Using the power of research to inform ICT integration in education

Joslyn Sarles Young (2012) Voices from the Field: Linking Learning: Connecting Traditional and Media Literacies in 21st Century Learning, The National Association for Media Literacy Education’s Journal of Media Literacy Education 4:1 (2012) 70 – 81

Today’s youth are failing to meet measures of traditional literacy, but they are quickly and easily acquiring skills using new tools for communication.  Many youth today fail in traditional measures of literacy, but participate in new forms of communication, and see those worlds of “literacy” and “communication” as completely separate from one another. Like many students, educators also tend to view literacy and communication as separate skill sets, so schools emphasize the testing regulations and demands focused on traditional literacy. As a result, today’s educational environment is moving away from the inclusion of media literacy education in academic literacy instruction even though youth need media literacy skills at an ever-increasing rate.

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Scott Emery (2012) Factors for Consideration when Developing a Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) Strategy in Higher Education, Applied Information Management and the Graduate School of the University of Oregon in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Science

The consumerization of IT changes the ways in which IT departments must plan for and manage technology. This annotated bibliography presents factors for consideration by IT leaders in higher education when developing an institution-wide strategy to address the use of personally owned mobile handheld devices, known as bring your own device (BYOD). Literature published between 2007 and 2012 is examined in regards to four categories: (a) policy creation, (b) data security, (c) user education, and (d) mobile learning.

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Nirmal Ranjan Mazumdar,  Sanjay Kumar Singh (2012) Google Sites for Academic Library: A Practical Approach in Pub Kamrup College Library, 8th Convention PLANNER-2012, Sikkim University, Gangtok, March 01-03, 2012

With the application of information and communication technology, the library and information centers are now become more available as well as usable for all. IT based library and information center gives the maximum opportunity to the user- community to search their required information using different IT tools. The Google Sites is a service of Google where a webpage can be designed. The steps of designing a website using the Google are discussed in this paper among with the example of Pub Kamrup College Library website.

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Megan Carpenter Townsend (2012) Computer Technology, Student Achievement, and Equity: A Multilevel Analysis of the Relationship between High School Students’ Use of Computers, Gender, and Mathematics Achievement, A dissertation submitted to the Graduate Faculty of North Carolina State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Educational Research and Policy Analysis Raleigh, North Carolina 2012

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the use of computer technology in instruction and student achievement in mathematics across a wide spectrum of students and schools. Of particular interest are the roles that the gender of the student, teachers’ exposure to professional development in technology, and specific uses of computer technology play in the relationship between the use of computer technology in mathematics classes and student achievement in mathematics.

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Peter van Rosmalen, Wim Westera (2012) Introducing Serious Games with Wikis: Empowering the Teacher with simple Technologies,

Despite the continuous and abundant growth of the game market the uptake of games in education has been hampered by the general impression that games require complex technologies and that games are difficult to organise and to embed in education curriculums. This paper explores to what extent a simple serious game scenario that can be easily adopted and adapted by individual teachers and that only uses a common, relatively simple technology can leverage the adoption of serious games. It discusses the design of such a game, Argument, based on a Wiki and its use in a 6 weeks trial by students of a Master of Learning Sciences Programme. The results indicate that, even though a Wiki has clear limitations, it is a useful instrument to build game alike educational activities, to gain experience with and as a first step to use (more) complex serious games.

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Nassim Jafarinaimi (2012) Exploring the Character of Participation in Social Media: The Case of Google Image Labeler, Proceeding iConference ’12 Proceedings of the 2012 iConference

Social media are transforming interpersonal and social interactions, enabling new forms of engagement and participation. However, we know little about how the specific design qualities of social media affect social interaction in these environments. Considering the diversity of social media today, there is a need to engage with specific cases to discern possible patterns of relationship between designed characteristics of social media and the character of participation in them. To illustrate, this paper draws on a case study of the game, “Google Image Labeler.” The design of the game is studied through a close reading of arguments made by its designers followed by an Internet study of what users and critics say about their interactions with the game. These studies, in conjunction with theories of social interaction by John Dewey and Robert Putnam, provide a foundation for a critical stance toward the quality of participation in this game that informs design theory and practice.

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Leppisaari, I., & Lee, O. (2012) Modeling Digital Natives’ International Collaboration: Finnish-Korean Experiences of Environmental Education. Educational Technology & Society, 15 (2)

A new generation of young learners often described as digital native school children are attitudinally and technically equipped to employ social media as a social process in learning. However, few international virtual learning projects have been implemented and researched. This article examines a trial which aimed to combine viable technology with future pedagogic solutions for primary students from Korea and Finland and create an international collaboration model in virtual learning for environmental education. The results show various challenges of the operational model and suggest effective implementation strategies. The challenges were organisational, language, technical and collaboration barriers. The operational model illustrates possibilities of implementing cyber space pedagogy, visualization of knowledge using technology, cyber spaces for collaboration, and the motivational impetus provided by the model. This pilot study demonstrates the need to increase greater interactivity between teachers from the partner countries during the planning phase and provide more authentic interaction for inter-learner dialogue.

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Aingeal de Ro ́iste, Colette Kelly, Michal Molcho, Aoife Gavin and Saoirse Nic Gabhainn (2012) Is school participation good for children? Associations with health and wellbeing, Health Education Vol. 112 No. 2, 2012

There is increasing recognition of children’s abilities to speak for themselves. School democracy, as demonstrated by genuine participation, has the potential to benefit both teachers and students; leading to better relationships and improved learning experiences. The aim of this study is to investigate whether participation in schools in Ireland is linked with perceived academic performance, liking school and positive health perceptions. Findings – Participation in school was significantly associated with liking school and higher perceived academic performance, better self-rated health, higher life satisfaction and greater reported happiness.

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Mandy Lynn LeBourgeois (2012) Technology in the classroom: effect of student blogging on learning gains in a high school classroom, A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Natural Sciences

Writing web logs (blogs) as well as reading the blogs of others has shown to extensively benefit students in terms of obtaining content knowledge. In the present study, analyses were done comparing raw gains of students who blogged about Biology I topics and those who simply answered questions on the same topics. No overall significant differences or trends were found in the learning gains of the experimental group of students (bloggers) and the control group (non-bloggers).

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Don Passey  (2011) Internet Safety in the Context of Developing Aspects of Young People’s Digital Citizenship, Department of Educational Research, Lancaster University

In the study reported here, specific evidence has been gathered about perceived and real risks of using the internet and digital devices, how issues are managed, issues concerned with access to and uses of social networking sites, the use of mobile telephones or handheld devices, and how internet safety is promoted and managed within schools.

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Brad M. Maguth (2012) Investigating Student Use of Technology for Engaged Citizenship in A Global Age, Education Sciences 20122(2), 57-76

This study undertook a five month qualitative investigation into technology use amongst twelve high school social studies students in two different sites in the Midwestern United States. This study examined students’ use of technology and its relationship to three dimensions of citizenship in a global age: understand global events, issues, and perspectives, participate in global networks to communicate and collaborate with global audiences, and advocate on global problems and issues to think and act globally. Collecting data through semi-structured student interviews, online-threaded discussions and document analysis, I triangulated findings, and employed a qualitative approach. The study finds a relationship between student participants’ use of technology and their serving as engaged citizenship in a global age. In using technology, students accessed international news and information, joined global networks to communicate and collaborate with global audiences, and produced digital content for international audiences.

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Katya Toneva, Kathy Doncaster (2012) Using Virtual Spaces for Learning Communities to Facilitate Project Development and Collaborative Learning, eLmL 2012 : The Fourth International Conference on Mobile, Hybrid, and On-line Learning

The purpose of this paper is to introduce ways that Google Apps and other Web 2.0 technologies can be used to develop an integrated virtual space for a learning community by putting in place an online Community of Practice (CoP). This project has been developed and is presently being in trial at the Institute for Work Based Learning, Middlesex University with the intended aim to ―progress its online learning activities (including an increased use of social media) from individual, Programme- based initiatives to an institution-wide, strategic project which will be core to realising strategic objectives in learning and teaching.

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Jenifer O. Corn, Jennifer T. Tagsold, Ruchi K. Patel (2011) The Tech‐Savvy Teacher: Instruction in a 1:1 Learning Environment, Journal of Educational Research and Practice, 2011, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 1–22

A research team conducted an evaluation of a laptop initiative in 18 North Carolina high schools through administrator, teacher, and student focus groups; teacher and student surveys; and classroom observations. The study aimed to provide information about the value of the laptop initiative in enhancing student learning. In addition, it intended to identify challenges to the successful implementation of 1:1 programs, strategies for meeting those challenges, and services and supports needed to enable successful 1:1 programs throughout the state. This paper explores how the initiative affected instructional practice in areas such as technology use, communication, the role of the teacher, and the learning environment. It also discusses unique challenges for teachers in a 1:1 environment, as well as implications for educators and administrators.

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Beach, R. (2012), Constructing Digital Learning Commons in the Literacy Classroom. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 55: 448–451

Redefining the literary classroom as a learning commons means that students, teachers, peers, counselors, experts, administrators, and parents are learning to use digital annotation, collaborative writing/discussion, or professional learning network tools for a collaborative, crowd-sourcing construction of knowledge that can redefine the boundaries of the classroom. Learning how to participate in the learning commons to share ideas and alternative perspectives for addressing problems leading to change is an essential 21st-century digital literacy.

