as this review shows, gaps in home access to digital media are still substantial, and inequalities in technology usage and outcomes are even greater. Unfortunately, many of the measures most frequently used for analyzing technology-related access, use, and outcomes are insufficient. Though technology-related access, use, and outcomes are difficult to measure, all available evidence suggests they are critically important factors in shaping social futures. As we rethink how to measure evidence of equitable resources, conditions, and outcomes of student learning, continued close attention to the role of technology in both school and out-of-school environments is urgently needed.

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Can teachers be trusted to accurately assess their acceptance of educational technologies?

Bram PYNOO, Jo TONDEUR, Johan VAN BRAAK, Wouter DUYCK, Bart SIJNAVEd, Philippe DUYCK (2011) Assessing teachers’ acceptance of educational technologies: Beware for the congruency between user acceptance and actual use, T. Hirashima et al. (Eds.) (2011). Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computers in Education. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education

In this study, we investigated the extent to which self-reported measures for user acceptance (attitude, behavioral intention, self-reported frequency of use), added to the prediction of several aspects of use of a portal for education. Data from 835 teachers was collected: questionnaire “acceptance” data on one occasion and five parameters for observed use (number of logins, downloads, uploads, page views, and reactions) were extracted on two occasions from the portal database. We found that the self-reported measures for acceptance primarily predicted search behavior (monthly number of logins, downloads and page views), and not share behavior (monthly number of uploads and reactions). So, researchers aiming to assess teachers’ acceptance of a technology to contribute information, should adjust their measures for user acceptance so that these correspond with the targeted actual behavior.

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What could Computer Science look like in the Elementary School?

Katherine Gunion (2008) FUNdamentals of CS: Designing and Evaluating Computer Science Activities for Kids, University of British Columbia, A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE in the Department of Computer Science

Computer Science is not included in high school or middle school education in British Columbia. Young students are not exposed to Computer Science when they are learning their fundamentals. Given the correct abstractions like kinesthetic learn- ing activities and graphical programming languages, elementary school students can be exposed to computer science and can understand sophisticated topics like recursion and concurrency. This means that more students’ interest will be piqued and they will be exposed to sophisticated concepts before first year computer science.

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Can robotics change students’ beliefs and interest toward STEM?

Stephen H. Whitehead (2010) Relationship of Robotic Implementation On Changes In Middle School Students’ Beliefs and Interest Toward Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, A Dissertation Submitted to the School of Graduate Studies and Research in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Education, Indiana University of Pennsylvania

This quantitative study evaluates the impact of using robotics as a content organizer to teach a mathematic concept between math and technology education classes in a middle school of the students beliefs and interests toward STEM concepts. The analysis was based upon pre and post belief and interest survey responses by the participating middle school students. Ten schools from Pennsylvania participated in the study over the spring semester of school in 2010.

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What do 40 years of research say about the impact of technology on learning?

Rana M. Tamim, Robert M. Bernard, Eugene Borokhovski, Philip C. Abrami, and Richard F. Schmid (2011) What Forty Years of Research Says About the Impact of Technology on Learning: A Second-Order Meta-Analysis and Validation Study, Review of Educational Research March 2011, Vol. 81, No. 1, pp. 4–28

This research study employs a second-order meta-analysis procedure to sum- marize 40 years of research activity addressing the question, does computer technology use affect student achievement in formal face-to-face classrooms as compared to classrooms that do not use technology? A study-level meta- analytic validation was also conducted for purposes of comparison. An extensive literature search and a systematic review process resulted in the inclusion of 25 meta-analyses with minimal overlap in primary literature, encompassing 1,055 primary studies. The random effects mean effect size of 0.35 was significantly different from zero. The distribution was heterogeneous under the fixed effects model. To validate the second-order meta- analysis, 574 individual independent effect sizes were extracted from 13 out of the 25 meta-analyses. The mean effect size was 0.33 under the random effects model, and the distribution was heterogeneous. Insights about the state of the field, implications for technology use, and prospects for future research are discussed.

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Why is the UK banning ICT from schools?

The Royal Society (2012) Shut down or restart? The way forward for computing in UK schools, The Royal Academy of Engineering, January 2012

This report analyses the current state of Computing education in UK schools and sets out a way forward for improving on the present situation. The report states that the term ICT as a brand should be reviewed and the possibility considered of disaggregating this into clearly defined areas such as digital literacy, Information Technology and Computer Science. There is an analogy here with how English is structured at school, with reading and writing (basic literacy), English Language (how the language works) and English Literature (how it is used). The term ‘ICT’ should no longer be used as it has attracted too many negative connotations.

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How Do Technology-Enhanced Inquiry Science Units Impact Classroom Learning?

Hee-Sun Lee, Marcia C. Linn, Keisha Varma, Ou Lydia Liu (2010) How Do Technology-Enhanced Inquiry Science Units Impact Classroom Learning?, JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN SCIENCE TEACHING, VOL. 47, NO. 1, PP. 71–90 (2010)

We investigated how student understanding of complex science topics was impacted when 27 teachers switched from typical to inquiry instruction in a delayed cohort comparison design study. For the same set of science topics, the teachers used typical methods of instruction in the first year and online, visualization rich inquiry units in the second year. Both cohorts of students were tested on knowledge integration at the end of both school years. We obtained students’ knowledge integration estimates by applying an Item Response Theory analysis based on a Rasch Partial Credit Model. We used a mixed effects analysis of variance to investigate effects related to inquiry instruction, teaching context, and science course. We found significant main effects of inquiry instruction and teaching context as well as significant interaction effects between inquiry instruction and science course and between inquiry instruction and teaching context on student knowledge integration. We triangulate these findings with teacher surveys, interview transcripts and project records to explore potential factors associated with successful implementation of inquiry instruction.

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Are students with higher grades better at multitasking?

Harman, Brittany A., Sato, Toru (2011) Cell phone use and grade point average among undergraduate university students, College Student Journal

The present study examined whether cell phone use frequency is correlated with academic performance as measured by grade point average among undergraduate university students. Participants completed a survey about their cell phone use and also reported their grade point average. Results revealed that text messaging frequency was negatively correlated with grade point average and variables such as academic level while cell phone call frequency was not. The results of this study suggest that the more an individual sends or receives text messages, the lower his or her grade point average typically is. Surprisingly, individuals with higher grade point averages are more comfortable text messaging in class. No significant results were found in regards to individuals placing phone calls on cell phones.

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What is the effect of multitasking on students’ grades?

