Using the power of research to inform ICT integration in education

Posts tagged ‘technology and curriculum’

How can self-regulated learning (SRL) foster student-centred lifelong mobile learning?

L. Sha,  C.-K. Looi, W. Chen, & B.H. Zhang (2012) Understanding mobile learning from the perspective of self-regulated learning, Institute of Education, Nanjing University

This paper is an initial effort to expand and enrich the knowledge about mobile learning within the framework of self-regulated learning. One of the largest challenges will be how self-regulated learning (SRL) can be systematically and institutionally applied to curriculum development, instructional design, teacher professional development, and teaching and assessment practices in classrooms that foster student-centred lifelong learning. We propose an analytic SRL model of mobile learning as a conceptual framework for understanding mobile learning, in which the notion of self-regulation as agency is at the core. We draw on work in a 3-year research project in developing and implementing a mobile learning environment in elementary science classes in Singapore to illustrate the application of SRL theories and methodology to understand and analyse mobile learning.

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Integrating Digital Technology: What Are Students Really Learning?

Tara L. Evans (2012) Integrating Digital Technology: What Are Students Really Learning? Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand

The present study investigated the learning that occurred as students interacted with teacher-planned lessons which included digital technologies (DTs). An Activity Theory (AT) framework was utilised to analyze the data collected and to make sense of the complex environment that teachers and students work within to identify factors within the sociocultural setting affected student learning when DTs were utilized. Results indicated that students gained technical skills, reinforced and developed conceptual understandings, built cooperative skills, thought critically and creatively, learned to troubleshoot when technical errors occurred, developed a sense of autonomy and agency in the classroom, and engaged in self-regulated learning through the use of DTs. A number of factors impacted on these outcomes including aspects of the school environment, teachers’ knowledge and beliefs, and teaching methods used when DTs were included in classroom activities.

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Can language arts be the place to introduce programming to the classroom?

Quinn Burke (2012) The Markings of a New Pencil: Introducing Programming-as-Writing in the Middle School Classroom, Journal of Media Literacy Education 4:2 (2012) 121-135    

Using the setting of a writing workshop to facilitate a deliberate process to learn computer programming, this exploratory study investigates where there is a natural overlap between programming and writing through the storytelling motif, and to what extent existing language arts coursework and pedagogy can be leveraged to introduce this new form of digital composition to middle-school children. Whereas previous studies linking children’s programming with storytelling did so within the informal afterschool clubs, this study focuses on integrating computer science into the classroom, aligning curricula to core-content English language arts instruction. 

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How can 5th graders’ science content knowledge and self-efficacy be enhanced through game-based learning?

Angela Meluso, Meixun Zheng, Hiller A. Spires, James Lester (2012) Enhancing 5th graders’ science content knowledge and self-efficacy through game-based learning, Computers & Education 59 (2012) 497–504

Many argue that games can positively impact learning by providing an intrinsically motivating and engaging learning environment for students in ways that traditional school cannot. Recent research demonstrates that games have the potential to impact student learning in STEM content areas and that collaborative gameplay may be of particular importance for learning gains. This study investigated the effects of collaborative and single game player conditions on science content learning and science self- efficacy. Results indicated that there were no differences between the two playing conditions; however, when conditions were collapsed, science content learning and self-efficacy significantly increased. Future research should focus on the composition of collaboration interaction among game players to assess what types of collaborative tasks may yield positive learning gains.

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Does digital immersion improve students digital literacy skills?

Land, J. (2012). Does digital immersion improve students digital literacy skills? Computers in New Zealand Schools: Vol. 24, No 1. pp. 4-20.

When introducing a 1:1 programme or similar, you need to allow time to teach the students how to use the tools. A study by Dunleavy, Dextert and Heinecket (2007) concluded by saying that, “In order to create effective learning environments, teachers need opportunities to learn what instruction and assessment practices, curricular resources, and classroom management skills work best in a 1:1 student to networked laptop classroom setting” (p. 450). We need to bear this in mind when introducing any programme, and allow time to teach the teachers as well as the students.

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Is there a relationship between the use of computer technology in instruction and student achievement in mathematics?

Megan Carpenter Townsend (2012) Computer Technology, Student Achievement, and Equity: A Multilevel Analysis of the Relationship between High School Students’ Use of Computers, Gender, and Mathematics Achievement, A dissertation submitted to the Graduate Faculty of North Carolina State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Educational Research and Policy Analysis Raleigh, North Carolina 2012

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the use of computer technology in instruction and student achievement in mathematics across a wide spectrum of students and schools. Of particular interest are the roles that the gender of the student, teachers’ exposure to professional development in technology, and specific uses of computer technology play in the relationship between the use of computer technology in mathematics classes and student achievement in mathematics.

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How is technology allowing students to become engaged citizens in a global age?

Brad M. Maguth (2012) Investigating Student Use of Technology for Engaged Citizenship in A Global Age, Education Sciences 20122(2), 57-76

This study undertook a five month qualitative investigation into technology use amongst twelve high school social studies students in two different sites in the Midwestern United States. This study examined students’ use of technology and its relationship to three dimensions of citizenship in a global age: understand global events, issues, and perspectives, participate in global networks to communicate and collaborate with global audiences, and advocate on global problems and issues to think and act globally. Collecting data through semi-structured student interviews, online-threaded discussions and document analysis, I triangulated findings, and employed a qualitative approach. The study finds a relationship between student participants’ use of technology and their serving as engaged citizenship in a global age. In using technology, students accessed international news and information, joined global networks to communicate and collaborate with global audiences, and produced digital content for international audiences.

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How can Google Apps be used to develop an online Community of Practice (CoP)?