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William Murakami-Brundage, Jennifer Bopp, Megan Finney, Joselito Abueg (2011) Visualizing World Bank Indicators through Google Earth, 10th Annual Hawaii International Conference on Social Sciences 2011

The goal of the project is to develop a large visual data resource for Google Earth using major education, gender, and health datasets. With global data increasingly being made public by organizations such as the World Bank, global data modeling has been a significant development in information visualization and geographical information systems. While there is a considerable amount of publicly owned and open-source data sets available, there has been minimal development beyond proof-of-concept ideas. The current research project is to model five major domains of the World Bank’s global datasets.  After the Google Earth models are complete, the resulting KML files will be made available for public use. It is hoped that a greater global awareness will develop by using the World Bank/Google Earth data. Additionally, data development will be easier once the data key is published.

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Chih-Hsiung Tu, Laura Sujo-Montes, Cherng-Jyh Yen, Junn-Yih Chan, Michael Blocher (2012) The Integration of Personal Learning Environments & Open Network Learning Environments, TechTrends • May/June 2012, Volume 56, Number 3

Learning management systems traditionally provide structures to guide online learners to achieve their learning goals. Web 2.0 technology empowers learners to create, share, and organize their personal learning environments in open network environments; and allows learners to engage in social networking and collaborating activities. Advanced networking mechanisms, UGC, flat-structured architectures, RSS, and social tagging, permit online learners to define their own learning structures. This article reports an online course built within multiple Web 2.0 technologies designed to empower learners to construct their own personal learning environments within open network learning environments. Lessons learned, examples, and critical issues are discussed. This paper concludes that effective instructions should prepare “online” learners to become “network” or “open network” learners.

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J. Ken Corley, D. Scott Hunsinger (2012) Google Chrome and the Paradigm Shifts in the Browser Market Among Users, Journal of Information Systems Applied Research (JISAR), 5(3)

Google Chrome has quickly become one of the most popular Internet browsers since its release in September 2008. The results of this study provides evidence suggesting two of the three independent factors shown to influence behavioral intention within the Theory of Planned Behavior (Attitude and Perceived Behavioral Control) are significantly and positively correlated with a person’s intentions to use the Google Chrome Browser.

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Louise Limberg, Olof Sundin, Sanna Talja (2012) Three Theoretical Perspectives on Information Literacy, HumanIT: Journal for Information Technology Studies as a Human Science, vol.11. issue 2

This article discusses alternative theoretical understandings of information literacy and their consequences for educational practices. Three theoretical perspectives are presented that represent different understandings of information literacy; phenomenography, sociocultural theory and Foucauldian discourse analysis. According to all three theoretical lenses, information literacy is embedded in and shaped by as well as shaping the context in which it is embedded. In consequence, we propose the notion of information literacies in the plural. The three perspectives offer different insights on information literacies, on both empirical and theoretical levels. However, a sociocultural perspective also involves particular theoretical assumptions about the ways in which digital environments and tools reshape conditions for learning.

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Hagbood, MP Jacob and Ainsworth, Shaaron E (2011) Motivating children to learn effectively: exploring the value of intrinsic integration in educational games, Journal of the Learning Sciences, 20 (2), 169-206.

The concept of intrinsic motivation has been considered to lie at the heart of the user engagement created by digital games. Yet despite this, educational software has traditionally attempted to harness games as extrinsic motivation by using them as a sugar-coating for learning content. This paper tests the concept of intrinsic integration as a way of creating a more productive relationship between educational games and their learning content. Two studies assessed this approach by designing and evaluating an educational game for teaching mathematics to seven to eleven year olds called Zombie Division. The results of these studies showed that children learned more from the intrinsic version of the game under fixed time limits and spent seven times longer playing it in free time situations. Together they offer evidence for the genuine value of an intrinsic approach for creating effective educational games. The theoretical and commercial implications of these findings are discussed.

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Alan Peslak, Wendy Ceccucci, Patricia Sendall (2012) An Empirical Study of Social Networking Behavior Using Theory of Reasoned Action, Conference for Information Systems Applied Research 2011 CONISAR Proceedings

This study is an attempt to understand social networking by exploring SN behavior using the Ajzen and Fishbein (1980) model of human behavior known as Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). Specifically, findings reveal that both attitude toward social networking and “subjective norm” are positively associated with intention to use SN. According to Ajzen (1980), subjective norm is defined as how behavior is viewed by our circle or those who influence our decisions.  Intention influences the use of social networking. The TRA model provides a strong fit with the overall data and can be used to predict and understand the usage of social networking in the target population.

Yang, C. and Chang, Y.-S. (2012), Assessing the effects of interactive blogging on student attitudes towards peer interaction, learning motivation, and academic achievements. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 28: 126–135

Blogs have been increasingly used to supplement traditional classroom lectures in higher education. This paper explores the use of blogs, and how student attitudes towards online peer interaction and peer learning, as well as motivation to learn from peers, may differ when using the blog comments feature, and when students are encouraged to read and comment on each other’s work. We contrast two ways blogs affect learning engagement: (1) solitary blogs as personal digital portfolios for writers; or (2) blogs used interactively to facilitate peer interaction by exposing blogging content and comments to peers. A quasi-experiment was conducted across two semesters, involving 154 graduate and undergraduate students. The result suggests that interactive blogs, compared with isolated blogs, are associated with positive attitudes towards academic achievement in course subjects and in online peer interaction. Students showed positive motivation to learn from peer work, regardless of whether blogs were interactive or solitary.

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Kristen Bloom & Kelly Marie Johnston (2010) Digging into YouTube Videos: Using Media Literacy and Participatory Culture to Promote Cross-Cultural Understanding, Journal of Media Literacy Education 2:2 (2010) 113 – 123

The role of the educator, as a result of new media, has changed substantially from one that is focused on the one-way transfer of information to one that trains students how to participate in digital environments with intelligence, skill, and literacy. It is our contention that educators and learners can exploit this media to engage in cross-cultural exchange and ultimately greater cross- cultural understanding. This paper will elaborate on the ways in which teachers and students can use YouTube as a site for cultivating cross-cultural exchange and understanding by establishing video-pal relationships with other students from outside their home culture. Digital exchanges can help students and teachers build connections with their colleagues abroad and to develop an international perspective.

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Kayvan Kousha, Mike Thelwall, Mahshid Abdoli (2012) The role of online videos in research communication: A content analysis of YouTube videos cited in academic publications, This is a preprint of an article to be published in the Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology © copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

This article explores the extent to which YouTube videos are cited in academic publications and whether there are significant broad disciplinary differences in this practice. To investigate, the URL citations to YouTube videos were extracted from academic publications indexed by Scopus. A total of 1,808 Scopus publications cited at least one YouTube video and there was a steady upward growth in citing online videos within scholarly publications from 2006 to 2011, with YouTube citations being most common within arts and humanities and the social sciences. A content analysis of 551 YouTube videos cited by research articles shows both disciplinary differences and the wide variety of innovative research communication uses found for videos within the different subject areas.

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Marianne McGarry Wolf, Mitch Wolf, Tom Frawley, Ann Torres (2012) Using Social Media to Enhance Learning through Collaboration in Higher Education: A Case Study, Selected paper prepared for presentation at the Applied and Agricultural Economics Association’s 2012 AAEA Annual Conference, Seattle, Washington, August 12 – 14, 2012

Bradley and McDonald in a Harvard Business Review Blog discuss the difference between knowledge management and social media. They indicate that knowledge management is when company management tells employees what they need to know. In higher education faculty practice knowledge management by telling the students what they need to know. Social media is a method peers use to show connections the content they think is important. Bradley and McDonald believe that organizations can gain value from social media through mass collaboration. Mass collaboration occurs with “social media technology, a compelling purpose, and a focus on forming communities” (Bradley and McDonald, 2011). Can social media be used in higher education to enhance learning through student and faculty collaboration?

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Orit Avidov-Ungar and Yoram Eshet-Alkakay (2011) The Islands of Innovation Model: Opportunities and Threats for Effective Implementation of Technological Innovation in the Education System, Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology, Volume 8, 2011

In recent years, there have been an increasing number of educational technology-integration projects which employ the Islands of Innovation model. According to this model, technological innovation is implemented in small islands within an organization, in the hope that they will be imitated, permeate the whole organization with their values and lead to overall, comprehensive innovation and to a new organizational culture. Studies on technological innovation implementation in education systems show that for the most part, islands of innovation fail to generate overall, comprehensive innovation. The article warns against the stagnation that these islands of innovation may cause organization managements, which use them as an excuse to consider themselves innovative, and warns against unsupervised, poorly thoughtout use of this model for technological innovation implementation.

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Lindgren, S. (2011). ”Collective problem-solving and informal learning in networked publics. Reading vlogging networks on YouTube as knowledge communities ”. In E. Dunkels, G. Frånberg & C. Hällgren (Eds.) Interactive Media Use and Youth: Learning, Knowledge Exchange and Behavior (pp. 50-64). Hershey: IGI Global.

Social network sites like Facebook or MySpace, allow their users to create a public (or semi-public) profile and to articulate their relations to other users in a way that is visible to anyone accessing their profile. As these sites have become increasingly popular, many other sites – like YouTube – have started to adopt SNS features. According to Cheng et al (2008, p. 235), YouTube is indeed a social media application. This can be illustrated of how social networks are established on the vlogging arena on YouTube. To be able to assess this issue in a smaller scale, vloggers with a specific interest – in this case the urban art form of free running, so called parkour – were selected.

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Matthew W. Liberatore, Charles R. Vestal, Andrew M. Herring (2012) YouTube Fridays: Student led development of engineering estimate problems, Advances n Engineering Education, Winter 2012, Volume 3, Number 1

YouTube Fridays devotes a small fraction of class time to student-selected videos related to the course topic, e.g., thermodynamics. The students then write and solve a homework-like problem based on the events in the video. Three recent pilots involving over 300 students have developed a database of videos and questions that reinforce important class concepts like energy balances and phase behavior. Student evaluations found a vast majority (79%) of the students felt better at relating real world phenomena to thermodynamics from participating in YouTube Fridays. Overall, YouTube Fridays is a student led activity that provides practice of problem solving on open-ended, course related questions.