Yvonne Ellis, Bobbie Daniels, Andres Jauregui (2010) The effect of multitasking on the grade performance of business students, Research in Higher Education Journal (2010) Volume: 8, Issue: 1, Pages: 1-11

Multitasking refers to the concurrent processing of two or more tasks through a process of context switching. However, research by neuroscientists show that multitasking reduces the brain’s ability to effectively retrieve information. The purpose of this study is to empirically examine whether multitasking in class affects the grade performance of business students. Our findings indicate that the exam scores of students who text in class are significantly lower than the exam scores of students who do not text in class. Thus, multitasking during class is considered a distraction that is likely to result in lower grade performance.

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Why is Research in Educational Technology Essential to Inform Improved Learning in Schools?

Steven M Ross, Gary R Morrison, Deborah L Lowther (2010) Educational Technology Research Past and Present: Balancing Rigor and Relevance to Impact School LearningCONTEMPORARY EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY, 2010, 1(1), 17-35

Today, the exponential growth of technology usage in education, via such applications of distance education, Internet access, simulations, and educational games, has raised substantially the focus and importance of educational technology research. In this paper, we examine the past and present research trends, with emphasis on the role and contribution of research evidence for informing instructional practices and policies to improve learning in schools. Specific topics addressed include: (a) varied conceptions of effective technology uses in classroom instruction as topics for research, (b) historical trends in research approaches and topics of inquiry; (c) alternative research designs for balancing internal (rigor) and external (relevance) validity; and (d) suggested directions for future research. Attention is devoted to describing varied experimental designs as options for achieving appropriate rigor and relevance of research evidence, and using mixed-methods research for investigating and understanding technology applications in complex real-life settings.

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Can screen time be connected to increased psychological distress in young children?

Mark Hamer, Emmanuel Stamatakis and Gita Mishra (2009) Psychological Distress, Television Viewing, and Physical Activity in Children Aged 4 to 12 Years, Pediatrics 2009;123;1263

Sedentary behavior and physical activity may be independent risk factors for psychological distress in adolescents, although there is no existing information for children. We examined the cross-sectional association between psychological dis- tress, television and screen entertainment time, and physical activity levels among a representative sample of children aged 4 to 12 years from the 2003 Scottish Health Survey. Conclusion: Higher levels of television and screen entertainment time and low physical activity levels interact to increase psychological distress in young children.

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Does Technology Integration “Work” When Key Barriers are Removed?

Deborah Lowther, J. Dan Strahl, Fethi A. Inan, and Steven M. Ross (2008) Does Technology Integration “Work” When Key Barriers are Removed?, Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association in New York, NY March 2008

The effectiveness of Tennessee EdTech Launch (TnETL), a statewide technology program was investigated in this mixed-methods study. The goal of the program was to provide full-time, on-site technology coaches to prepare teachers to create lessons that engage students in critical thinking and use of computers as tools in order to increase learning. The study examined TnETL impact on student achievement, teachers’ skills and attitudes toward technology integration; use of research-based practices; and students’ skills in using technology as a tool. The study was implemented as “Launch” 1 and 2 cohorts that collectively involved 54 schools, 28,735 students and 1,746 teachers. Program effectiveness was measured via direct classroom observations, surveys, student performance assessments, focus groups, and student achievement analysis.

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How are rich, technology-enhanced learning environments changing student learning?

Grainne Conole, Maarten De Laat, Teresa Dillon, Jonathan Darby (2008) ‘Disruptive technologies’, ‘pedagogical innovation’: What’s new? Findings from an in-depth study of students’ use and perception of technology, Computers & Education, Volume: 50, Issue: 2,

The paper describes the findings from a study of students use and experience of technologies. A series of in-depth case studies were carried out across four subject disciplines, with data collected via survey, audio logs and interviews. The findings indicate that students are immersed in a rich, technology-enhanced learning environment and that they select and appropriate technologies to their own personal learning needs. The paper concludes by suggesting that the findings have profound implications for the way in which educational institutions design and support learning activities.

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How can digital backchannels support student participation?

François Bry, Vera Gehlen-Baum, Alexander Pohl (2011) Promoting Awareness and  Participation in Large Class Lectures: The Digital Backchannel Backstage, Proceedings of the IADIS

This article reports on the conception of a novel digital backchannel, code name Backstage, dedicated to large classes aiming at empowering not only the audience but also the speaker, at promoting the awareness of both audience and speaker, and at promoting an active participation of students in the lecture. The backchannel supports different forms of inter-student communication via short microblog messages, social evaluation and ranking of messages by the students themselves, and aggregation of student’s opinions aiming at increasing the students’ community feeling, strengthening the students’ awareness of and co-responsibility for the class work aiming at promoting the students’ participation in the lecture. The backchannel further supports immediate concise feedback to the lecturer of selected and aggregated students’ opinions aiming at strengthening the lecturer’s awareness for students’ difficulties.

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Twitter: Intellectual Stimulator or Attention Distracter?

Beaudin, L. & Deyenberg, J. (2011). Twitter: Intellectual Stimulator or Attention Distracter. In M. Koehler & P. Mishra (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2011 (pp. 139-147).

This paper describes how Master’s students completed an informal investigation of the potential of using Twitter to reshape classroom participation in a summer graduate course on Leadership and Technology. As a group of high- technology users, it was natural for the group to be open to exploring the possibility of any new tool to increase their engagement and learning. This paper describes the informal case study and exploration of the potential of backchanneling to enhance seminar presentations in a graduate education course.

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How do Search Engines Impact Literacy Learning?

Jann Carroll (2011) From Encyclopaedias to Search Engines: Technological Change and its Impact on Literacy Learning, Literacy Learning: the Middle Years, Volume 19, Number 2, June 2011

The concept of search engines opening up new worlds of information to our students is an exciting prospect, as long as we realise that the benefits are conditional and rest capriciously on a range of political, economic, technical and personnel related factors. It becomes, therefore, even more important that teachers of literacy equip students with online reading comprehension skills, critical thinking skills and continually provide opportunities for rich, varied and authentic literacy learning, to set students up for the successful future they deserve.

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Why is effective use of technology so sporadic in educational institutions?

David A. Georgina, Myrna R. Olson (2008) Integration of technology in higher education: A review of faculty self-perceptions, Internet and Higher Education 11 (2008) 1–8

The rush over the last ten years to democratize technology in higher education by pouring vast sums of money into the systematic development of technological infrastructures seems to have surpassed the ability of educational institutions to affect the successful transfer of skill and technological “know how” into the traditional classroom. The increase in technological infrastructures is a direct result of the movement to increase revenue generated by distance education through online courses (Brown, 2003; Ertmer, 2005; Garrison, & Kanuka, 2004; Katz & Associates, 1999; Schrum, Burbank, Engle, Chambers, & Glasset, 2005). The move from online distance education courses and programs towards technologically enhanced traditional classrooms and pedagogies has been much slower. The result of this slow movement seems to suggest that while low level use of technologically enhanced pedagogy is wide-spread, high-level use is more sporadic (Ertmer, 2005). The results of the study showed significant correlations between technology literacy and pedagogical practice integration. The results also revealed that faculty technology training may be maximized for the integration of pedagogy by using the training strategy of small group faculty forums with a trainer.