Katya Toneva, Kathy Doncaster (2012) Using Virtual Spaces for Learning Communities to Facilitate Project Development and Collaborative Learning, eLmL 2012 : The Fourth International Conference on Mobile, Hybrid, and On-line Learning

The purpose of this paper is to introduce ways that Google Apps and other Web 2.0 technologies can be used to develop an integrated virtual space for a learning community by putting in place an online Community of Practice (CoP). This project has been developed and is presently being in trial at the Institute for Work Based Learning, Middlesex University with the intended aim to ―progress its online learning activities (including an increased use of social media) from individual, Programme- based initiatives to an institution-wide, strategic project which will be core to realising strategic objectives in learning and teaching.

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What is the value of intrinsic integration in educational games?

Hagbood, MP Jacob and Ainsworth, Shaaron E (2011) Motivating children to learn effectively: exploring the value of intrinsic integration in educational games, Journal of the Learning Sciences, 20 (2), 169-206.

The concept of intrinsic motivation has been considered to lie at the heart of the user engagement created by digital games. Yet despite this, educational software has traditionally attempted to harness games as extrinsic motivation by using them as a sugar-coating for learning content. This paper tests the concept of intrinsic integration as a way of creating a more productive relationship between educational games and their learning content. Two studies assessed this approach by designing and evaluating an educational game for teaching mathematics to seven to eleven year olds called Zombie Division. The results of these studies showed that children learned more from the intrinsic version of the game under fixed time limits and spent seven times longer playing it in free time situations. Together they offer evidence for the genuine value of an intrinsic approach for creating effective educational games. The theoretical and commercial implications of these findings are discussed.

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How does YouTube help teachers and students cultivate cross-cultural exchanges and understandings?

Kristen Bloom & Kelly Marie Johnston (2010) Digging into YouTube Videos: Using Media Literacy and Participatory Culture to Promote Cross-Cultural Understanding, Journal of Media Literacy Education 2:2 (2010) 113 – 123

The role of the educator, as a result of new media, has changed substantially from one that is focused on the one-way transfer of information to one that trains students how to participate in digital environments with intelligence, skill, and literacy. It is our contention that educators and learners can exploit this media to engage in cross-cultural exchange and ultimately greater cross- cultural understanding. This paper will elaborate on the ways in which teachers and students can use YouTube as a site for cultivating cross-cultural exchange and understanding by establishing video-pal relationships with other students from outside their home culture. Digital exchanges can help students and teachers build connections with their colleagues abroad and to develop an international perspective.

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Can social media enhance learning through student and faculty collaboration?

Marianne McGarry Wolf, Mitch Wolf, Tom Frawley, Ann Torres (2012) Using Social Media to Enhance Learning through Collaboration in Higher Education: A Case Study, Selected paper prepared for presentation at the Applied and Agricultural Economics Association’s 2012 AAEA Annual Conference, Seattle, Washington, August 12 – 14, 2012

Bradley and McDonald in a Harvard Business Review Blog discuss the difference between knowledge management and social media. They indicate that knowledge management is when company management tells employees what they need to know. In higher education faculty practice knowledge management by telling the students what they need to know. Social media is a method peers use to show connections the content they think is important. Bradley and McDonald believe that organizations can gain value from social media through mass collaboration. Mass collaboration occurs with “social media technology, a compelling purpose, and a focus on forming communities” (Bradley and McDonald, 2011). Can social media be used in higher education to enhance learning through student and faculty collaboration?

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Why does the Island of Innovation Model fail to support Technology Innovation in Education?

Orit Avidov-Ungar and Yoram Eshet-Alkakay (2011) The Islands of Innovation Model: Opportunities and Threats for Effective Implementation of Technological Innovation in the Education System, Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology, Volume 8, 2011

In recent years, there have been an increasing number of educational technology-integration projects which employ the Islands of Innovation model. According to this model, technological innovation is implemented in small islands within an organization, in the hope that they will be imitated, permeate the whole organization with their values and lead to overall, comprehensive innovation and to a new organizational culture. Studies on technological innovation implementation in education systems show that for the most part, islands of innovation fail to generate overall, comprehensive innovation. The article warns against the stagnation that these islands of innovation may cause organization managements, which use them as an excuse to consider themselves innovative, and warns against unsupervised, poorly thoughtout use of this model for technological innovation implementation.

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How are YouTube Fridays providing students with open-ended problem solving practice?

Matthew W. Liberatore, Charles R. Vestal, Andrew M. Herring (2012) YouTube Fridays: Student led development of engineering estimate problems, Advances n Engineering Education, Winter 2012, Volume 3, Number 1

YouTube Fridays devotes a small fraction of class time to student-selected videos related to the course topic, e.g., thermodynamics. The students then write and solve a homework-like problem based on the events in the video. Three recent pilots involving over 300 students have developed a database of videos and questions that reinforce important class concepts like energy balances and phase behavior. Student evaluations found a vast majority (79%) of the students felt better at relating real world phenomena to thermodynamics from participating in YouTube Fridays. Overall, YouTube Fridays is a student led activity that provides practice of problem solving on open-ended, course related questions.

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How is YouTube used for Teaching and Learning Chemistry?

Joseph Lichter (2012) Using YouTube as a Platform for Teaching and Learning Solubility Rules, Journal of Chemical Education

Two challenges faced by university instructors in introductory chemistry courses are the need to keep the course material connected with technology that students are using as well as engaging students in a manner that keeps them interested in the subject. A case study is described where students in a general chemistry course were challenged to create and upload a video to the video-sharing Web site YouTube that could be used to learn solubility rules (which ions combine to form insoluble precipitates in dilute aqueous solutions). An assessment of the assignment was done by comparing results on a common exam question for courses with and without the assignment, as well as a follow up question on the final exam, survey questions, and comments. Results suggest that the solubility rules YouTube video assignment improved student learning of the rules and promoted interest in chemistry among a majority of the students involved in the activity.

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What is the Potential of Google+ as a Media Literacy Tool?