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Joseph Lichter (2012) Using YouTube as a Platform for Teaching and Learning Solubility Rules, Journal of Chemical Education

Two challenges faced by university instructors in introductory chemistry courses are the need to keep the course material connected with technology that students are using as well as engaging students in a manner that keeps them interested in the subject. A case study is described where students in a general chemistry course were challenged to create and upload a video to the video-sharing Web site YouTube that could be used to learn solubility rules (which ions combine to form insoluble precipitates in dilute aqueous solutions). An assessment of the assignment was done by comparing results on a common exam question for courses with and without the assignment, as well as a follow up question on the final exam, survey questions, and comments. Results suggest that the solubility rules YouTube video assignment improved student learning of the rules and promoted interest in chemistry among a majority of the students involved in the activity.

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James N. Cohen (2012) The Potential of Google+ as a Media Literacy Tool, The National Association for Media Literacy Education’s Journal of Media Literacy Education 4:1 (2012) 93 – 96

Civic engagement is rarely the initial intent of a social media user. According to a 2011 Pew Internet Life study, nearly two-thirds of social media users are online to keep in touch with friends and family while only a very small percentage (near 5%) utilize it for learning. The results of these studies have inspired media literacy scholars and educators to empower social media users to approach the online tools with a mind toward information sharing. The potential in social media is limitless, but many users have to be made aware of the possibilities. Educators in particular should be informed of the civic functions Google+ offers the user.

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Mariana Martinho, Marta Pinto, Yuliya Kuznetsova (2012) Scholars’ YouTube channels: content analysis of educational videos, Internet Latent Corpus Journal VOL. 2 N. 2 (2012)

YouTube is a Web 2.0 platform of distributed video sharing, widely used by students, universities and scholars. This article looks into the YouTube channels set by three scholars whose research interests are linked to technology enhanced learning. The focus of analysis is on the sample of videos each scholar uploaded and categorized as “education” in their YouTube channels. The data collected from the content analysis allows to understand what content is being shared and with what approach.

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Friesen, N. and Lowe, S. (2012), The questionable promise of social media for education: connective learning and the commercial imperative. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 28: 183–194

Facebook and other social media have been hailed as delivering the promise of new, socially engaged educational experiences for students in undergraduate, self-directed, and other educational sectors. A theoretical and historical analysis of these media in the light of earlier media transformations, however, helps to situate and qualify this promise. Specifically, the analysis of dominant social media presented here questions whether social media platforms satisfy a crucial component of learning – fostering the capacity for debate and disagreement.

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Alan Can (2012) An efficient and effective system for interactive student feedback using Google+ to enhance an institutional virtual learning environment, Leicester Research Archive

Experience shows that students (and academic staff) often struggle with feedback, which all too often fails to translate into feed-forward actions leading to educational gains. Problems get worse as student cohort sizes increase. By building on the well-established principle of separating marks from feedback and by using a social network approach to amplify peer discussion of assessed tasks, this paper describes an efficient system for interactive student feedback. Although the majority of students remain passive recipients in this system, they are still exposed to deeper reflection on assessed tasks than in traditional one-to-one feedback processes.

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John Mason (2011) Explicit and Implicit Pedagogy: variation theory as a case study,  Smith, C. (Ed.) Proceedings of the British Society for Research into Learning Mathematics 31(3) November 2011

Variation theory proposes that learners must experience variation in the critical aspects of a concept, within limited space and time, in order for the concept to be learnable. But the presence of variation does not in itself guarantee that that variation will be experienced. As Kant implied, a sequence of experiences does not guarantee an experience of that sequence. Implicit variation theory assumes that the presentation of variation is sufficient in order for learners to learn what is intended, whereas explicit variation theory incorporates some degree of explicitness in the interaction between teacher and student. The conjecture is proposed that tension between explicitness and implicitness is present in all attempts both to implement theories in practice and to justify or analyse pedagogical choices using theories, of whatever kind.

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Jones, Mellita M. and McLean, Karen J. (2012) “Personalising Learning in Teacher Education through the use of Technology,” Australian Journal of Teacher Education: Vol. 37: Iss. 1, Article 5.

This paper considers the components of personalising learning and describes one approach to creating a technology-infused learning environment that has been trialled in the tertiary sector. The key focus of this trial was the effective integration of technology as an enabler of personalising learning. Findings indicate that meaningful student learning experiences can be achieved through a personalised approach which also supports the emerging tenets of effective, pedagogical use of ICT for learning. These findings led to a model of Technology for Personalising Learning (TPL) which is presented as a planning framework through which personalising learning with technology can be achieved in higher education.

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Khoo, E., Johnson, E. M., & Zahra, A. (2012). I learnt a whole lot more than churning out an essay: Using online tools to support critical collaborative inquiry in a blended learning environment. Journal of Open, Flexible and Distance Learning, 16(1), [pp. 127–140].

This paper reports on a qualitative case study of a teacher and her students in a postgraduate Tourism course in New Zealand in which a learning management system, discussion forums, and wikis were used to facilitate student engagement and deeper learning of course content. Although the teacher was experienced in face-to-face teaching contexts, she was a novice in the design and delivery of online learning. However, she believed that technology could foster deeper and more meaningful critical collaborative inquiry among course participants and was keen to explore how this could be facilitated. Evaluative data were gathered from teacher interviews, student focus groups, and an online student survey. Findings indicate that the use of different online tools was effective for engaging students and helped them develop critical insights into key course concepts. However, careful planning and reflection on different pedagogical approaches were needed so that student learning could be supported in meaningful and relevant ways. Implications for supporting educators and students in blended, online learning in Tourism education are offered.

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Gerard Tulodziecki, Silke Grafe (2012) Approaches to Learning with Media and Media Literacy Education – Trends and Current Situation in Germany, The National Association for Media Literacy Education’s Journal of Media Literacy Education 4:1 (2012) 44 – 60

German approaches to media literacy education are concerned with the questions, how the variety of media can be used in a meaningful way for learning and teaching and what educational tasks result from the extensive use of media. Considering these questions there are various conceptual ideas, research and development projects as well as implementations into practice in the field of education and teacher training. The development and the current situation of approaches to media literacy education in Germany are described and discussed in the article. Thereby, the focus is on media literacy education in schools.

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Maryam Tayebinik, Dr. Marlia Puteh (2012) Mobile Learning to Support Teaching English as a Second Language,  Journal of Education and Practice, Vol 3, No 7, 2012

Technology utilization in distance education has demonstrated its significance in the transfer of knowledge for both the instructors and the learners. This is also made possible through the use of the Internet which helps change the traditional teaching approaches into more modern methods when integrated with the pedagogical instruction. Mobile devices together with other forms of technology-based tools in education have established their potential in language teaching. In this regards, the Teaching of English as a Second Language (TESL) has become easier and more attractive via mobile learning. The aim of this study is to review the mobile-based teaching and learning in the English language classroom. Such integration of mobile learning with English language teaching may offer great innovations in the pedagogical delivery.

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Terence W. Cavanaugh and Jerome Burg (2011) Bookmapping: Lit Trips and Beyond,  ISTE (International Society for Technology in Education)

With today’s technology and our students’ abilities, it is important to allow them to “construct content rather than just consuming it” (Milne, 2006, p. 11.2). One way to do this is to have students create their own bookmaps from their reading. By analyzing the texts they are reading to determine the locations for the story’s setting, students can then use that information to create placemarks on a digital map, adding to it comments, images, and quotations. Bookmapping, which brings together literature and web 2.0 mapping technology, can engage students in the books they read while giving them a better understanding of the setting, characters, and other story elements.

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Lance D. Nielsen (2011) A study of K‐12 music educators’ attitudes toward technology-assisted assessment tools, Presented to the Faculty of The Graduate College at the University of Nebraska In Partial Fulfillment of Requirements For the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

The purpose of this study was to examine K‐12 music educators’ attitudes regarding the use of technology in the assessment of music learning. There is a considerable range of musical behaviors with different levels of complexity that can be assessed (Boyle & Radocy, 1987). A variety of software and web‐based assessment tools are available for music educators. However, it is unclear how many teachers are taking advantage of incorporating these technological assessment tools into their instructional practice. This study provided current data about the demographics of teachers using technology to assess musical growth and the variables that might motivate a music teacher to use technology‐assisted assessment tools. A sample of 2,211 music educators, provided by MENC: The National Association of Music Education, was surveyed. The survey questions determined the number of teachers using technology‐assisted assessment tools and the types of assessment tools they use. The mean score from a series of belief statements suggested teachers’ attitudes towards assessment practices and technology was positive. However, it was discovered that specific school and teacher factors had a generally small influence on their perceptions of technology‐assisted assessment tools. It was evident that music teachers are utilizing technology for daily instruction more often than to assist with assessment strategies. The factors of time and resources are two important variables that affect teachers’ decisions regarding the use of technology for assessment in music settings.

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R. Morelli, T. de Lanerolle, P. Lake, N.Limardo, B. Tamotsu, C. Uche (2010) Can Android App Inventor Bring Computational Thinking to K-12?  Unpublished, September 2010.

App Inventor for Android is a new visual programming plat- form for creating mobile applications for Android-based smart phones. This paper reports on the summer component of an ongoing project aimed at addressing whether App Inven- tor would be a suitable platform for bringing computational thinking to K-12 students. The project brought together a team consisting of two high school CS teachers, two novice undergraduate computing students, a community outreach leader, and a college CS instructor. The students were eas- ily able to develop complex mobile apps completely on their own initiative. Overall, the team found App Inventor to be an accessible and powerful platform that could well support introductory level courses at the college and K-12 levels.