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What are the Obstacles to Technology-Enhanced Problem-Based Learning (PBL)?

Sung Hee Park and Peggy A. Ertmer (2008) Examining barriers in technology-enhanced problem-based learning: Using a performance support systems approach, British Journal of Educational Technology Vol 39 No 4 2008

This study focused on the barriers that middle school teachers faced when implementing technology-enhanced problem-based learning (PBL) in their classrooms. Using a human performance-based model, we interviewed teachers, administrators, university faculty and technical support staff to determine the perceived importance of multiple barriers to the implementation of technology-enhanced PBL. Twenty-one teachers, two school administrators and a project manager, two faculty members, and two technical support staff participated in the study. Interview data were supported by surveys, classroom observations and researchers’ reflective journals. Results suggested that lack of a clear, shared vision was the primary barrier. Additional barriers included lack of knowledge and skills, unclear expectations and insufficient feedback. Recommendations to support teachers’ efforts to integrate technology- enhanced problem-based learning are presented.

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Why aren’t computers an essential tool in every classroom?

Jennifer Groff (2008) A Framework for Addressing Challenges to Classroom Technology Use, AACE Journal (2008) Volume: 16, Issue: 1

Creating effective learning environments with technology remains a challenge for teachers. Despite the tremendous push for educators to integrate technology into their classrooms, many have yet to do so and struggle to find consistent success with technology-based instruction. The challenges to effective technology integration have been well documented in the literature. In this article we present a comprehensive review of the literature on the challenges associated with effective technology integration in the classroom and the ways in which they interact with one another. Based on this review we have developed a framework, the Individualized Inventory for Integrating Instructional Innovations (i5), to help teachers predict the likelihood of success of technology-based projects in the classroom and identify potential barriers that can hinder their technology integration efforts. Identifying potential barriers upfront can empower teachers to seek solutions early in the process, thereby increasing the likelihood of experiencing success with technology integration.

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Do students need guidance to blog effectively?

Carla Arena (2008) Blogging in the Language Classroom: It Doesn’t “Simply Happen”, Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language (2008) Volume: 11, Issue: 3, Pages: 1-7

This paper describes the importance of guiding students to use blogs (Web logs) for educational purposes. While blogs are commonly thought of as simply happening, in fact, educators in a media literate world need to rethink and redefine best practices for using this tool. Introduction Ideally, through blogs, students would create content and construct knowledge using the wonders of these publishing tools that abound online. I definitely believe in the power of blogs to improve students abilities while learning a second language, in my case, in an EFL context. However, blogging doesnt simply happen. The word has been spread about the potential of blogging for the language classroom, but there needs to be more than an idea to convince students that they can really profit from this tool on the read/write Web. There are numerous options for blogs, depending on the goals set for them. In the English as a Foreign Language setting, one can find blogs for professional development, class blogs, and students individual blogs, among others. In this sense, unleashing the potential of blogs for language learning will be directly related to teachers understanding of the pedagogical benefits of such a tool, and the students perception of its value in their learning process. As pointed out by Glogowsky (2008) in his post about blogtalk, Blogging is not about choosing a topic and writing responses for the rest of the term. It is about meaningful, thoughtful engagement with ideas (para. 2). Blogs as Conversations Blogs imply conversations. And, for these conversations to happen, there first needs to be a redefinition of the educators presence and role in the blogging classroom. Educators should be facilitate the process of establishing the online conversations within oneself, among learners, with other teachers, and possibly the world. Students will have to get used to the blogging experience to learn how to properly answer posts, how to cite, and how to establish their own blogging tone through their posts. in such a way that they find their unique channel of communication in the target language.

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How can Blogs be used to maximize students’ collaborative writing?

Zaini Amir, Kemboja Ismail, Supyan Hussin (2011) Blogs in Language Learning: Maximizing Students’ Collaborative Writing, Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences (2011) Volume: 18, Pages: 537-543

Educators have engaged with Web 2.0 technologies such as blogs or podcasts, to make learning more personalized, more interactive and more dynamic. Blogging has emerged as one of the most popular forms of online discourse. Blogging is seen as a learning platform in providing opportunities for learning English which can improve the students’ knowledge about their language performance in writing. The unique nature of the blog’s architecture and the low cost have not only affected how students can publish and distribute their work to a wider audience but also how the students see themselves as authors. This paper focuses on the use of blogs in a language and IT course which can help to maximize students’ collaborative writing. Findings from the blogs include the perceptions of ESL students of how blogging can contribute to the development of the students’ writing.

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Is Learning Analytics the most dramatic factor shaping the future of education?

Phil Long, George Siemens (2011) Penetrating the Fog: Analytics in Learning and Education, Educause Review Volume: 46, Issue: 5, Pages: 31-40

Attempts to imagine the future of education often emphasize new technologies ubiquitous computing devices, flexible classroom designs, and innovative visual displays. But the most dramatic factor shaping the future of higher education is something that we cant actually touch or see: big data and analytics. Basing decisions on data and evidence seems stunningly obvious, and indeed, research indicates that data-driven decision-making improves organizational output and productivity.

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What lies behind the rather different yet now converging approaches of Media Literacy and Information Literacy?

Sonia Livingstone, Elizabeth Van Couvering, and Nancy Thumim (2008) Converging Traditions of Research on Media and Information Literacies: Disciplinary, Critical and Methodological Issues, Department of Media and Communications London School of Economics and Political Science.

As broadcast, audiovisual, and print media converge with telecommunications, computing, and information systems, research on media literacy and information literacy could hardly remain separate. Indeed, despite their contrasting disciplinary backgrounds, theories, and methods, these research traditions have an increasingly similar object of inquiry: the public’s understanding of and effective engagement with media, information and communication technologies of all kinds. We advocate a converged or at least dialogical concept of media and information “literacies”, arguing that each tradition has much to learn from the other, although we accept that some differences must remain. Our focus is on two dominant approaches, media literacy and information literacy. What can each tradition learn from the other? Are they compatible? What methods and directions should be prioritized? In what follows, we compare these approaches in terms of definitions, origins, focus, methods, findings and purposes, our aim being to sketch the agenda for research on these converging literacies.

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Do students need Information Literacy skills when they have Google?