James N. Cohen (2012) The Potential of Google+ as a Media Literacy Tool, The National Association for Media Literacy Education’s Journal of Media Literacy Education 4:1 (2012) 93 – 96

Civic engagement is rarely the initial intent of a social media user. According to a 2011 Pew Internet Life study, nearly two-thirds of social media users are online to keep in touch with friends and family while only a very small percentage (near 5%) utilize it for learning. The results of these studies have inspired media literacy scholars and educators to empower social media users to approach the online tools with a mind toward information sharing. The potential in social media is limitless, but many users have to be made aware of the possibilities. Educators in particular should be informed of the civic functions Google+ offers the user.

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How can Google+ support an effective system to provide interactive student feedback?

Alan Can (2012) An efficient and effective system for interactive student feedback using Google+ to enhance an institutional virtual learning environment, Leicester Research Archive

Experience shows that students (and academic staff) often struggle with feedback, which all too often fails to translate into feed-forward actions leading to educational gains. Problems get worse as student cohort sizes increase. By building on the well-established principle of separating marks from feedback and by using a social network approach to amplify peer discussion of assessed tasks, this paper describes an efficient system for interactive student feedback. Although the majority of students remain passive recipients in this system, they are still exposed to deeper reflection on assessed tasks than in traditional one-to-one feedback processes.

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How can Explicit and Implicit Pedagogy inform teaching practices?

John Mason (2011) Explicit and Implicit Pedagogy: variation theory as a case study,  Smith, C. (Ed.) Proceedings of the British Society for Research into Learning Mathematics 31(3) November 2011

Variation theory proposes that learners must experience variation in the critical aspects of a concept, within limited space and time, in order for the concept to be learnable. But the presence of variation does not in itself guarantee that that variation will be experienced. As Kant implied, a sequence of experiences does not guarantee an experience of that sequence. Implicit variation theory assumes that the presentation of variation is sufficient in order for learners to learn what is intended, whereas explicit variation theory incorporates some degree of explicitness in the interaction between teacher and student. The conjecture is proposed that tension between explicitness and implicitness is present in all attempts both to implement theories in practice and to justify or analyse pedagogical choices using theories, of whatever kind.

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Can Technology for Personalising Learning (TPL) support better pedagogical use of ICT?

Jones, Mellita M. and McLean, Karen J. (2012) “Personalising Learning in Teacher Education through the use of Technology,” Australian Journal of Teacher Education: Vol. 37: Iss. 1, Article 5.

This paper considers the components of personalising learning and describes one approach to creating a technology-infused learning environment that has been trialled in the tertiary sector. The key focus of this trial was the effective integration of technology as an enabler of personalising learning. Findings indicate that meaningful student learning experiences can be achieved through a personalised approach which also supports the emerging tenets of effective, pedagogical use of ICT for learning. These findings led to a model of Technology for Personalising Learning (TPL) which is presented as a planning framework through which personalising learning with technology can be achieved in higher education.

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How does mobile learning support Teaching English as a Second Language?

Maryam Tayebinik, Dr. Marlia Puteh (2012) Mobile Learning to Support Teaching English as a Second Language,  Journal of Education and Practice, Vol 3, No 7, 2012

Technology utilization in distance education has demonstrated its significance in the transfer of knowledge for both the instructors and the learners. This is also made possible through the use of the Internet which helps change the traditional teaching approaches into more modern methods when integrated with the pedagogical instruction. Mobile devices together with other forms of technology-based tools in education have established their potential in language teaching. In this regards, the Teaching of English as a Second Language (TESL) has become easier and more attractive via mobile learning. The aim of this study is to review the mobile-based teaching and learning in the English language classroom. Such integration of mobile learning with English language teaching may offer great innovations in the pedagogical delivery.

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How does Bookmapping bring together literature and web 2.0 mapping technology?

Terence W. Cavanaugh and Jerome Burg (2011) Bookmapping: Lit Trips and Beyond,  ISTE (International Society for Technology in Education)

With today’s technology and our students’ abilities, it is important to allow them to “construct content rather than just consuming it” (Milne, 2006, p. 11.2). One way to do this is to have students create their own bookmaps from their reading. By analyzing the texts they are reading to determine the locations for the story’s setting, students can then use that information to create placemarks on a digital map, adding to it comments, images, and quotations. Bookmapping, which brings together literature and web 2.0 mapping technology, can engage students in the books they read while giving them a better understanding of the setting, characters, and other story elements.

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How are music teachers using technology to assess learning?

Lance D. Nielsen (2011) A study of K‐12 music educators’ attitudes toward technology-assisted assessment tools, Presented to the Faculty of The Graduate College at the University of Nebraska In Partial Fulfillment of Requirements For the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

The purpose of this study was to examine K‐12 music educators’ attitudes regarding the use of technology in the assessment of music learning. There is a considerable range of musical behaviors with different levels of complexity that can be assessed (Boyle & Radocy, 1987). A variety of software and web‐based assessment tools are available for music educators. However, it is unclear how many teachers are taking advantage of incorporating these technological assessment tools into their instructional practice. This study provided current data about the demographics of teachers using technology to assess musical growth and the variables that might motivate a music teacher to use technology‐assisted assessment tools. A sample of 2,211 music educators, provided by MENC: The National Association of Music Education, was surveyed. The survey questions determined the number of teachers using technology‐assisted assessment tools and the types of assessment tools they use. The mean score from a series of belief statements suggested teachers’ attitudes towards assessment practices and technology was positive. However, it was discovered that specific school and teacher factors had a generally small influence on their perceptions of technology‐assisted assessment tools. It was evident that music teachers are utilizing technology for daily instruction more often than to assist with assessment strategies. The factors of time and resources are two important variables that affect teachers’ decisions regarding the use of technology for assessment in music settings.

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Can Android App Inventor Bring Computational Thinking to K-12 learners?

R. Morelli, T. de Lanerolle, P. Lake, N.Limardo, B. Tamotsu, C. Uche (2010) Can Android App Inventor Bring Computational Thinking to K-12?  Unpublished, September 2010.