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Hector Gonzalez, Alon Y. Halevy, Christian S. Jensen, Anno Langen, Jayant Madhavan, Rebecca Shapley, Warren Shen, Jonathan Goldberg-Kidon (2010) Google Fusion Tables: Web-Centered Data Management and Collaboration,  SIGMOD’10, June 6–11

Google Fusion Tables represents an initial answer to the question of how data management functionality that focussed on enabling new users and applications would look in today’s computing environment. This paper characterizes such users and applications and highlights the resulting principles, such as seamless Web integration, emphasis on ease of use, and incentives for data sharing, that underlie the design of Fusion Tables. We describe key novel features, such as the sup- port for data acquisition, collaboration, visualization, and web-publishing.

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Katharyne Mitchell and Sarah Elwood (2012)  Engaging Students through Mapping Local History, Journal of Geography 111: 148–157

This article argues that the integration of local history and geography through collaborative digital mapping can lead to greater interest in civic participation by early adolescent learners. In the study, twenty-nine middle school students were asked to research, represent, and discuss local urban sites of historical significance on an interactive Web platform. As students learned more about local community events, people, and historical forces, they became increasingly engaged with the material and enthusiastic about making connections to larger issues and processes. In the final session, students expressed interest in participating in their own communities through joining nonprofit organizations and educating others about community history and daily life.

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Shafer, K. (2010). Prisms and Pyramids with Google SketchUp: A Classroom Activity. In D. Gibson & B. Dodge (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2010 (pp. 3505-3507)

Google SketchUp is a free program that was developed for the purpose of creating 3D models. SketchUp can be used to support student sense making through an inquiry approach. The authors first describe how elementary education majors were able to use specific tools in SketchUp to reconcile issues of perception when creating a prism and investigate the various dimensions within a given pyramid (height, slant heights(s) and edges).

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Gerhard Fischer (2009) Democratizing Design: New Challenges and Opportunities for Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, Center for LifeLong Learning and Design (L3D) University of Colorado Boulder

The fundamental challenge for the next generation of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) systems is to contribute to the invention, fostering and support of cultures of participation in which humans can express themselves and engage in personally meaningful activities. New models for knowledge creation, accumulation, and sharing are needed that allow, encourage, and support all participants to be active contributors in personally meaningful activities.

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Ibáñez, M. B., García, J. J., Galán, S., Maroto, D., Morillo, D., & Kloos, C. D. (2011). Design and Implementation of a 3D Multi- User Virtual World for Language Learning. Educational Technology & Society, 14 (4), 2–10.

The best way to learn is by having a good teacher and the best language learning takes place when the learner is immersed in an environment where the language is natively spoken. 3D multi-user virtual worlds have been claimed to be useful for learning, and the field of exploiting them for education is becoming more and more active thanks to the availability of open source 3D multi-user virtual world development tools. The research question we wanted to respond to was whether we could deploy an engaging learning experience to foster communication skills within a 3D multi-user virtual world with minimum teacher’s help. We base our instructional design on the combination of two constructivist learning strategies: situated learning and cooperative/collaborative learning. We extend the capabilities of the Open Wonderland development toolkit to provide natural text chatting with non-player characters, textual tagging of virtual objects, automatic reading of texts in learning sequences and the orchestration of learning activities to foster collaboration. Our preliminary evaluation of the experience deems it to be very promising.

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Cheryl Wright, Marissa Diener, Louise Dunn, Scott D. Wright (2011) SketchUp™: A Technology Tool to Facilitate Intergenerational Family Relationships for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal 01/2011

This study used a qualitative design to examine intergenerational relationships facilitated by an intervention employing Google SketchUp™, a freeware 3D design program. Seven high-functioning boys (ages 8–17) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) participated in computer workshops. The investigators capitalized on the boys’ strengths in visual–spatial skills. The interdisciplinary team structured the workshops to facilitate computer skill development as well as social interaction. Qualitative analysis involved thematic analysis of transcripts from focus groups with parents and grandparents. The two key themes that emerged were as follows: (i) reframing expectations (parental efficacy and creating a safe environment) and (ii) building intergenerational bridges among parents, children, siblings, and grandparents. These findings indicate that technology can build on the strengths of children with ASD and promote social engagement of the children with their families.

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Pea, R., Nass, C., Meheula, L., Rance, M., Kumar, A., Bamford, H., Nass, M., Simha, A., Stillerman, B., Yang, S., & Zhou, M. (2012). Media Use, Face-to-Face Communication, Media Multitasking, and Social Well-Being Among 8- to 12-Year-Old Girls. Developmental Psychology. Advance online publication.

An online survey of 3,461 North American girls ages 8–12 conducted in the summer of 2010 through Discovery Girls magazine examined the relationships between social well-being and young girls’ media use—including video, video games, music listening, reading/homework, e-mailing/posting on social media sites, texting/instant messaging, and talking on phones/video chatting—and face-to-face communication. This study introduced both a more granular measure of media multitasking and a new comparative measure of media use versus time spent in face-to-face communication. Regression analyses indicated that negative social well-being was positively associated with levels of uses of media that are centrally about interpersonal interaction (e.g., phone, online communication) as well as uses of media that are not (e.g., video, music, and reading). Video use was particularly strongly associated with negative social well-being indicators. Media multitasking was also associated with negative social indicators. Conversely, face-to-face communication was strongly associated with positive social well-being. Cell phone ownership and having a television or computer in one’s room had little direct association with children’s socioemotional well-being. We hypothesize possible causes for these relationships, call for research designs to address causality, and outline possible implications of such findings for the social well-being of younger adolescents.

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Reynol Junco (2011) Too much face and not enough books: The relationship between multiple indices of Facebook use and academic performance,  Computers in Human Behavior

Because of the social media platform’s widespread adoption by college students, there is a great deal of interest in how Facebook use is related to academic performance. A small number of prior studies have examined the relationship between Facebook use and college grade point average (GPA); however, these studies have been limited by their measures, sampling designs and failure to include prior academic ability as a control variable. For instance, previous studies used non-continuous measures of time spent on Facebook and self-reported GPA. This paper fills a gap in the literature by using a large sample (N = 1839) of college students to examine the relationship among multiple measures of frequency of Facebook use, participation in Facebook activities, and time spent preparing for class and actual overall GPA. Hierarchical (blocked) linear regression analyses revealed that time spent on Facebook was strongly and significantly negatively related to overall GPA, while only weakly related to time spent preparing for class. Furthermore, using Facebook for collecting and sharing information was positively predictive of the outcome variables while using Facebook for socializing was negatively predictive.

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Reynol Junco, Shelia R. Cotten (2011) The relationship between multitasking and academic performance, Computers & Education 59 (2012) 505–514

The proliferation and ease of access to information and communication technologies (ICTs) such as Facebook, text messaging, and instant messaging has resulted in ICT users being presented with more real-time streaming data than ever before. Unfortunately, this has also resulted in individuals increasingly engaging in multitasking as an information management strategy. The purpose of this study was to examine how college students multitask with ICTs and to determine the impacts of this multitasking on their college grade point average (GPA). Using web survey data from a large sample of college students at one university (N 1⁄4 1839), we found that students reported spending a large amount of time using ICTs on a daily basis. Students reported frequently searching for content not related to courses, using Face- book, emailing, talking on their cell phones, and texting while doing schoolwork. Hierarchical (blocked) linear regression analyses revealed that using Facebook and texting while doing schoolwork were negatively associated with overall college GPA. Engaging in Facebook use or texting while trying to complete schoolwork may tax students’ capacity for cognitive processing and preclude deeper learning. Our research indicates that the type and purpose of ICT use matters in terms of the educational impacts of multitasking.

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Alan C. K. Cheung,  Robert E. Slavin (2011) The Effectiveness of Education Technology for Enhancing Reading Achievement: A Meta-Analysis, The Best Evidence Encyclopedia,  Johns Hopkins University School of Education’s Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (CDDRE)

The present review examines research on the effects of technology use on reading achievement in K-12 classrooms. Unlike previous reviews, this review applies consistent inclusion standards to focus on studies that met high methodological standards. In addition, methodological and substantive features of the studies are investigated to examine the relationship between education technology and study features. A total of 85 qualified studies based on over 60,000 K-12 participants were included in the final analysis. Consistent with previous reviews of similar focus, the findings suggest that education technology generally produced a positive, though small, effect (ES=+0.16) in comparison to traditional methods. However, the effects may vary by education technology type. In particular, the types of supplementary computer-assisted instruction programs that have dominated the classroom use of education technology in the past few decades are not producing educationally meaningful effects in reading for K-12 students. In contrast, innovative technology applications and integrated literacy interventions with the support of extensive professional development showed somewhat promising evidence. However, too few randomized studies for these promising approaches are available at this point for firm conclusions.

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Milada Krejci, Kai Wada, Miyo Nakade, Hitomi Takeuchi, Teruki Noji, Tetsuo Harada  (2011)  Effects of Video Game Playing on the Circadian Typology and Mental Health of Young Czech and Japanese Children, Psychology 2011. Vol.2, No.7, 674-680

The objective of this study is to examine the effects of video game playing on sleep-wake cycles and mental health of young Czech and Japan children. A cross-sectional survey with 497 Czech children (240 girls, 257 boys; mean age of 4.60 years; 49 ̊ – 51 ̊N) and 599 Japanese children (314 girls, 285 boys: 3.79 years; 33 ̊N) from 20 kindergartens and nursery schools. Habitual video game playing in the evening may make children more evening-typed and it may also be speculated to make them more aggressive in both countries.