Karl Kingsley, Gillian M Galbraith, Matthew Herring, Eva Stowers, Tanis Stewart, Karla V Kingsley (2011) Why not just Google it? An assessment of information literacy skills in a biomedical science curriculum, BMC Medical Education, Volume: 11, Issue: 1, Publisher: BioMed Central, Pages: 17

The emerging networked technologies comprising the participatory Web, also known as Web 2.0, have profoundly changed the way information is produced, distributed, and consumed. Wikis, blogs, pod casts, video sharing, social networking sites, and other online applications offer innumerable opportunities for user generated content (UGC) and information sharing through what has been called an “architecture of participation”. Although these new participatory technologies provide rich opportunities for information sharing, they also pose new challenges for information seekers. Torrents of unfiltered information are uploaded to, and downloaded from, the Internet every day. In addition, users generate, remix, repurpose, store, and then share this digital information. As a result, Web users must continually balance the need for easy to find, readily available, reliable information and to avoid questionable, inaccurate, incomplete or deceptive online information.

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What are the discriminating variables between teachers who fully integrate IT and teachers with limited integration?

Julie Mueller, Eileen Wood, Teena Willoughby, Craig Ross, Jacqueline Spechtd (2008) Identifying discriminating variables between teachers who fully integrate computers and teachers with limited integration, Computers & Education 51(2008) 1523–1537

Given the prevalence of computers in education today, it is critical to understand teachers’ perspectives regarding computer integration in their classrooms. The current study surveyed a random sample of a heterogeneous group of 185 elementary and 204 secondary teachers in order to provide a comprehensive summary of teacher characteristics and variables that best discriminate between teachers who integrate computers and those who do not. Discriminant Function Analysis indicated seven variables for elementary teachers and six for secondary teachers (accounting for 74% and 68% of the variance, respectively) that discriminated between high and low integrators. Variables included positive teaching experiences with computers; teacher’s comfort with computers; beliefs supporting the use of computers as an instructional tool; training; motivation; support; and teaching efficacy. Implications for support of computer integration in the classroom are discussed.

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How effective was the North Carolina 1:1 program mid year?

Jenifer O. Corn, Jason W. Osborne (2009) Mid-Year Evaluation Report on the Progress of the North Carolina 1:1 Learning Technology Initiative, Friday Institute for Educational Innovation

This report focuses on the schools progress toward implementing the 1:1 environment and the barriers, successes, and lessons learned in the early stages of implementation. A combination of teacher and student surveys, focus groups and interviews, classroom observations, and analyses of existing school- level data was used. At the time of this report, the 2007-2008 School Year (SY) End-of-Course test and other student outcome data collected by NCDPI were not yet available. The intent of the evaluation is to provide information about the value of the initiative to enhance student learning, as well as to identify challenges to the successful implementation of 1:1 programs, strategies for meeting those challenges, and services and supports needed to enable successful programs throughout the State.

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How does a 1:1 Learning Environment Support Special Needs?

Jenifer O. CornJennifer Tingen, Ruchi Patel (2011) Examining Issues Critical to a 1:1 Learning Environment: Special Needs, Friday Institute for Educational Innovation

In the spring of 2008, the North Carolina State Board of Education awarded a contract to the Friday Institute for Educational Innovation to conduct a three-year evaluation of the NC 1:1 LearningTechnology Initiative (NCLTI) pilot schools. The evaluation includes eight Early College high schools and ten traditional high schools, with a total across the 18 schools of approximately 9,500 students and 600 school staff.  In these schools, every teacher and student received a laptop computer, and wireless Internet access was provided throughout the school.  The overall goal of the initiative is to use the technology to improve teaching practices, increase student achievement, and better prepare students for work, citizenship, and life in the 21st century. The intent of the evaluation was to provide information about whether the initiative enhanced student learning, as well as to identify challenges to successful implementation of 1:1 programs, strategies for meeting those challenges, and services and supports needed to enable successful programs throughout the State.

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How does a Library laptop checkout program work?

Arthur Gutierrez, Terri Pedersen Summey (2011) The Wireless Library:  An Assessment of a Library Laptop Program, CULS Proceedings, Volume 1, 2011

Approximately five years ago, the library at Emporia State University started a laptop checkout program to provide laptops for students and faculty members to checkout and use while they are in the library.  The program has been highly successful with students often waiting in line to be able to check out a laptop.  In 2009, the library purchased eight Netbooks to see how they would be received by the individuals using the laptop checkout program.  With the beginning of the Fall 2010 semester, some modifications were made to the laptop checkout program including reducing the fines for late returns and extending the checkout period.  Because the program has been in place for some time, the librarians at the Emporia State University Libraries would like to assess the program by surveying the individuals that check out laptops from the library.  In this article, the authors will explore laptop programs in a variety of library settings, present details on the ESU Libraries Laptop Checkout program, discuss the survey results, present what the library faculty and staff have learned, and potential future modifications to the program.

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Does the ICT PD Cluster Model developed in New Zealand work?

John Clayton (2010) The provision of professional development in ICT: a New Zealand perspective ,Waikato Institute of Technology, Hamilton, New Zealand, The 17th Association for Learning Technology Conference (ALT-C 2010). Association for Learning Technology (ALT), pp. 1-10

Over the last two decades there have been significant increases in the integration of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in New Zealand schools. Investment in infrastructure, equipment and applications has been supported by a corresponding increase in the funding for Professional Development (PD) provision for teachers in ICT. This is based on the assumption that the level of competence and confidence of teachers in ICT directly impacts on the capacity and capability of schools to positively engage their learners in ICT-supported learning environments. Influenced by the school reforms of the late 1980s (Tomorrow’s Schools) a school-administered model of professional development, the ICT PD Cluster Model, was conceived by the New Zealand Ministry of Education in 1996. This model encouraged groups of schools (clusters) to reflect upon the potential impact and influence of ICTs on their learning communities. The outcome of this process, combined with schools’ existing knowledge of their teachers’ capabilities and confidence in ICT, influenced decisions on the focus, design, delivery and assessment of professional development activities.  The dual purpose of this paper is to firstly, review the ICT PD cluster model and describe those key features that could be considered ‘best practice’ and secondly, identify those attributes that either enabled or impeded ICT PD Cluster implementations and the critical organisational and operational success factors which should be followed in any future model of ICT PD implementation.

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Do teachers need media-competences instead of ICT competences?

Bert Zwaneveld, Theo Bastiaens (2010) ICT competences of the teacher: About supporting learning and teaching processes with the use of ICT, International Federation for Information

Our starting observation is that there is a lot of literature about the use of ICT in teaching. Much of this literature with frameworks, schemes, flow charts etcetera, is about the process of introducing ICT in teaching. In our view the teacher and his or her main concerns, the learning and teaching processes inside the classroom, deserves much more attention. Our second observation is that there are much relevant new ICT-tools available which can support these learning and teaching processes. So, we focus in this paper on these aspects: what are the most important competences with respect to ICT for a teacher in order to support these learning and teaching processes? Because there are nowadays so many modern digital media available we propose the term media-competences for the teachers instead of ICT competences.

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Does ICT peer coaching support teachers’ integration of ICT in their learning and teaching?