App Inventor for Android is a new visual programming plat- form for creating mobile applications for Android-based smart phones. This paper reports on the summer component of an ongoing project aimed at addressing whether App Inven- tor would be a suitable platform for bringing computational thinking to K-12 students. The project brought together a team consisting of two high school CS teachers, two novice undergraduate computing students, a community outreach leader, and a college CS instructor. The students were eas- ily able to develop complex mobile apps completely on their own initiative. Overall, the team found App Inventor to be an accessible and powerful platform that could well support introductory level courses at the college and K-12 levels.

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Can engaging students in digital mapping of local history increase their civic engagement?

Katharyne Mitchell and Sarah Elwood (2012)  Engaging Students through Mapping Local History, Journal of Geography 111: 148–157

This article argues that the integration of local history and geography through collaborative digital mapping can lead to greater interest in civic participation by early adolescent learners. In the study, twenty-nine middle school students were asked to research, represent, and discuss local urban sites of historical significance on an interactive Web platform. As students learned more about local community events, people, and historical forces, they became increasingly engaged with the material and enthusiastic about making connections to larger issues and processes. In the final session, students expressed interest in participating in their own communities through joining nonprofit organizations and educating others about community history and daily life.

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How can Google SketchUp support an inquiry-based approach to geometry?

Shafer, K. (2010). Prisms and Pyramids with Google SketchUp: A Classroom Activity. In D. Gibson & B. Dodge (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2010 (pp. 3505-3507)

Google SketchUp is a free program that was developed for the purpose of creating 3D models. SketchUp can be used to support student sense making through an inquiry approach. The authors first describe how elementary education majors were able to use specific tools in SketchUp to reconcile issues of perception when creating a prism and investigate the various dimensions within a given pyramid (height, slant heights(s) and edges).

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How can the Web support Differentiation in Elementary Classrooms?

Gail Arakaki (2011)  The Use of Websites as an Aid in Differentiating Instruction, TCC Worldwide Online ConferenceEmerging Technologies: Making it Work 

In a typical heterogeneous elementary school classroom, one might find highly motivated students, struggling readers, those reading two levels above grade level, unmotivated students, and students with behavior problems. Teachers are faced with the challenge of teaching these students the skills necessary to be successful 21st Century students as well as motivating them to attain proficiency. In order to provide effective instruction for all, many teachers have turned to differentiated instruction (DI). In differentiated instruction, student differences form the basis of planning and many instructional strategies are employed. This study focused on the development and evaluation of a class website to facilitate differentiation of instruction in a science lesson, and its potential use as a tool to increase instructional time and address all learners. Research results indicated the use of a class website can be a valuable tool for teachers to use in providing differentiated instruction. A class website was successfully utilized to disseminate information and assignment directions, as well as provide instruction, scaffolding, and additional resources to nine second grade students, based on their level of readiness. Further research is necessary to determine if its use results in an increase in instructional time.

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Does research overemphasize the need for technology in education?

M. Oliver (2011) Technological determinism in educational technology research: some alternative ways of thinking about the relationship between learning and technology, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning (2011), 27, 373–384

This paper argues that research on the educational uses of technology frequently overemphasizes the influence of technology. Research in the field is considered a form of critical perspective, and assumptions about technology are questioned. Technological determinism is introduced, and different positions on this concept are identified. These are used to discuss the ways in which work within the field might be described as technologically deterministic. Four theoretical perspectives (activity theory, communities of practice, actor–network theory, and the social construction of technology) are then briefly characterized, demonstrating that alternative positions are viable, and positioning each in relation to the earlier discussion of technological determinism. The paper concludes by arguing that research, building on such alternative conceptions of technology, is important in developing our understanding of the relationship between technology and learning, as well as identifying potential methodological implications.

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Does combining technology knowledge with a problem based learning approach impact students’ learning?

Walker, A; Recker, M; Ye, L; Robertshaw, B; Sellers, L; and Leary, H. (2012) Comparing Technology-Related Teacher Professional Development Designs: a Multilevel Study of Teacher and Student Impacts, The Instructional Architect Research Group. Paper 6.

This article presents a quasi-experimental study comparing the impact of two technology-related teacher professional development (TTPD) designs, aimed at helping junior high school science and mathematics teachers design online activities using the rapidly growing set of online learning resources available on the Internet. The first TTPD design (tech-only) focused exclusively on enhancing technology knowledge and skills for finding, selecting, and designing classroom activities with online resources, while the second (tech+pbl) coupled technology knowledge with learning to design problem-based learning (PBL) activities for students. Both designs showed large pre-post gains for teacher participants (N=36) in terms of self-reported knowledge, skills, and technology integration. Significant interaction effects show that teachers in the tech+pbl group had larger gains for self-reported knowledge and externally rated use of PBL. Three generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were fit to study the impact on students’ (N=1,247) self reported gains in behavior, knowledge, and attitudes. In the resulting models, students of tech+pbl teachers showed significant increases in gain scores for all three outcomes. By contrast, students of tech-only teachers showed improved gains only in attitudes.

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How can Google Earth help Teach Natural Phenomena?

Fabrizio Logiurato (2011) Teaching Waves with Google Earth, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita` di Trento INO-CNR BEC Center and Physics Department, Trento University, I-38123 Povo, Italy

Google Earth is a huge source of interesting illustrations of various natural phenomena. It can represent a valuable tool for science education, not only for teaching geography and geology, but also physics. Here we suggest that Google Earth can be used for introducing in an attractive way the physics of waves.

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Multimodal literacy: What does it mean for classroom practice?

Maureen Walsh (2010) Multimodal literacy: What does it mean for classroom practice?, Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, Vol. 33, No. 3, 2010, pp. 211–239

Changes to literacy pedagogy are gradually occurring in classrooms in response to contemporary communication and learning contexts. These changes are diverse as teachers and educational researchers attempt to design new pedagogy to respond to the potential of digital technologies within existing curriculum and assessment policies. This paper discusses evidence from recent classroom research where 16 teachers worked in teams in nine primary school classrooms to develop new ways of embedding technology for literacy learning. Data from the nine case studies provides evidence that teachers can combine the teaching of print-based literacy with digital communications technology across a range of curriculum areas. Findings from this research confirm that literacy needs to be redefined within current curriculum contexts, particularly in light of the emergence of a national curriculum. New descriptors of language and literacy criteria are proposed within the framework of multimodal literacy, the literacy that is needed in contemporary times for reading, viewing, responding to and producing multimodal and digital texts.