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Gail Arakaki (2011)  The Use of Websites as an Aid in Differentiating Instruction, TCC Worldwide Online ConferenceEmerging Technologies: Making it Work 

In a typical heterogeneous elementary school classroom, one might find highly motivated students, struggling readers, those reading two levels above grade level, unmotivated students, and students with behavior problems. Teachers are faced with the challenge of teaching these students the skills necessary to be successful 21st Century students as well as motivating them to attain proficiency. In order to provide effective instruction for all, many teachers have turned to differentiated instruction (DI). In differentiated instruction, student differences form the basis of planning and many instructional strategies are employed. This study focused on the development and evaluation of a class website to facilitate differentiation of instruction in a science lesson, and its potential use as a tool to increase instructional time and address all learners. Research results indicated the use of a class website can be a valuable tool for teachers to use in providing differentiated instruction. A class website was successfully utilized to disseminate information and assignment directions, as well as provide instruction, scaffolding, and additional resources to nine second grade students, based on their level of readiness. Further research is necessary to determine if its use results in an increase in instructional time.

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Berret, B., Murphy, J., & Sullivan, J. (2012). Administrator insights and reflections: Technology integration in schools. The Qualitative Report, 17(1), 200-221.

There are numerous technology tools that educators utilize to support student learning. Often, technology is mandated from the top down with school administrators’ responsible for overseeing the implementation. Innovative technological approaches to learning often meet resistance within schools. The pervasive culture in education is counteractive to technology integration, which may be useful to pedagogy and in the long run may help students deal with the ever growing level of technology present in today’s society. Characteristics are identified at two out of four schools as a way of assessing the progress of technology integration and locating individuals who will help move the process forward. This knowledge, combined with competent leadership, makes the difference between success and failure of an innovation implementation.

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Christoph Klimmt, Hannah Schmid, Andreas Nosper, Tilo Hartmann, Peter Vorderer (2006) How players manage moral concerns to make video game violence enjoyable, Communications Volume: 31, Issue: 3, Publisher: De Gruyter, Pages: 309-328

Research on video game violence has focused on the impact of aggression, but has so far neglected the processes and mechanisms underlying the enjoyment of video game violence. The present contribution examines a specific process in this context, namely players strategies to cope with moral concern that would (in real-life settings) arise from violent actions. Based on Banduras (2002) theory of moral disengagement, we argue that in order to maintain their enjoyment of game violence, players find effective strategies to avoid or cope with the moral conflict related to their violent behaviors in the game world (moral management). Exploratory interviews with ten players of violent video games revealed some relevance of moral reasoning to their game enjoyment, and several strategies that help players to manage moral concern. Most importantly, respondents referred to the game-reality distinction and their focus on winning the game when explaining how violent action is a by-product of good performance. Findings are discussed in light of further theorizing on moral management and potential links to the media violence debate.

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Melanie Lolli (2012) The Views of High School Geometry Teachers regarding the Effect of Technology on Student Learning, Honors Thesis Final Project, Ohio Dominican University

The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics claims that technology is necessary to student learning in math and, in fact, enhances it. There are some studies to support this claim, but these studies leave some unanswered questions. The purpose of this study was to find out from current high school math teachers, of geometry specifically, what their views of technology are. The goal of the study was to ask these teachers which technologies they use and whether they believe technology has beneficial effects on student learning. This study did find a consensus among the participants as to which technologies they felt were the most beneficial in their classrooms, as well as those that might not be needed at all in a classroom.

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Kanai, R., Dong, M. Y., Baharami, B. & Rees, G. (2011) Distractibility in daily life is reflected in the structure and function of human parietal cortex. J. Neurosci. 31, 6620 – 6626.

Inter-individual variability in perception, thought and action is frequently treated as a source of ‘noise’ in scientific investigations of the neural mechanisms that underlie these processes, and discarded by averaging data from a group of participants. However, recent MRI studies in the human brain show that inter- individual variability in a wide range of basic and higher cognitive functions — including perception, motor control, memory, aspects of consciousness and the ability to introspect — can be predicted from the local structure of grey and white matter as assessed by voxel-based morphometry or diffusion tensor imaging. We propose that inter-individual differences can be used as a source of information to link human behaviour and cognition to brain anatomy.

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Sarah Kaplana, Mary Tripsas (2008) Thinking about technology: Applying a cognitive lens to technical change, Research Policy 37 (2008) 790–805

We apply a cognitive lens to understanding technology trajectories across the life cycle by developing a co-evolutionary model of technological frames and technology. Applying that model to each stage of the technology life cycle, we identify conditions under which a cognitive lens might change the expected technological outcome predicted by purely economic or organizational models. We also show that interactions of producers, users and institutions shape the development of collective frames around the meaning of new technologies. We thus deepen our understanding of sources of variation in the era of ferment, conditions under which a dominant design may be achieved, the underlying architecture of the era of incremental change and the dynamics associated with discontinuities.

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Adrienne J. Gauthier (2007) Astronomy in Second Life: A User’s Perspective,  CAP Vol. 1, No. 1, October 2007

Second Life (SL) is a multi-user virtual environment that is not limited to adult social entertainment. SL is also a 3D playground for innovative instructors and education/outreach professionals in the sciences. Astronomy and space science have a presence in SL, but it could be so much more. This paper describes some of the current astronomy themed spaces in SL and briefly discusses future innovations.

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Sorensen, Charlene; Dahl, Candice (2008) Google in the research and teaching of instruction librarians, Journal of Academic Librarianship v.34, no.6, 482-488

This exploratory study assesses the differences and similarities between how instruction librarians in Western Canada use Google and how they instruct students to use it. Survey results indicate that these librarians do use Google but can be influenced by faculty to present Google negatively to students.

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Angel del Blanco, Javier Torrente, Pablo Moreno-Ger, Baltasar Fernández-Manjón (2011) Enhancing Adaptive Learning and Assessment in Virtual Learning Environments with Educational Games, Intelligent Learning Systems and Advancements in Computer-Aided Instruction: Emerging Studies

The rising acceptance of Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) in the e- Learning field poses new challenges such as producing student-centered courses which can be automatically tailored to each student’s needs. For this purpose digital games can be used, taking advantage of their flexibility (good video games always try to adapt to different players) and capabilities to stealthily track players’ activity, either for producing an accurate user model or enhancing the overall assessment capabilities of the system. In this chapter we discuss the integration of digital games in Virtual Learning Environments and the need of standards that allow the interoperable communication of games and VLE. We also present a middle-ware architecture to integrate video games in VLEs that addresses the technical barriers posed by the integration. We present a case study with the implementation of the architecture in the <e-Adventure> game authoring platform, along with three examples of video game integration in educational settings.

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Y. Connie Yuan (2011) Social Capital and Transactive Memory Systems in Workgroups: A Multilevel Approach, Cornell UniversityDepartment of Communication, Best Papers Proceedings of the Sixty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management

A multilevel, multi-theoretical model of transactive memory was developed by integrating the mergence model with social capital theories. Empirical tests showed that individual social capital significantly impacted the development of the micro-level component of transitive memories, but collective social capital did not significantly influence the development of macro-level transitive memories.

Mahon O‟Brien (2011) The Future of Humanity: Heidegger, Personhood and Technology, Comparative Philosophy Volume 2, No. 2 (2011): 23-49

This paper argues that a number of entrenched posthumanist positions are seriously flawed as a result of their dependence on a technical interpretive approach that creates more problems than it solves. During the course of our discussion we consider in particular the question of personhood. After all, until we can determine what it means to be a person we cannot really discuss what it means to improve a person. What kinds of enhancements would even constitute improvements? This in turn leads to an examination of the technical model of analysis and the recurring tendency to approach notions like personhood using this technical model. In looking to sketch a Heideggerian account of personhood, we are reaffirming what we take to be a Platonic skepticism concerning technical models of inquiry when it comes to certain subjects. Finally we examine the question as to whether the posthumanist looks to apply technology‟s benefits in ways that we have reflectively determined to be useful or desirable or whether it is technology itself (or to speak as Heidegger would – the “essence” of technology) which prompts many posthumanists to rely on an excessively reductionist view of the human being.

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Debbie Beaudry (2011) Technology and Fifth Grade Teaching: a Study of Teacher Reported Classroom Practice, Professional Development, Access, and Support, A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the College of Education in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Florida Atlantic University Boca Raton, FL December 2011

This mixed methods study investigated 5th-grade teachers’ reported use of computer technology and variables that have been identified by researchers as affecting teachers’ use of technology, including professional development activities, physical access to computer technology, and technical and instructional support provided for teachers. Quantitative data were collected from 80 5th-grade teachers from a Florida public school district through an online survey in which teachers reported how frequently they used and had their students use computer technology for 27 different purposes. The teachers also reported the amount of emphasis those 27 different topics received during their technology-related professional development experiences, the number of hours they participated in technology-related professional development, the number of months they participating in a technology coaching/mentoring program, the access their students had to computers in the classroom and in a one-to-one computing environment, and the frequency that they received technical and instructional support. Information from the school district’s technology plan provided a context for the study.

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Gloria J. Leckie, John E. Buschman (2009) Information technology in librarianship : new critical approaches, Libraries Unlimited

In the last 15 years, the ground – both in terms of technological advance and in the sophistication of analyses of technology – has shifted. At the same time, librarianship as a field has adopted a more skeptical perspective; libraries are feeling market pressure to adopt and use new innovations; and their librarians boast a greater awareness of the socio-cultural, economic, and ethical considerations of information and communications technologies. Within such a context, a fresh and critical analysis of the foundations and applications of technology in librarianship is long overdue.