Ellul, R (2010ICT peer coaches: Techno-pedagogues of the twenty-first century, PhD Thesis, School of Education, RMIT University

This PhD by project investigates the ICT peer coaching programmes in place in three government schools in Victoria, Australia. Teacher professional learning is essential in supporting teachers to improve their practice and support a culture of continuous improvement across the school. The literature review highlighted that past methods of professional learning such as one-off workshops and off-site events are less effective to enable teachers to develop both ICT skills and pedagogical knowledge needed for 21st century teaching and learning. While peer coaching is increasingly offered as a professional learning strategy in schools, very little is available which focuses on peer coaching in an ICT context and whether it effectively supports teachers to integrate ICT into their classroom practice. This research examines whether ICT peer coaching as a professional learning strategy supports teachers’ integration of ICT into their learning and teaching programme. It uses a constructivist (naturalistic) inquiry methodology and a collective case study approach. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews, observations and an analysis of artefacts such as school strategic plans and policies.

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Is it ICT or the ICT supported tasks that foster student engagement?

Sue Gregory, Ian Lloyd (2010) Accepting Choices: To ICT or Not to ICT: Engagement!!!, ACEC2010: DIGITAL DIVERSITY CONFERENCE

Over a period of several weeks 16 male students in a middle school were required to complete a project to measure their level of engagement using Information Communication Technology (ICT). During the lessons students were observed by the classroom teacher, two pre-service teachers and an ICT education lecturer, who assisted, photographed, videoed and interviewed students. Students were also requested to complete survey questions on three occasions throughout the project. The project required student to use anything they desired, technology or otherwise, to research and present their findings in order persuade the observers to choose their group’s project. The tasks of the onlookers were to observe whether students were engaged, or otherwise, in the production and presentation of their project. The degree of engagement when using ICT is dependant on a student’s ability to choose how and when to implement ICT. Engagement is the combination of feelings (emotional), observable actions or performance (behavioural) and perceptions and beliefs (cognitive). Many observations were made about the students’ choice of whether to use ICT or not and this paper addresses the results of their engagement in the task.

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How can an IT curriculum help schools best prepare for tech integration?

Amy Staples, Marleen C Pugach, D Himes (2005) Rethinking the technology integration challenge: Cases from three urban elementary schools, Journal of Research on Technology in Education (2005) Volume: 37, Issue: 3, Publisher: International Society for Technology in Education

Preparing a school well for technology integration appears to represent a special instance of professional development, one that has a unique identity requiring a unique kind of stewardship. To use technology effectively, principals and other technology leaders who contribute to decision making regarding how a school will invest in technology first need a solid understanding of the difference between technology use to enhance learning of the curriculum and technology use for productivity-as well as the ability to make distinctions in the various kinds of supports that will be required for each. We would argue that it is not a case of privileging professional development over acquisition, but rather that in planning for technology integration, professional development and acquisition considerations need to take place simultaneously. Curriculum needs to be the overriding framework for these deliberations. In other words, good planning for technology integration takes a special understanding of the acquisition of hardware and software specifically as it relates to the curriculum. This requires graduated staff development that anchors technology in the curriculum, but that also recognizes the need for teachers to have the opportunity to learn the technology well so that it can be used easily and transparently to support the curriculum. It goes without saying that teachers must be deeply informed about content and pedagogy in a particular content area to use technology to enhance learning effectively. Neither can be shortchanged.

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How does the iPad Contribute to Mobile Learning?

Melhuish, K. & Falloon, G. (2010). Looking to the future: M-learning with the iPad. Computers in New Zealand Schools: Learning, Leading, Technology , 22 (3).

This paper explores the potential affordances and limitations of the Apple iPad in the wider context of emergent mobile learning theory, and the social and economic drivers that fuel technology development. Against the background of effective teaching and learning, the functionality offered by the iPad, and its potential uses for learning, are discussed. A critical review of the way the iPad may support learning, that draws on learning theory, contemporary articles and e-learning literature, suggests that the device may offer an exciting platform for consuming and creating content in a collaborative, interactive way. However, of greater importance is that effective, evidence-driven, innovative practices, combined with a clear-sighted assessment of the advantages and limitations of any product, should take priority over the device itself.

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How does the iPad perform at college level?

Trina Marmarelli, Martin Ringle (2011), The Reed College iPad Study, The Reed Institute

When Apple announced the release of its iPad tablet in late January 2010, Reed College had just completed a semester-long study of the Amazon Kindle DX eReader in which students and faculty in three upper-division seminars used the Kindle to read, annotate, and discuss books and articles for the courses.1 While the Kindle DX failed to meet faculty and student needs in several important ways, most notably highlighting, annotation, and manipulation of texts, the study participants were optimistic enough about the long-term potential of eReader technology to prompt the College to continue its evaluation of emerging products. Consequently, during the fall semester of 2010, we undertook a study parallel in structure to the 2009 Kindle DX study. Students in one upper-division seminar, Political Science 422: Nuclear Politics — The origins and effects of the spread of nuclear weapons, used the iPad for all of their assigned readings. Since this was one of the courses included in the Kindle study and much of the reading list was unchanged, comparisons between student reactions were easy to make. We anticipated that a multipurpose device like the iPad would have different strengths and weaknesses than the Kindle DX, a dedicated eReader, and we were particularly interested in examining these differences.

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Can there ever be a single unified metanarrative on the benefits of ICT in education?

Vinesh Chandra, Margaret Lloyd (2008) The methodological nettle: ICT and student achievement, British Journal of Educational Technology (2008)

A major challenge for researchers and educators has been to discern the effect of ICT use on student learning outcomes. This paper maps the achievements in Year 10 Science of two cohorts of students over two years where students in the first year studied in a traditional environment while students in the second took part in a blended or e-learning environment. Using both quantitative and qualitative methods, the authors have shown that ICT, through an e-learning intervention, did improve student performance in terms of test scores. They have also shown that this improvement was not global with the results for previously high-performing female students tending to fall while the results for lower-achieving boys rose. There was also a seeming mismatch between some students’ affective responses to the new environment and their test scores. This study shows the complexity of ICT-mediated environments through its identification and description of three core issues which beset the credibility of research in ICT in education. These are (1) ICT as an agent of learning, (b) site specificity, and (c) global improvement.

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How can we help students become aware of appropriate online behavior?

Randy Hollandsworth, Lena Dowdy, Judy Donovan et al. (2011) Digital citizenship: It takes a village, 37-47. In TechTrends 55 (4).

Digital citizenship encompasses a wide range of behaviors with varying degrees of risk and possible negative consequences. Lack of digital citizenship awareness and education can, and has, led to problematic, even dangerous student conduct. If our educational village does not address these issues, the digital culture establishes its own direction, potentially pushing a productive, long-term solution further out of provides the reader with a number of suggestions that can help the professional to help their students become better digital citizens.