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How might technology be transforming the literacies of children entering the classroom?

Joanne O’Mara, Linda Laidlaw (2011) Living in the iworld: Two literacy researchers reflect on the changing texts and literacy practices of childhood, English Teaching: Practice and Critique, December, 2011, Volume 10, Number 4,  pp. 149-159

Within the article we demonstrate, using media links and images, the ways in which our own children have begun to navigate digital devices and texts and to create new sorts of narratives that open possibilities for literacies in multiple ways, as “creators”, “designers”, and experts. We argue that, once translated into classroom practice, technological tools tend to be “domesticated” by practices that resist the transformative affordances of these tools, and may even provide barriers to student engagement and practice. Finally, we conclude the article by making some practical suggestions for creating opportunities for transformative technology use in education.

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A developmental approach to new media literacy?

Diana Graber (2012) New Media Literacy Education (NMLE): A Developmental Approach, Journal of Media Literacy Education 4:1 (2012) 82 – 92

Waldorf-inspired schools may have a successful formula for the development of ethical thinking and new media literacy skills. By providing rich sensory experiences and social interactions for students from the time they are very young, these schools are sowing the seeds of new media literacy without any technology in sight. The challenge they face now is taking the next step. In doing so, Waldorf-inspired could be the model for Ohler’s (2010) vision of a “whole school approach to behavior that sets the entirety of being digitally active within an overall ethical and behavioral context” (145). Maybe some of these practices will even find their way into traditional schools, giving more students a chance to experience a developmental approach to new media literacy that will equip them to be creative, capable, and ethical users of today’s technology, or technologies that are yet seeds in their imaginations.

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Why should games have a place in formal education?

Thorkild Hanghøj (2008) Playful Knowledge: An Explorative Study of Educational Gaming, PhD Dissertation, Institute of Literature, Media and Cultural Studies University of Southern Denmark

This dissertation can be read as an attempt to explore the widespread assumption that games have educational value within the context of formal schooling. More specifically, this study tries to answer a number of questions related to this assumption: Why should games have a place in formal education? How should educational games support teaching and learning? And what characterises “good” educational game design? These questions are repeatedly being addressed by game designers, policy makers, educators, news media and researchers in an attempt to explore – and often promote – the assumed learning potential of games. To bring matters to a head, such questions are often driven by an attempt to legitimise the educational use of games instead of actually exploring whether this goal is desirable or how it can be achieved.

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Can teachers use online commercial games to help students with their learning?

Wiklund, M., Ekenberg, L. (2009) Going to school in World of Warcraft. Observations from a trial programme using off-the-shelf computer games as learning tools in secondary education, Designs for Learning, No. 109

The use of commercial, off-the-shelf computer games as teaching tools is an interesting possibility, but one that may alter the teacher’s role. Unlike specially adapted, game- like educational software, students’ attitudes toward the learning potential of computer games may be very different in the presence or absence of an accompanying teacher. The purpose of this work is to investigate whether commercial, unmodified computer games have potential as a tool for learning enhancement, whether varying properties of game genres have an impact on study results, and how the students perceive the teachers role in a learning environment using computer games. Twenty-one students, all of them participants in a longer-term trial programme in game-based education, were inter- viewed concerning their perceptions of the learning environment, their preferred game genres, and the outcome of their studies. Our findings show that this form of learn- ing results in significantly increased knowledge. It also appears that accompanying teacher activities are important, especially when successfully linked to in-game activities.

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Can educational gaming be understood as a complex interplay of four forms of knowledge?

Thorkild Hanghøj (2011) Clashing and Emerging Genres: The interplay of knowledge forms in educational gaming, Designs for Learning vol4, No1, September 2011

Based upon a series of design interventions with the educational computer game series Global Conflicts at various secondary schools, this article explores how educational gaming can be understood as a complex interplay between four knowledge forms – i.e. students’ everyday knowledge (non-specialised knowledge), the institutionalised knowledge forms of schooling, teachers’ subject-specific knowledge (specialised knowledge forms), and game-specific knowledge forms such as professional journalism, which is one of the inspirations for the game scenario. Depending on how the GC series was enacted by different teachers and students, these knowledge forms were brought into play rather differently. More specifically, several students experienced genre clashes in relation to their expectations of what it means to play a computer game, whereas other students experienced emerging genres – e.g. when one student was able to transform the game experience into a journalistic article that challenged her classmates’ understanding of journalistic writing.

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What does Peer-Based Learning in a Networked Age look like?

Mizuko Ito  (2010) Peer-Based Learning in a Networked Age, Keynote address for University of Michigan’s Enriching Scholarship 2010

Networked media offers an unprecedented opportunity to support learning that is highly personalized and learner-centered, driven by passionate interest and social engagement. But very few learners and educators are taking advantage of this opportunity. And the reason for this is that too often we separate the worlds of young people and adults, play and education. We hold onto the old boundaries between schooling, peer-culture, and home life, between what looks and feels like learning and education that we grew up with, and what looks and feels like socializing, hanging out, and playing. Even if those boundaries were never that real to begin with, in today’s networked world, they are even more untenable.

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How do IT Teachers Use Differentiated Instruction and Assess for Understanding?

Rollins, R. L. (2012) Assessing the Understanding and Use of Differentiated Instruction: A Comparison of Novice and Experienced Technology Education Teachers, A dissertation submitted to the Graduate Faculty of North Carolina State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Education.