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Jones, Chris and Sclater, Niall (2010). Learning in an age of digital networks. International Preserva- tion News, 55 pp. 6–10.

The final years of the twentieth century and early years of the twenty first century have been marked by the rapid rise of digital and networked technologies. Some have even called it a paradigm shift and suggested that it will lead to a dramatic change in the way young people learn (Tapscott and Williams 2010). As with all commentary on new technologies we should beware of being carried away with the excitement of the new. There is a recurrent innovation cycle beginning with over excitement followed by disappointment and once the reaction has set in against the new it is followed a move away to yet another new technology, often before a proper assessment and evaluation of the previous cycle can take place. Equally we must be careful not to ignore the profound changes that are taking place and how they may affect universities and learning in society more generally.

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Price, Linda and Kirkwood, Adrian (2011). Enhancing professional learning and teaching through technology: a synthesis of evidence-based practice among teachers in higher education. Higher Education Academy, York, UK.

Technology has the potential effectively to support learning and teaching in a number of situations. However, the manner in which the technology was used and aligned with the goals and aspirations of the learner was an important consideration. Practitioners do not appear to be capitalising on existing evidence. More emphasis appears to be placed on generating new evidence rather than evidence driving new practices. Teachers’ beliefs and practices are influential in determining how they engage with technology. The context of both the student and the teacher is also influential in determining the successfulness of learning and teaching practices with technology. Academic developers have key roles in supporting practitioners in engaging with relevant evidence while also supporting the development of their beliefs and practices concerning learning and teaching with technology. Policy makers have key roles in determining the integration of technology, as they influence the culture within which practitioners operate and hence their actions.

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Whitelock, Denise; Gilbert, Lester and Gale, Veronica (2011). Technology Enhanced Assessment and Feedback: How is evidence-based literature informing practice? In: 2011 International Computer Assisted Assessment (CAA) Conference, Research into e-Assessment, 05-06 July 2011, Southampton.

This desktop research commissioned by the Higher Education Academy set out to consult with the academic community about which references on assessment and feedback with technology enhancement were most useful to practitioners. While all the recommended publications may be characterised as reputable and the majority were peer-reviewed (67.7%), only a minority provided quantitative data (28.2%), of which relatively few provided appropriate experimental designs or statistical analysis (18.5%). The majority of publications were practitioner-led case studies. The references that were recommended to us are clearly having an impact on current practice and are found valuable by practitioners. The key messages from these sources are consistent and often give detailed and practical guidance for other academics. We found that most of the recommended literature focused on the goals that technology enhancement can enable assessment and feedback to meet and how assessment and feedback can be designed to make best use of the technology.

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Kirkup, Gill (2010). Academic blogging, academic practice and academic identity. London Review of Education, 8(1), pp. 75–84.

This paper describes a small scale study which investigates the role of blogging in professional academic practice in higher education. It draws on interviews with a small sample of academics (scholars, researchers and teachers) who have blogs and on the author’s own reflections on blogging to investigate the professional benefits and costs of academic blogging. It argues that blogging offers a new genre of authoritative and accessible academic textual production, and in this way is changing the nature of what it is to be a twenty first century academic practitioner.

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Jared Keengwe, Gary Schnellert, Chris Mills (2012) Laptop initiative: Impact on instructional technology integration and student learning,  EDUCATION AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES Volume 17, Number 2 (2012), 137-146,

The purpose of this study was to examine how 1:1 laptop initiative affected student learning at a selected rural Midwestern high school. A total of 105 high school students enrolled in 10th–12th grades during the 2008–2009 school year participated in the study. A survey instrument created by the Mitchell Institute was modified and used to collect data on student perceptions and faculty perceptions of the impact of 1:1 laptop computing on student learning and instructional integration of technology in education. Study findings suggest that integration of 1:1 laptop computing positively impacts student academic engagement and student learning. Therefore, there is need for teachers to implement appropriate computing practices to enhance student learning. Additionally, teachers need to collaborate with their students to learn and understand various instructional technology applications beyond basic Internet browsing and word processing.

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Alevizou, Panagiota; Galley, Rebecca and Conole, Grainne (2012). Collectivity, performance and self- representation: analysing Cloudworks as a public space for networked learning and reflection. In: Dirckinck- Holmfeld, Lone; Hodgson, Vivien and McConnell, David eds. Exploring the Theory, Pedagogy and Practice of Networked Learning. New York: Springer, pp. 75–97.

It has been argued that processes of participatory culture, afforded by social media and technologies blur the boundaries between creative production and consumption, and open up novel, public spaces for, and styles of, networked learning; social spaces that promote collaborative knowledge building, and shared assets. However, empirical evidence on the application of such technologies for supporting teaching and learning in higher education contexts is only slowly emerging. The chapter explores these concepts in the context of analysis of emergent patterns of behaviour and activity in Cloudworks, a specialised networking site, and a public space for aggregating and sharing resources and exchanging ideas about the scholarship and practice of education, with particular emphasis on the relationship between ICTs and teaching and learning. Combining notions of self-representation and collective intelligence with dimensions of expansive learning, activity patterns, performance and expression within the site are analysed. The chapter contextualises findings through a critical lens and offers insights that can shape the future research agenda for productive learning in networked environments.

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M. Oliver (2011) Technological determinism in educational technology research: some alternative ways of thinking about the relationship between learning and technology, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning (2011), 27, 373–384

This paper argues that research on the educational uses of technology frequently overemphasizes the influence of technology. Research in the field is considered a form of critical perspective, and assumptions about technology are questioned. Technological determinism is introduced, and different positions on this concept are identified. These are used to discuss the ways in which work within the field might be described as technologically deterministic. Four theoretical perspectives (activity theory, communities of practice, actor–network theory, and the social construction of technology) are then briefly characterized, demonstrating that alternative positions are viable, and positioning each in relation to the earlier discussion of technological determinism. The paper concludes by arguing that research, building on such alternative conceptions of technology, is important in developing our understanding of the relationship between technology and learning, as well as identifying potential methodological implications.

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Lowrie, Tom, Diezmann, Carmel M., & Logan , Tracy (2011) Primary students’ performance on map tasks : the role of context. In Ubuz, Behiye (Ed.) Proceedings of the 35th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education: Developing Mathematical Thinking, PME, Cultural and Convention Center, Ankara, pp. 145-152.

Being numerate in today’s society requires increased demands on our capacity to represent, manipulate and decode information in various graphical forms (e.g., graphs, maps). New technologies allow data to be transformed into detailed and dynamic graphic displays (e.g., Google Earth) with increased complexity (and detail), and consequently, there is greater need for students to become proficient in decoding maps. At the same time, the tasks students are required to solve are becoming more authentic and realistic. The purpose of this paper is to  investigate the effect that students’ lived experiences (in terms of geographic locality) have on their ability to decode maps.

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Diana van Walsum (2012) Learning with and through technology in primary school: Creating a movie of my own hero’s quest myth, Centre for Information Technology in Education, Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong

A lesson plan incorporating a sequence of technology-supported activities was developed to enable primary school students aged ten to eleven to learn how to create a narrative based on narrative conventions as part of their literacy curriculum. Links to web- based learning tools and descriptions of related learning strategies were included for each activity. Use of technology was planned with the goal of enhancing the quality of student learning, in particular the stimulation of higher-level thinking skills. The use of technology in each activity is justified based on relevant learning theories and key literature, in particular the theory of collaborative knowledge building. Strategies for evaluation of the successful integration of technology in the activities are proposed.

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J. Cohen (2012) The Potential of Google+ as a Media Literacy Tool, Journal of Media Literacy Education 4:1 (2012) 93 – 96

Utilizing Google+ as a media literacy tool means understanding its use as an access point to analyze messages to engage critical thinking about everyday issue people face. Google+ combines the elements of long-form posts, following others, reposting, video and images sharing in one social network. The following is a discussion of how to utilize the features available on Google+ to benefit media literacy.

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Justin Beneke, Grant Silverstone, Alastair Woods, Greg Schneider (2011) The influence of the youth on their parents’ purchasing decisions of high-technology products,  African Journal of Business Management Vol.5 (10), pp. 3807-3812, 18 May 2011

This paper examines the influence of children’s choices on parents’ purchasing decisions of high- technology products. Various demographic variables such as age, gender, race, family size and family type were considered to assess the significant impact of the magnitude of a child’s influence on his/her parent’s purchasing decisions during the ‘initiation’ and ‘search and decision’ phases. The study was conducted using two samples (youth and parent respondents) for each of the aforementioned phases. It was found that during the ‘initiation’ stage, the youth sample perceived gender and family structure to significantly affect the magnitude of influence that children wield over their parents when purchasing high-technology products. The sample from the parents group perceived gender, family structure and family type to significantly affect the magnitude of a child’s influence in this respect. Furthermore, during the ‘search and decision’ stage, the youth sample perceived gender, race, family type, child’s age, average age and family size to affect the magnitude of influence that children wield over their parents when purchasing high-technology products. Finally, the parent sample perceived race, income, family type, child’s age, average age and family size to significantly affect the magnitude of a child’s influence in this context.

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Mallan, Kerry M. and Foth, Marcus and Greenaway, Ruth and Young, Greg T. (2010) Serious playground : using Second Life to engage high school students in urban planning. Journal of Learning, Media and Technology, 35(2).

Virtual world platforms such as Second Life have been successfully used in educational contexts to motivate and engage learners. This article reports on an exploratory workshop involving a group of high school students using Second Life for an urban planning project. Young people are traditionally an under-represented demographic when it comes to participating in urban planning and decision making processes. The research team developed activities that combined technology with a constructivist approach to learning. Real world experiences and purposes ensured that the workshop enabled students to see the relevance of their learning. Our design also ensured that play remained an important part of the learning. By conceiving of the workshop as a ‘serious playground’ we investigated the ludic potential of learning in a virtual world.