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How do laptops affect student learning in Grade 3?

Robert M. Bernard, Edward Clement Bethel, Philip C. Abrami, C. Anne Wade (2007) Introducing laptops to children: An examination of ubiquitous computing in Grade 3 reading, language, and mathematics, Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, Volume 33(3) Fall / automne 2007

This study examines the achievement outcomes accompanying the implementation of a Grade 3 laptop or so-called ubiquitous computing program in a Quebec school district. CAT-3 reading, language, and mathematics batteries were administered at the end of Grade 2 and again at the end of Grade 3, after the first year of computer implementation. Overall gain was found in all three content areas, but was differential when compared with the norms of the CAT-3. Additionally, some evidence suggested a differential gain for lower and middle-level learners during the school year. Teachers were administered an instrument called the Technology Implementation Questionnaire (TIQ) that assessed the purposes and extent of technology integration. Negative correlations were found in reading achievement gain for items associated with the higher use of communicative, evaluative, and creative uses of computers. Open-ended teacher responses indicated the need for more professional support for instructional implementations of computing.

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What is the Truth about 1:1 Laptop Initiatives?

Mark E. Weston & Alan Bain (2010) The Naked Truth about 1:1 Laptop Initiatives and Educational Change, The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, Volume 9, Number 6 · January 2010

This analysis responds to a generation of criticism leveled at 1:1 laptop computer initiatives. The article presents a review of the key themes of that criticism and offers suggestions for reframing the conversation about 1:1 computing among advocates and critics. Efforts at changing, innovating, and reforming education provide the context for reframing the conversation. Within that context, we raise questions about what classrooms and schools need to look and be like in order to realize the advantages of 1:1 computing. In doing so, we present a theoretical vision for self-organizing schools in which laptop computers or other such devices are essential tools.

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How can podcasts support inverted classrooms?

Gannod, G. C. (2007) Work in progress — Using podcasting in an inverted classroom, Frontiers in education conference global engineering knowledge without borders opportunities without passports 2007 FIE07 37th annual (2007)

An inverted classroom is a teaching environment that mixes the use of technology with hands on activities. In an inverted classroom, typical in-class lecture time is replaced with laboratory and in-class activities. Outside of class, lectures are delivered over some other medium such as video on-demand. As such, learning activities, which typically are done outside of class, are done in-class in the presence of the instructor. Passive activities, such as listening to lectures, are performed outside of class. In this paper, we describe the use of podcasting in an inverted classroom environment with the explicit goal of reclaiming lecture time for in-class laboratories and learning activities. This Work-in- Progress paper focuses primarily upon the description of the approach being piloted, technologies being utilized, and the characteristics of the pilot course.

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How can Youtube help Flipping a Classroom?

Carlisle, M. C., (2010) Using YouTube to Enhance Student Class Preparation in an Introductory Java Course, Proceedings of the 41st ACM technical symposium on Computer science education

We provided 21 short YouTube videos for an Introduction to Programming in Java course. Students were surveyed on how often they watched the videos and did the readings, and how much these activites contributed to their learning. When professors reduced lecture time and increased lab time, students watched videos and read significantly more. Their test scores were at least as high and they indicated they would prefer to not have more lecture. The YouTube videos also provided a source of outreach for the university, drawing a large number of views, including the 13-17 year-old demographic.

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A Systemic Approach to Technology-Based School Innovations

(2010). Educational Research and Innovation Inspired by Technology, Driven by Pedagogy: A Systemic Approach to Technology-Based School Innovations. SourceOECD Education Skills2010(27), 164. OECD – Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

This report highlights key issues to facilitate understanding of how a systemic approach to technology-based school innovations can contribute to quality education for all while promoting a more equal and effective education system. It focuses on the novel concept of systemic innovation, as well as presenting the emerging opportunities to generate innovations that stem from Web 2.0 and the important investments and efforts that have gone into the development and promotion of digital resources. It also shows alternative ways to monitor, assess and scale up technology-based innovations. Some country cases, as well as fresh and alternative research frameworks, are presented.Today, sufficient return on public investments in education and the ability to innovate are more important than ever. This was the conclusion of the international conference on “The School of Tomorrow, Today” organised by the OECD Centre for Educational Research and Innovation with the support of the Secretariat of Education of the State Santa Catarina (Brazil), in November 2009. The conference and this resulting report share the overall goal of addressing the issue of how education systems achieve technology-based innovations.

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How can Web 2.0 Tools be used to promote Digital Citizenship?

Reshan Richards (2010) Digital Citizenship and Web 2 . 0 Tools, Learning (2010) Volume: 6, Issue: 2, Pages: 516-522

This concept paper explores citizenship in a digital age. The potential of Web 2.0 tools highlights the importance of educational institutions’ consideration of the use of these tools in school settings to promote citizenship at a time when students are already exposed to powerful online communication platforms. First, a description of three Web 2.0 tools, blogs, wikis, and online social networks, is provided. This is followed by an exploration of digital citizenship. Then, several cases in recent history where Web 2.0 tools played an important part in promoting democracy and social justice are examined. Finally, using a lens of digital citizenship, several instructional suggestions are provided for educators to help students experience and understand multiple layers of citizenship in a 21st  century technological landscape.

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Is web-based homework more effective than paper and pencil homework?

Michael Mendicino, Leena Razzaq, Neil T Heifernan (2009) A Comparison of Traditional Homework to Computer-Supported Homework, Journal of Research on Technology in Education (2009) Volume: 41, Issue: 3, Pages: 331-359

This study compared learning for fifth grade students in two math homework conditions. The paper-and-pencil condition represented traditional homework, with review of problems in class the following day. The Web-based homework condition provided immediate feedback in the form of hints on demand and step-by-step scaffolding. We analyzed the results for students who completed both the paper-and-pencil and the Web-based conditions. In this group of 28 students, students learned significantly more when given computer feedback than when doing traditional paper-and-pencil homework, with an effect size of .61. The implications of this study are that, given the large effect size, it may be worth the cost and effort to give Web-based homework when students have access to the needed equipment, such as in schools that have implemented one-to-one computing programs.

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Does ICT contribute to powerful learning environments in primary education?