The primary purpose of this quantitative online study was to assess the extent to which Technology Education teachers in the state of North Carolina understand and use differentiated instructional components. Additionally, this study examined the differences between novice and experienced TED teachers’ understanding and use of differentiated instructional components. Differentiated instruction is a philosophy which governs practices for addressing the needs of academically diverse students within the classroom. Modifications are made to the content, process, products and learning environment. Data collected from 127 Technology Education teachers were organized, analyzed, and summarized using descriptive statistics. The findings suggest that TED teachers collectively understand and use differentiated instructional components. However, as it relates to years of teaching experience, novice and experienced statistically differed in their understanding of content differentiation, process differentiation, and product differentiation. Additionally, TED novice teachers reported using the component of product differentiation the least.

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How are secondary school students using the internet in Nigeria?

Ukpebor Osaretin Christopher and Emwanta Maria-Gorretti (2012) Availability and the use of computer and internet by secondary school students in Benin City, Nigeria, International Journal of Library and Information Science Vol. 4(2), pp. 16-23, February 2012

This study identifies the availability of internet use among 1000 secondary schools students Benin City, Nigeria. Internet has become a useful tool for education. Access to information communication technology (ICT), the internet in particular, has provided people especially students with a foundation for meeting their information needs. Many private schools can boast of computer laboratories, but only few can pride themselves on Internet access. Another frustration is the capacity to use the Internet. 1000 students were selected from 20 private secondary schools across the two (out of three) local government of Benin City. Result showed that students have the capacity to use the internet which they learnt from friends and family members. However, the level of internet access in schools is poor despite the schools having computer laboratories. Students access the internet from their homes and cyber cafes since they are denied access in their respective schools while most of the students use the internet for educational activities. Internet availability should be considered as one of the most important scientific tools in schools.

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How Do Exemplary Science Teachers Use Technology?

Meral Hakverdi-Can,  Thomas M. Dana (2012) EXEMPLARY SCIENCE TEACHERS’ USE OF TECHNOLOGY, The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology – January 2012, volume 11 Issue 1

The purpose of this study is to examine exemplary science teachers’ level of computer use, their knowledge/skills in using specific computer applications for science instruction, their use of computer-related applications/tools during their instruction, how often they required their students to use those applications in or for their science class and factors influencing their decisions in using technology in the classroom. The sample of this study includes middle and high school science teachers who received the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science Teaching Award. Analysis of the survey responses indicated that exemplary science teachers have a variety of knowledge/skills in using computer related applications/tools. The most commonly used computer applications/tools are information retrieval via the Internet, presentation tools, online communication, digital cameras, and data collection probes. Results of the study revealed that students’ use of technology in their science classroom is highly correlated with the frequency of their science teachers’ use of computer applications/tools.

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How Is Instructional Technology Being Integrated in Higher Education?

Mariya Markova (2011) Integrating Instructional Technology into Higher Education, A dissertation submitted to the faculty of Franklin Pierce University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Arts in Leadership in the College of Graduate and Professional Studies.

This dissertation presents the findings of an in-depth study conducted at two universities in New England. The purpose of this study is to identify the reasons why higher education faculties are not fully embracing instructional technology. Findings suggest that many faculty members view the instructional technology to be difficult to apply to existing instructional methodologies. In addition, existing technology infrastructure appears to be inadequate and unreliable. While technical problems persist, the primary cause of faculty resistance at this time relates to a lack of adequate faculty development and training resources. Results suggest, given the increasing sophistication of instructional technology, institutions should require a higher degree of technological proficiency than most faculty members currently possess.

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How can the TPACK framework be used to understand technology integration?

Charles R. Graham, Jered Borup, Nicolette Burgoyne Smith (2012) Using TPACK as a framework to understand teacher candidates’ technology integration decisions. In Journal of Computer Assisted Learning.

This research uses the technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) framework as a lens for understanding how teacher candidates make decisions about the use of information and communication technology in their teaching. Pre- and post-treatment assessments required elementary teacher candidates at Brigham Young University to articulate how and why they would integrate technology in three content teaching design tasks. Researchers identified themes from student rationales that mapped to the TPACK constructs. Rationales simultaneously supported subcategories of knowledge that could be helpful to other researchers trying to understand and measure TPACK. The research showed significant student growth in the use of rationales grounded in content-specific knowledge and general pedagogical knowledge, while rationales related to general technological knowledge remained constant.

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What does a TPACK-Based Technology Integration Assessment Rubric look like?

Judi Harris, Neal Grandgenett, Mark Hofer (2010) Testing a TPACK-Based Technology Integration Assessment Rubric,

Although there is ever-increasing emphasis on integrating technology in teaching, there are few well-tested and refined assessments to measure the quality of this integration. The few measures that are available tend to favor constructivist approaches to teaching, and thus do not accurately assess the quality of technology integration across a range of different teaching approaches. We have developed a more “pedagogically inclusive” instrument that reflects key TPACK concepts and that has proven to be both reliable and valid in two successive rounds of testing. Five TPACK experts also confirmed the instrument’s construct and face validities. We offer this new rubric to help teacher educators to more accurately assess the quality of technology integration in lesson plans, and suggest exploring its use in project and unit plans.

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Why is the UK banning ICT from schools?

The Royal Society (2012) Shut down or restart? The way forward for computing in UK schools, The Royal Academy of Engineering, January 2012

This report analyses the current state of Computing education in UK schools and sets out a way forward for improving on the present situation. The report states that the term ICT as a brand should be reviewed and the possibility considered of disaggregating this into clearly defined areas such as digital literacy, Information Technology and Computer Science. There is an analogy here with how English is structured at school, with reading and writing (basic literacy), English Language (how the language works) and English Literature (how it is used). The term ‘ICT’ should no longer be used as it has attracted too many negative connotations.

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How Do Technology-Enhanced Inquiry Science Units Impact Classroom Learning?