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Walker, A; Recker, M; Ye, L; Robertshaw, B; Sellers, L; and Leary, H. (2012) Comparing Technology-Related Teacher Professional Development Designs: a Multilevel Study of Teacher and Student Impacts, The Instructional Architect Research Group. Paper 6.

This article presents a quasi-experimental study comparing the impact of two technology-related teacher professional development (TTPD) designs, aimed at helping junior high school science and mathematics teachers design online activities using the rapidly growing set of online learning resources available on the Internet. The first TTPD design (tech-only) focused exclusively on enhancing technology knowledge and skills for finding, selecting, and designing classroom activities with online resources, while the second (tech+pbl) coupled technology knowledge with learning to design problem-based learning (PBL) activities for students. Both designs showed large pre-post gains for teacher participants (N=36) in terms of self-reported knowledge, skills, and technology integration. Significant interaction effects show that teachers in the tech+pbl group had larger gains for self-reported knowledge and externally rated use of PBL. Three generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were fit to study the impact on students’ (N=1,247) self reported gains in behavior, knowledge, and attitudes. In the resulting models, students of tech+pbl teachers showed significant increases in gain scores for all three outcomes. By contrast, students of tech-only teachers showed improved gains only in attitudes.

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Veli Toptas, Serkan Ceclik, E. Tugce Karaca (2012) Improving 8th grades spatial thinking abilities through a 3D modeling program,  TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology – April 2012, volume 11 Issue 2

Implementation of emerging technology in sub disciplines of mathematics education provides a potential for educators to elaborate the capacity of digitized learning for human being. Spatial thinking is considered as a factor of scientific deduction from a multi disciplinary point of view. This paper reports a study aimed at exploring the effect of a 3D Modeling program on the spatial ability of the 8th grade students through an experimental research design. The study also focuses on the relation between the gender difference and spatial thinking. The study population was consisted of 82 8th grade students and divided into the control group (n=40) and the treatment group (n=42). The data in the study were collected through a qualitative research method. According to the findings of the research, the success rate of post test increased after the application in terms of differential aptitude, mental rotation and spatial visualization. On the other hand, irrespective of the relevant literature, female pupils were observed as better performers comparing to the males on post application of the measurement instruments.

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Michael Gardner, Adela Ganem-Gutierrez, John Scott, Bernard Horan and Vic Callaghan (2011) Immersive Education Spaces Using Open Wonderland: From Pedagogy Through to Practice , Published as chapter in IGI Global book ““Multi-User Virtual Environments for the Classroom: Practical Approaches to Teaching in Virtual Worlds”, 2011

This chapter presents a case study of the use of a Virtual World environment in UK Higher Education. It reports on the activities carried out as part of the SIMiLLE (System for an Immersive and Mixed reality Language Learning) project to create a culturally sensitive virtual world to support language learning (funded by the UK government JISC programme). The project built on an earlier project called MiRTLE, which created a mixed-reality space for teaching and learning. The aim of the SIMiLLE project was to investigate the technical feasibility and pedagogical value of using virtual environments to provide a realistic socio- cultural setting for language learning interaction. The chapter begins by providing some background information on the Wonderland platform and the MiRTLE project, and then outlines the requirements for SIMiLLE, and how these requirements were supported through the use of a virtual world based on the Open Wonderland virtual world platform. We then present the framework used for the evaluation of the system, with a particular focus on the importance of incorporating pedagogy into the design of these systems, and how we can support good practice with the ever-growing use of 3D virtual environments in formalised education. Finally we summarise the results from the formative and summative evaluations, and present the lessons learnt which can help inform future uses of immersive education spaces within Higher Education.

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Jenny Tanaka (2012) How do second graders perceive blogging? Scholarly communication: An action research study. Powerpoint presented at the 17th Annual Technology, Colleges, and Community Worldwide Online Conference.

An action research study was conducted at a public elementary school in Hawaii, where second grade students’ perceptions of blogging for the first-time were gathered. Prior to the implementation period, students were introduced to basic computer skills that are necessary for blogging. Field notes and observations, daily reflection, a small group interview, and a post survey were used to collect data. Results revealed that students were very receptive and positive toward blogs. In fact, although blogging was not required outside of class time, some were blogging at home and even on vacation in another state and country. The students were not afraid to share their work, which portrayed a sense of authorship and ownership of their work, rather than apprehensiveness. However, some students encountered challenges with some basic computer skills, such as keyboarding and computer navigation. Despite some setbacks, this action research project yielded valuable feedback that could help the researcher and other educators to integrate blogging throughout many content areas.

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Fabrizio Logiurato (2011) Teaching Waves with Google Earth, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita` di Trento INO-CNR BEC Center and Physics Department, Trento University, I-38123 Povo, Italy

Google Earth is a huge source of interesting illustrations of various natural phenomena. It can represent a valuable tool for science education, not only for teaching geography and geology, but also physics. Here we suggest that Google Earth can be used for introducing in an attractive way the physics of waves.

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Mark A. Ertl (2007) The Effects of Initial Touch Keyboarding Speed Achievement of Fifth Graders and Touch Keyboarding Skill Retention in Seventh Grade , A Paper Presented to the Faculty of Viterbo University In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Arts in Education

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of initial touch speed achievement of fifth grade keyboarding students on their touch keyboarding skill retention in seventh grade. The conclusion that can be drawn from this study is students keying 20 or more words per minute by touch were more likely to retain their skill 2 years later than students who initially keyed less than 20 words per minute by touch. Students who keyed less than 20 words and stated they had 2 or less hours of computer usage a week were highly unlikely to retain their keyboarding skill 2 years later. An implication of the findings is the importance of developing initial touch skill level above 20 words a minute. If the question were posed as to how long a training program should be this researcher would answer, “One that allows students to acquire a touch skill level of 20 words a minute or better.”

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Taylor, A. (2012) “A study of the information search behaviour of the millennial generation” Information Research17(1) paper 508

Statistically significant findings suggest that millennial generation Web searchers proceed erratically through an information search process, make only a limited attempt to evaluate the quality or validity of information gathered, and may perform some level of ‘backfilling’ or adding sources to a research project before final submission of the work. These findings indicate that the search behaviour of millennial generation searchers may be problematic. Existing search models are appropriate; it is the execution of the model by the searcher within the context of the search environment that is at issue.

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Mandy Lupton (2008) Information Literacy and Learning, PhD thesis, Queensland University of Technology.

This thesis explores the relationship between information literacy and learning. In formal education, students are frequently required to independently find and use information to learn about a topic, and information literacy is often claimed to be a generic skill and graduate attribute. However, to date; the experienced relationship between information literacy and learning has not been investigated. My primary research question was ‘What is the experienced relationship between information literacy and learning?’ The secondary research question was “What are the generic and situated aspects of information literacy?’

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Laura Brandimarte, Alessandro Acquisti, George Loewenstein (2010) Misplaced Confidences: Privacy and the Control Paradox, In: Ninth Annual Workshop on the Economics of Information Security (WEIS) June 7-8 2010 Harvard University, Cambridge, MA

We introduce and test the hypothesis that increasing perceived control over the release of private information will decrease individuals’ concern about privacy and increase their propensity to disclose sensitive information, even when the objective risks associated with such disclosures do not change or worsen. Three online experiments manipulated participants’ control over information release, but not over access and usage by others. The experiments show paradoxical effects whereby increased (decreased) control over the release of private information increases (decreases) willingness to publish sensitive information, even when the probability that strangers will access that information stays the same or increases (decreases). Our findings highlight how technologies that make individuals feel more in control over the release of personal information may have the unintended consequence of eliciting greater disclosure of sensitive information.

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Somerville, M.M.& Howard,Z. (2010) Information in context: Co- designing workplace structures and systems for organizational learning. Information Research, 15(4).

This paper discusses an ‘information in context’ design project at Auraria Library in Denver, Colorado which aims to collaboratively create organizational structures and communication systems with and for library employees. This project resulted in several of the co-designed knowledge initiatives being implemented within Auraria Library to enhance communication, decision making and planning systems. These included both face to face and technology enabled initiatives such as such as ‘brown bag’ lunches to a new wiki based intranet system. This project advances professional practice through better understanding how to create workplace contexts that cultivate individual and collective learning through situated ‘information in context’ experiences. An appreciative framework was developed which values information sharing and enables knowledge creation through shared leadership.

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Bruce, Christine S., Hughes, Hilary E., & Somerville, Mary M. (2012) Supporting informed learners in the 21st century. Library Trends, 60(3), pp. 522-545.

The idea of informed learning represents and advances understandings of information literacy that incorporate the broader concept of using information to learn: those understandings that go beyond the functional or generic information literacy paradigm and draw attention to the transformational, situated and critical aspects of information literacy. Using information to learn is a natural, but often implicit part of all formal and informal learning environments, and is a vital component of the lifelong learning agendas of many nations worldwide. Supporting informed learning requires conscious attention to the use of information in the learning process, by educators, managers, trainers, and policy makers in all sectors. It requires a far reaching response to policy directions involving a wide range of stakeholders.