Smeets, E. (2005)  Does ICT contribute to powerful learning environments in primary education? Computers & Education  Volume: 44, Issue: 3, Pages: 343-355

In powerful learning environments, rich contexts and authentic tasks are presented to pupils. Active, autonomous and co-operative learning is stimulated, and the curriculum is adapted to the needs and capabilities of individual pupils. In this study, the characteristics of learning environments and the contribution of ICT to learning environments were investigated. A questionnaire was completed by 331 teachers in the highest grade of primary education. Results show that many teachers apply several elements of powerful learning environments in their classes. This especially goes for the presentation of authentic tasks and the fostering of active and autonomous learning. However, the methods employed by teachers to adapt education to the needs and abilities of individual pupils proved quite limited. The use of ICT in general merely showed characteristics of traditional approaches to learning. Chances of using open-ended ICT applications, which are expected to contribute to the power of learning environments, were greater with teachers who created powerful learning environments for their pupils, and when there were more computers available to pupils. In addition, teachers’ views with regard to the contribution of ICT to active and autonomous learning, teachers’ skills in using ICT, and the teacher’s gender appeared to be relevant background variables in this respect.

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What is the TPACK Framework?

Cox, S., & Graham, C. (2009). An elaborated model of the TPACK framework. Proceedings of Society for Information Technology Teacher Education International Conference 2009 (pp. 4042-4049). AACE

The introduction of the TPACK Framework has facilitated new and more rigorous study of teachers knowledge and use of technology in the classroom. However, the community interested in TPACK is still striving to develop a common understanding of what each construct in the framework means. A review of the research surrounding TPACK shows that there are still widely differing perceptions regarding how to operationalize the TPACK constructs and define boundaries between them. This paper reports on a conceptual analysis that was done to clarify construct definitions and boundaries in the TPACK framework. The research review and interviews with leading researchers have helped the authors to create an elaborated TPACK framework with case examples that further articulates the TPACK constructs and boundaries between them. The authors also suggest directions for future TPACK research.

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How can technology help create student-centred learning experiences in physical education ?

Lin Wang (2010) “Creating student-centered learning experience through the assistance of high-end technology in physical education: a case study”. Journal of Instructional Psychology.

Student-centered learning is an approach in education focusing on the needs of the students, rather than those of others involved in the educational process, such as teachers and administrators (Blumberg, 2009). This approach has many implications for the design of curriculum, course content, and interactivity of courses (O’Neil & McMahon, 2005). Major tenets of student-centered learning include understanding of the material, active learning on the student part and increased responsibilities on the student’ part, increased instructor responsibilities on creating an environment that facilitates the learning process, assessment process is intergraded with feedback providing, and both parties (the instructor and the students) share some of the decision making responsibilities (Blumberg, 2009; Lea, Stephenson, & Troy, 2003).

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How has Facebook transformed the online habits of young Italians?

Cavalli, N.,Costa, E. I., Ferri, P., Mangiatordi, A., Micheli, M., Pozzali, A., Scenini, F., and Serenelli, F. (2011). Facebook influence on university students’ media habits: qualitative results from a field research, MIT7

Facebook has significantly transformed the online habits of young Italians. Our research assesses this change through a two-year survey conducted among undergraduate students. The data we collected in 2008 (N=1088) and 2009 (N=1123) allowed us to define profiles of media use based on indicators such as time spent online, consumption or creation of content, and familiarity with digital technologies as compared to analog media. Results have also shown the quick adoption of Facebook: in 2008, half of the students were completely unfamiliar with Facebook, while in 2009 all our respondents were aware of it and 59% of them were also using it on a regular basis. To grasp the magnitude of this change, we conducted a qualitative research study based on 30 semi-structured interviews with randomly selected university students (aged 19-24). Our research questions whether the massive adoption of Facebook, both in terms of frequency and time spent online, is really producing a change in how Italian students are using the Internet, or whether it is merely reproducing old forms of media consumption. To explore this issue, we will focus on how students are appropriating Facebook – in terms of uses and meanings they attach to it – and on the transformation of the relationship between more traditional forms of media consumption (like television) and digital media.

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How do university students spend their time on Facebook?

Aghazamani, A. (2010). How Do University Students Spend Their Time On Facebook ? An Exploratory Study. Journal of American Science6(12), 730-735.

Despite major productive uses of Internet technology in today’s digital world, users prefer to spend much more time on social networking sites (SNSs) like Facebook. The objective of this study is to determine student motives for using Facebook. A close-ended questionnaire was administered to 595 University students who were recognized as users of the site at Karlstad University in Sweden. Male users spend more time on the site than female users during both weekdays (p-value=0.9238) and weekends (p-value=0.9953). The survey showed that undergraduate students login more times per day than graduate students (p-value=0.2138). In addition, friendship was named the most favorite activity among male users (p-value=0.8883) and also among undergraduate students comparing with graduate students (p-value=0.2045). If users were asked to pay a membership fee to use the site, the results showed that male users (p-value=0.9991) and undergraduate students (p-value=0.9884) were more likely to pay the charge than other groups (females and graduate students). It is apparent that using Facebook can be seen as an  important  part of daily life among University students and its phenomenon spread out inevitably.

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With more an more ipads and laptops in the classrooms how can schools introduce best ergonomic practices?

Studies indicate that musculoskeletal discomfort and back pain problems are evident not only in adults, but also in children [11,13]. We believe that educating towards a balanced-posture, body-function and movement patterns, as well as their ergonomic implications, can minimize and even prevent these problems. Such an ergonomics awareness educational program has to start at childhood and should be an integral part of the curriculum in the schools. This article presents the educational program “Ergonomics, Movement & Posture” (EMP), which is taught in elementary schools by Physical Education (PE) students of the Kibbutzim College of Education in Israel, as part of their practicum. Although there has been no formal evaluation of the effectiveness of the program, so far, participating children, their parents, the teachers and the principles have offered positive feedback.

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Why do students (not) blog?

Andergassen, M., Behringer, R., Finlay, J., & Gorra, A. (2009). Weblogs in Higher Education – why do Students ( not ) Blog ? Higher Education7(3), 203-214.

Positive impacts on learning through blogging, such as active knowledge construction and reflective writing, have been reported. However, not many students use weblogs in informal contexts, even when appropriate facilities are offered by their universities. While motivations for blogging have been subject to empirical studies, little research has addressed the issue of why students choose not to blog. This paper presents an empirical study undertaken to gain insights into the decision making process of students when deciding whether to keep a blog or not. A better understanding of students’ motivations for (not) blogging may help decision makers at universities in the process of selecting, introducing, and maintaining similar services. As informal learning gains increased recognition, results of this study can help to advance appropriate designs of informal learning contexts in Higher Education. The method of ethnographic decision tree modelling was applied in an empirical study conducted at the Vienna University of Technology, Austria. Since 2004, the university has been offering free weblog accounts for all students and staff members upon entering school, not bound to any course or exam. Qualitative, open interviews were held with 3 active bloggers, 3 former bloggers, and 3 non-bloggers to elicit their decision criteria. Decision tree models were developed out of the interviews. It turned out that the modelling worked best when splitting the decision process into two parts: one model representing decisions on whether to start a weblog at all, and a second model representing criteria on whether to continue with a weblog once it was set up. The models were tested for their validity through questionnaires developed out of the decision tree models. 30 questionnaires have been distributed to bloggers, former bloggers and non-bloggers. Results show that the main reasons for students not to keep a weblog include a preference for direct (online) communication, and concerns about the loss of privacy through blogging. Furthermore, the results indicate that intrinsic motivation factors keep students blogging, whereas stopping a weblog is mostly attributable to external factors.