Hee-Sun Lee, Marcia C. Linn, Keisha Varma, Ou Lydia Liu (2010) How Do Technology-Enhanced Inquiry Science Units Impact Classroom Learning?, JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN SCIENCE TEACHING, VOL. 47, NO. 1, PP. 71–90 (2010)

We investigated how student understanding of complex science topics was impacted when 27 teachers switched from typical to inquiry instruction in a delayed cohort comparison design study. For the same set of science topics, the teachers used typical methods of instruction in the first year and online, visualization rich inquiry units in the second year. Both cohorts of students were tested on knowledge integration at the end of both school years. We obtained students’ knowledge integration estimates by applying an Item Response Theory analysis based on a Rasch Partial Credit Model. We used a mixed effects analysis of variance to investigate effects related to inquiry instruction, teaching context, and science course. We found significant main effects of inquiry instruction and teaching context as well as significant interaction effects between inquiry instruction and science course and between inquiry instruction and teaching context on student knowledge integration. We triangulate these findings with teacher surveys, interview transcripts and project records to explore potential factors associated with successful implementation of inquiry instruction.

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How is e-Learning Improving Secondary Schools in Kenya?

Mildred A. Ayere, F. Y. Odera and J. O. Agak (2010) E-learning in secondary Schools in Kenya: A Case of the NEPAD E-schools, Educational Research and Reviews Vol. 5 (5), pp. 218-223, May, 2010

The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) schools were set up as centres of excellence in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) integration, so that other schools could copy their model in e-learning. It was for this reason that they were provided with computers, e-materials, internet appliances and trained personnel. But to gauge their levels of success as e-learning centres there was need to compare them to other schools offering ICT education in Kenya. It was for this reason that this study compared the application of the e-learning in NEPAD and non-NEPAD schools in Kenya. Specifically, the study: Identified significant differences in levels of integration of ICT in curriculum subjects; surveyed the differences in use of e-materials in education research; examined availability of e-libraries; identified significant differences in academic performance of NEPAD and non-NEPAD schools attributed to e-learning. Based on these findings, it was recommended that schools involved in ICT education should intensify teacher facilitation and support teacher roles that are required in e-learning.

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Where are the ethical fault lines in the digital media?

Carrie James with Katie Davis, Andrea Flores, John M. Francis (2008) Young people, ethics, and the new digital media: A synthesis from the GoodPlay Project, White paper for the MacArthur Foundation Digital Media & Learning Initiative, The MIT Press Cambridge, Massachusetts

In late 2006, our research team at Harvard Project Zero launched a three-year project funded by the MacArthur Foundation. The goals of the GoodPlay Project are twofold—(1) to investigate the ethical contours of the new digital media and (2) to create interventions to promote ethical thinking and, ideally, conduct. In the first year of the project, we conducted background research to determine the state of knowledge about digital ethics and youth and to prepare ourselves for our empirical study. This report describes our thinking in advance of beginning our empirical work. We expect to revisit the framework and arguments that are presented here after our empirical study is complete.

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How can an IT curriculum help schools best prepare for tech integration?

Amy Staples, Marleen C Pugach, D Himes (2005) Rethinking the technology integration challenge: Cases from three urban elementary schools, Journal of Research on Technology in Education (2005) Volume: 37, Issue: 3, Publisher: International Society for Technology in Education

Preparing a school well for technology integration appears to represent a special instance of professional development, one that has a unique identity requiring a unique kind of stewardship. To use technology effectively, principals and other technology leaders who contribute to decision making regarding how a school will invest in technology first need a solid understanding of the difference between technology use to enhance learning of the curriculum and technology use for productivity-as well as the ability to make distinctions in the various kinds of supports that will be required for each. We would argue that it is not a case of privileging professional development over acquisition, but rather that in planning for technology integration, professional development and acquisition considerations need to take place simultaneously. Curriculum needs to be the overriding framework for these deliberations. In other words, good planning for technology integration takes a special understanding of the acquisition of hardware and software specifically as it relates to the curriculum. This requires graduated staff development that anchors technology in the curriculum, but that also recognizes the need for teachers to have the opportunity to learn the technology well so that it can be used easily and transparently to support the curriculum. It goes without saying that teachers must be deeply informed about content and pedagogy in a particular content area to use technology to enhance learning effectively. Neither can be shortchanged.

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How does the iPad perform at college level?

Trina Marmarelli, Martin Ringle (2011), The Reed College iPad Study, The Reed Institute

When Apple announced the release of its iPad tablet in late January 2010, Reed College had just completed a semester-long study of the Amazon Kindle DX eReader in which students and faculty in three upper-division seminars used the Kindle to read, annotate, and discuss books and articles for the courses.1 While the Kindle DX failed to meet faculty and student needs in several important ways, most notably highlighting, annotation, and manipulation of texts, the study participants were optimistic enough about the long-term potential of eReader technology to prompt the College to continue its evaluation of emerging products. Consequently, during the fall semester of 2010, we undertook a study parallel in structure to the 2009 Kindle DX study. Students in one upper-division seminar, Political Science 422: Nuclear Politics — The origins and effects of the spread of nuclear weapons, used the iPad for all of their assigned readings. Since this was one of the courses included in the Kindle study and much of the reading list was unchanged, comparisons between student reactions were easy to make. We anticipated that a multipurpose device like the iPad would have different strengths and weaknesses than the Kindle DX, a dedicated eReader, and we were particularly interested in examining these differences.

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What does ICT look like in Eastern Education?

Jianwei Zhang (2007) A cultural look at information and communication technologies in Eastern education, Educational Technology Research & Development (2007) Volume: 55, Issue: 3, Pages: 301-314

The Eastern cultural tradition, together with other social factors, has shaped a group-based, teacher-dominated, and centrally organized pedagogical culture. Drawing upon this cultural perspective, this article reviews the development of information and communication technologies (ICT) in Eastern schools, including ICT planning and management, hardware infrastructures, software resources and services, professional development, and ICT-supported educational practices. It highlights the impact of the pedagogical culture on technology use, as well as the role of technology in pedagogical change. The review suggests a number of critical challenges Eastern educators need to address.

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How does a Flipped Classroom Compare with a Traditional Classroom?

