Strayer, J. F. (2007) The Effects of the Classroom Flip on the Learning Environment: A Comparison of Learning Activity in a Traditional Classroom and a Flip Classroom that used an Intelligent Tutoring System, Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy in the Graduate School of The Ohio State University
Based on the conclusions of this study, I recommend that teachers who plan to implement the classroom flip consider the following suggestions. First, the flip structure seems to be more productive when students have a choice between multiple ways of interacting with the content of the course outside of class. When the focus of the flip is on giving students the freedom to interact with the content according to their own learning style preferences, the flip seems to be more successful. Second, if the flip is used in an introductory course, the in-class activities should be less open ended and more “step by step” in structure. If some activities are open ended, try to keep them brief: one to two class periods. Students in introductory courses will often have little tolerance for prolonged uncertainty in the course content and the course structure. In more advanced classes, students will be more willing to push through prolonged investigations, but the structure of the classroom must support their meaning making in the activity. This leads to the third recommendation. A flip classroom is structured so differently that students will become more aware of their own learning process than students in more traditional settings. Students will therefore need to have more space to reflect on their learning activities so they can make the necessary connections to course content. The teacher must structure a major component into the course structure that will allow for this reflection to take place and for the teacher to be able to see and comment on specific aspects of student reflection. This feedback cycle will be crucial for student learning.
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