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Why do TELE need effective assessments to be viable pedagogic reengineering options?

Andrade, D., & Ferreira, S. (2011). Models and instruments for assessing Technology Enhanced Learning Environments in higher education. Quality,24(April), 1-10. eLearning Papers

Technology Enhanced Learning Environments (TELE) are seen as a fundamental support in teaching reengineering, and may support a more effective approach to constructive educational philosophies. The evaluation of TELE, as a means of certifying its quality, is giving rise to several initiatives and European experiences. However, the mechanisms for defining quality parameters vary according to different contexts. If assessment aims to function as a management tool, it should seek specific criteria and indicators that would allow it to respond to questions of well-defined contexts. In this study, which stems from a literature review, we present basic guidelines for TELE continuous assessment (as a management tool). Throughout this article the importance of ongoing, in-context evaluation is emphasized. Models, methods and tools to collect data that permit institutions to develop a properly contextualized assessment process are presented.

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Can blogs help ESL students develop their language skills?

De Almeida Soares, D. (2008). Understanding class blogs as a tool for language development. Language Teaching Research12(4), 517-533

Web 2.0 has allowed for the development of cyber spaces where any computer user can create their own public pages to share knowledge, feelings and thoughts inviting linguistic interactions with people around the globe. This innovation has caught the attention of language practitioners who wish to experiment with blogging to enhance the teaching and learning experience. In 2007 I set up a class blog with my nine pre-intermediate EFL students in a language school in Brazil. This experience gave rise to two central questions: a) did my students see our blog as a learning tool? and b) what was blogging like in other language teaching contexts? To answer the first question I carried out some Exploratory Practice for three months. As for the second question, I designed an online survey which was answered by 16 members of a community of practice called the Webheads. Ultimately I learned that my students saw our blog as a learning tool and that blogs are being used in different ways around the world. This article presents the rationale behind using blogs in language classes, describes my research process and discusses the understanding my students and I have gained from exploring our own practices.

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Is there evidence that using an IT curriculum based on the NETS makes a significant difference in student learning?

Ching, G. S. (2009). Implications of an experimental information technology curriculum for elementary students. Computers & Education53(2), 419-428.

The information technology (IT) of today forms an integral part of everyday living, thus the nurture of children’s IT awareness early in life is crucial. Young children have an innate curiosity for IT which suggests that in the school environment it can easily be integrated with other subjects in thematic and interdisciplinary curriculum. This quasi-experimental study used the Technology Foundation Standards for Students of the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) project on National Educational Technology Standards (NETS) as the basis to design a thematic and interdisciplinary IT curriculum for elementary students. A total of 1273 elementary students and 12 computer teachers were separated into either a control or experimental group. After one academic year, students’ final scores in English, mathematics, science, social studies, and art were gathered and compared. Statistical analysis indicated that there were significant differences in the experimental group’s academic scores. Findings also suggested that an interdisciplinary curriculum design opened opportunity for collaborative work and cohesiveness among faculty. Further longitudinal studies are recommended to examine the long-term implications of a thematic and interdisciplinary IT curriculum design.

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Is technology leadership about teaching technology or reorganizing teaching?

Davies, P. M. (2010). On school educational technology leadership. Management in Education, 24(2), 55-61.
This analysis of the literatures on school educational technology leadership addresses definitions of school technology leaders and leadership, their role in educational change, and why schools are now changing as a result of 21st century advancements in technology. The literatures disagree over the definition of educational technology leadership. Further examination revealed that technology leadership is about the reorganization of teaching rather than the process of teaching itself. Several gaps relating to who is doing research on technology leadership are identified, and an attempt is made to assemble a model showing how schools can organize technology leadership so that teaching and learning remain the central focus.

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Can blogs support students’ complex thinking?

Ramos, Maria Altina Silva. Blog and Complex Thinking: A Case Study
Online Submission, US-China Education Review v7 n8 p11-21 Aug 2010. 2010 11 pp. (ED514801)

The Internet does not promote learning by itself as children and young people often use it passively. The teachers’ role is to help them interpret and analyze available information critically. The blog, as a means to deploy the concept of “on-line interaction” is, according to Granieri, “The most accessible and natural tool for sharing and publishing, in addition to text, images movies and also sound, will be increasingly disseminated, because of increasing speed of data transmission” (2006, p. 31). It is therefore natural that the use of the blog is more and more frequent as a resource, pedagogical strategy or other capacities at all levels of teaching (Gomes, 2005). In this paper, a case study is presented based on some blogs, focusing on: the methodology for collection of text and multimedia materials; treatment and analysis of data with the NVivo software; findings and further evolution perspectives. Read Full Text.

How can technology help students acquire 21st Century skills?

Dede, C., & Hall, L. (2010). Technological Supports for Acquiring 21 st Century Skills International Encyclopedia of Education. Education.

The 21st century seems quite different than the 20th in the capabilities people need for work, citizenship, and self-actualization.  In response, society’s educational systems must transform their objectives, curricula, pedagogies, and assessments to help all students attain the sophisticated outcomes requisite for a prosperous, attractive lifestyle based on effective contributions in work and citizenship. This article describes an innovative strategy by which new pedagogies based on emerging immersive media can aid all students in attaining sophisticated 21st century skills and knowledge.

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What works best in upper elementary classrooms: shared carts or 1: 1 laptops?

Russell, M., Bebell, D., & Higgins, J. (2004). Laptop learning: A comparison of teaching and learning in upper elementary classrooms equipped with shared carts of laptops and permanent 1: 1 laptops. Journal of Educational Computing Research30(4), 313-330. Technology and Assessment Study Collaborative, Boston College.

This study compares teaching and learning activities in 4th and 5th grade classrooms that were permanently equipped with one laptop for each student and classrooms that share a cart of laptops that create a 1:1 laptop environment on a temporary basis. The study originated from a question posed to us by Andover Public Schools (MA): “How does teaching and learning differ when upper elementary students (4th and 5th graders) are provided with their own laptop computers?” In response to this question, we undertook an intensive two month study that employed a mixed methodology that included student surveys, student drawings, teacher interviews, and 56 structured classroom observations. The findings summarized in this article provide evidence of several differences in teaching and learning activities between the two settings. Classrooms that were fully equipped with 1:1 laptops showed more technology use across the curriculum, more use of technology at home for academic purposes, less large group instruction, and nearly universal use of technology for writing.

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