Strayer, J. F. (2007) The Effects of the Classroom Flip on the Learning Environment: A Comparison of Learning Activity in a Traditional Classroom and a Flip Classroom that used an Intelligent Tutoring System, Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy in the Graduate School of The Ohio State University

Based on the conclusions of this study, I recommend that teachers who plan to implement the classroom flip consider the following suggestions. First, the flip structure seems to be more productive when students have a choice between multiple ways of interacting with the content of the course outside of class. When the focus of the flip is on giving students the freedom to interact with the content according to their own learning style preferences, the flip seems to be more successful. Second, if the flip is used in an introductory course, the in-class activities should be less open ended and more “step by step” in structure. If some activities are open ended, try to keep them brief: one to two class periods. Students in introductory courses will often have little tolerance for prolonged uncertainty in the course content and the course structure. In more advanced classes, students will be more willing to push through prolonged investigations, but the structure of the classroom must support their meaning making in the activity. This leads to the third recommendation. A flip classroom is structured so differently that students will become more aware of their own learning process than students in more traditional settings. Students will therefore need to have more space to reflect on their learning activities so they can make the necessary connections to course content. The teacher must structure a major component into the course structure that will allow for this reflection to take place and for the teacher to be able to see and comment on specific aspects of student reflection. This feedback cycle will be crucial for student learning.

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How can Flipping the Classroom support Active Learning?

Zappe, S., Leicht, R., Messner, J., Litzinger, T., and Lee, H.W., (2009) “’Flipping’ the Classroom to Explore Active Learning in a Large Undergraduate Course,” Proceedings, American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exhibition, 2009.

In traditional approaches to teaching engineering classes, the instructor plays the role of information conveyor, while the students assume a receiver role with primary responsibilities of listening and note-taking. Research into how students learn suggests that students need to be more actively engaged with the course material to maximize their understanding. The literature contains many examples of active learning strategies, such as teams solving problems in class and the use of student response systems with conceptual questions. Incorporating active learning strategies into a class means that there will be less time for delivering material via lecture. Therefore, instructors who choose to utilize active learning strategies must find ways to ensure that all required course content is still addressed. This paper discusses an instructional technique called the “classroom flip” model which was assessed in a larger, undergraduate architectural engineering class. In this model, lecture content is removed from the classroom to allow time for active learning, and the content that was removed is delivered to students via on-line video. This approach ‘flips’ the traditional use of lecture and more active learning approaches. Lecture occurs outside of class, and more active learning, such as problem solving, happens during class. Assessment data was collected to examine students’ use of the video lectures and perceptions of the classroom flip. The students’ feedback suggests that while the active learning and additional project time available in class improved their understanding, they would prefer that only about half the classes be flipped and some use of traditional lectures should be maintained.

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How can schools develop their own ICT curriculum?

Vanderlinde, B. R., Braak, J. V., Windt, V. D., Tondeur, J., Hermans, R., & Sinnaeve, I. (2008). Technology Curriculum and Planning for Technology in Schools: The Flemish case. TechTrends52(2), 23-26.

As a significant step in the consolidation of the importance of technology in education, the Flemish Government recently (September 2007) introduced a formal technology curriculum for schools. This compulsory curriculum replaces already existing but non-binding technology guidelines and is an important action in the Flemish policy of educational technology support. The introduction of a technology curriculum brings educational technology in schools to a turning point: Technology is no longer considered as being dependent on teachers’ individual efforts or willingness, but is becoming compulsory at the school level. The Flemish educational technology curriculum is written in terms of attainment targets. These targets are minimum objectives concerning the knowledge, insight, skills, and attitudes the government regards as necessary for and attainable by pupils at different educational levels. The formulation of a compulsory technology curriculum opens new perspectives for Flemish schools when working on putting technology into practice. Schools are challenged to translate the technology curriculum into concrete teaching and learning activities. For this purpose, they can use the online tool PICTOS (Planning for ICT on School) to establish their school-based technology plan. This article discusses the five design principles which, at the same time, act as characteristics of PICTOS

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How does a small school develop a technology curriculum?

Mary Pat Baima (2009) Planning a Technology Curriculum, NIU

The main purpose of education is to prepare young people to become functioning members of society. If the main purpose of education was simply to prepare them for acquiring jobs, then the responsibility of the educator would be much less. However, the words, “functioning members of society,” encompass much more than teaching students how to weld, use a word processing program, or figure a total on a balance sheet. In today’s world, young people must be trained to think, and think creatively with a group of other creatively thinking people. However, the acquisition of basic skills still remains important because even the most creative thinker must have an understanding of thesubject matter. Educators debate whether curriculum should emphasize basic skills or creative discovery. Wagner (2003), when speaking on ideologies and education, summarizes the debate between conservatives and progressives. Conservatives believe that traditional academic subject content needs to be taught, while educators who support  the “constructivist” theory believe that motivation for learning and student construction of knowledge should inform the curriculum (p. 45-46). Wagner agrees that, “students need a foundation of knowledge and information for true literacy and lifelong learning” (2003, p. 46).

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What does research say about integrating technology into K-12 teaching and learning?

Hew, K. F., & Brush, T. (2006). Integrating technology into K-12 teaching and learning: current knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research.Educational Technology Research & Development55(3), 223-252.

Although research studies in education show that use of technology can help student learning, its use is generally affected by certain barriers. In this paper, we first identify the general barriers typically faced by K-12 schools, both in the United States as well as other countries, when integrating technology into the curriculum for instructional purposes, namely: (a) resources, (b) institution, (c) subject culture, (d) attitudes and beliefs, (e) knowledge and skills, and (f) assessment. We then describe the strategies to overcome such barriers: (a) having a shared vision and technology integration plan, (b) overcoming the scarcity of resources, (c) changing attitudes and beliefs, (d) conducting professional development, and (e) reconsidering assessments. Finally, we identify several current knowledge gaps pertaining to the barriers and strategies of technology integration, and offer pertinent recommendations for future research.

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