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Slava Kalyuga (2009) Knowledge elaboration: A cognitive load perspective, Learning and Instruction 19 (2009) 402-410

The process of knowledge elaboration is considered from the perspective of cognitive load theory. This theory assumes that the availableknowledge structures in long-term memory (LTM) are used to organize and guide cognitive processing in complex learning. Accordingly, therole of external instructional guidance in the process of knowledge elaboration could be described as providing a substitute for knowledgestructures missing from LTM. Thus, the executive guidance in complex learning environments is shared between the person (based on his/herLTM knowledge structures) and another expert or instructional means. This article analyzes instructional implications of this assumption.Adaptive learning environments are suggested for tailoring knowledge elaboration processes to changing characteristics of individual learners.Means for identifying and predicting the learner’s LTM-based executive guidance are proposed so that they can be utilized in the building of adaptive learning environments.

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Slava Kalyuga, Paul Chandler, John Sweller (2004Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Fall 2004 vol. 46 no. 3 567-581

It is frequently assumed that presenting the same material in written and spoken form benefits learning and understanding. The present work provides a theoretical justification based on cognitive load theory, and empirical evidence based on controlled experiments, that this assumption can be incorrect. From a theoretical perspective, it is suggested that if learners are required to coordinate and simultaneously process redundant material such as written and spoken text, an excessive working memory load is generated. Three experiments involving a group of 25 technical apprentices compared the effects of simultaneously presenting the same written and auditory textual information as opposed to either temporally separating the two modes or eliminating one of the modes. The first two experiments demonstrated that nonconcurrent presentation of auditory and visual explanations of a diagram proved superior, in terms of ratings of mental load and test scores, to a concurrent presentation of the same explanations when instruction time was constrained. The 3rd experiment demonstrated that a concurrent presentation of identical auditory and visual technical text (without the presence of diagrams) was significantly less efficient in comparison with an auditory-only text. Actual or potential applications of this research include the design and evaluation of multimedia instructional systems and audiovisual displays.

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Paschalina (Lilia) Ziamou, Stephen Gould, Alladi Venkatesh (2010) “Am I Getting It or Not?” The Practices Involved in “Trying to Consume” a New Technology, Journal of Product Innovation Management, Volume 29, Issue 2, pages 216–228, March 2012

In recent years, high rates of failure of technology-based products have spurred interest in understanding the psychological and sociological barriers to consumer learning of technological innovations. We conducted a real-time study of consumers’ initial interactions with a new technology using verbal protocols in order to understand consumers’ learning experience. We identified three major factors that hinder the consumer’s learning process: (a) interface and functionality practices, (b) social influence, and (3) causal attributions. The results show how each factor hinders the learning process and suggest how managers can influence consumer learning of technological innovations.

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Maureen Walsh (2010) Multimodal literacy: What does it mean for classroom practice?, Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, Vol. 33, No. 3, 2010, pp. 211–239

Changes to literacy pedagogy are gradually occurring in classrooms in response to contemporary communication and learning contexts. These changes are diverse as teachers and educational researchers attempt to design new pedagogy to respond to the potential of digital technologies within existing curriculum and assessment policies. This paper discusses evidence from recent classroom research where 16 teachers worked in teams in nine primary school classrooms to develop new ways of embedding technology for literacy learning. Data from the nine case studies provides evidence that teachers can combine the teaching of print-based literacy with digital communications technology across a range of curriculum areas. Findings from this research confirm that literacy needs to be redefined within current curriculum contexts, particularly in light of the emergence of a national curriculum. New descriptors of language and literacy criteria are proposed within the framework of multimodal literacy, the literacy that is needed in contemporary times for reading, viewing, responding to and producing multimodal and digital texts.

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Joanne O’Mara, Linda Laidlaw (2011) Living in the iworld: Two literacy researchers reflect on the changing texts and literacy practices of childhood, English Teaching: Practice and Critique, December, 2011, Volume 10, Number 4,  pp. 149-159

Within the article we demonstrate, using media links and images, the ways in which our own children have begun to navigate digital devices and texts and to create new sorts of narratives that open possibilities for literacies in multiple ways, as “creators”, “designers”, and experts. We argue that, once translated into classroom practice, technological tools tend to be “domesticated” by practices that resist the transformative affordances of these tools, and may even provide barriers to student engagement and practice. Finally, we conclude the article by making some practical suggestions for creating opportunities for transformative technology use in education.

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Honan, Eileen (2012) A whole new literacy’: Teachers’ understanding of students’ digital learning at home [online]. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, The, Vol. 35, No. 1, Feb 2012: 82-98.

This paper reports on an analysis of data collected through interviewing four teachers about their understandings of young people’s uses of new digital technologies at home and outside school. The teachers display some understanding and knowledge of their students’ access to new technologies, the skills they have developed using these technologies and the learning that occurs when using digital texts. However, it seems that these teachers cannot perceive the learning in terms of any educational affordance, or cannot see that students’ knowledge of digital texts used outside of school could be useful or have any place in the literacy classroom. The paper concludes with some questions that may start teachers thinking in different ways about their incorporation of digital texts into their literacy classrooms.

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MERCHANT, G. H. (2010). 3D virtual worlds as environments for literacy learning. Educational research, 52 (2), 135-150.

Although much has been written about the ways in which new technology might transform educational practice, particularly in the area of literacy learning, there is relatively little empirical work that explores the possibilities and problems – or even what such a transformation might look like in the classroom. 3D virtual worlds offer a range of opportunities for children to use digital literacies in school, and suggest one way in which we might explore changing literacy practices in a playful, yet meaningful context. From a Foucauldian perspective, the article suggests that social control of pedagogical practice through the regulation of curriculum time, the normalisation of teaching routines and the regimes of individual assessment restricts teachers‟ and pupils‟ conceptions of what constitutes literacy. The counternarrative, found in recent work in new litearcies (Lankshear & Knobel, 2006) provides an attractive alternative, but a movement in this direction requires a fundamental shift of emphasis and a re- conceptualisation of what counts as learning.

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Mizuko Ito, Daisuke Okabe (2004) Intimate Connections: Contextualizing Japanese Youth and Mobile Messaging, Forthcoming in Richard Harper, Leysia Palen and Alex Taylor Eds., Inside the Text: Social Perspectives on SMS in the Mobile Age

This paper describes social, cultural, and historical contexts that structure current mobile text messaging practices of Japanese youth. First are ways in which mobile messaging has been structured by the power geometries of existing places of home, school, and public places. Second, the paper presents the central social context in which youth peer messaging practice is situated, that of the intimate peer group. Finally, the paper describes how these practices are situated in a postwar history of intergenerational struggle and cultural politics over youth street and communication cultures. Our central argument is that youth technology use is driven not only by certain psychological and developmental imperatives, but also by youths’ position in historically specific social structures. Mobile messaging provides a mechanism through which youth can overcome some of the adult-controlled power structures that govern their everyday lives.

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Diana Graber (2012) New Media Literacy Education (NMLE): A Developmental Approach, Journal of Media Literacy Education 4:1 (2012) 82 – 92

Waldorf-inspired schools may have a successful formula for the development of ethical thinking and new media literacy skills. By providing rich sensory experiences and social interactions for students from the time they are very young, these schools are sowing the seeds of new media literacy without any technology in sight. The challenge they face now is taking the next step. In doing so, Waldorf-inspired could be the model for Ohler’s (2010) vision of a “whole school approach to behavior that sets the entirety of being digitally active within an overall ethical and behavioral context” (145). Maybe some of these practices will even find their way into traditional schools, giving more students a chance to experience a developmental approach to new media literacy that will equip them to be creative, capable, and ethical users of today’s technology, or technologies that are yet seeds in their imaginations.

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Robin A. Boyle  (2011) Should Laptops be Banned? Providing a Robust Classroom Learning Experience Within Limits, Vol. 20, No 1, Perspectives: Teaching Legal Res. & Writing 8

Laptops, iPods, iPads, and BlackBerrys are just a few of the newly developed modes of communication, note-taking, and music-storing devices that creep into our vocabulary–and students’ backpacks. Given the competitive nature of law school, students understandably bring laptops to class hoping to maximize their performance. Unfortunately for all involved, students use their laptops beyond the task of note-taking. The distractions that present themselves in class have led law professors to complain on various fora about the frequency of laptop use in the classroom. Some posit that students’ inappropriate use of laptops in the classroom has exceeded acceptable limits.

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Victoria J. Rideout, Ulla G. Foehr, Donald F. Roberts, (2010) Generation M2: Media in the Lives of 8- to 18-Year-Olds, Kaiser Family Foundation

Over the past five years, young people have increased the amount of time they spend consuming media by an hour and seventeen minutes daily, from 6:21 to 7:38—almost the amount of time most adults spend at work each day, except that young people use media seven days a week instead of five. Use of every type of media has increased over the past 10 years, with the exception of reading. In just the past five years, the increases range from 24 minutes a day for video games, to 27 minutes a day for computers, 38 minutes for TV content, and 47 minutes a day for music and other audio. During this same period, time spent reading went from 43 to 38 minutes a day, not a statistically significant change. Today, 20% of media consumption (2:07) occurs on mobile devices—cell phones, iPods or handheld video game players.

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Thorkild Hanghøj (2008) Playful Knowledge: An Explorative Study of Educational Gaming, PhD Dissertation, Institute of Literature, Media and Cultural Studies University of Southern Denmark

This dissertation can be read as an attempt to explore the widespread assumption that games have educational value within the context of formal schooling. More specifically, this study tries to answer a number of questions related to this assumption: Why should games have a place in formal education? How should educational games support teaching and learning? And what characterises “good” educational game design? These questions are repeatedly being addressed by game designers, policy makers, educators, news media and researchers in an attempt to explore – and often promote – the assumed learning potential of games. To bring matters to a head, such questions are often driven by an attempt to legitimise the educational use of games instead of actually exploring whether this goal is desirable or how it can be achieved.

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Wiklund, M., Ekenberg, L. (2009) Going to school in World of Warcraft. Observations from a trial programme using off-the-shelf computer games as learning tools in secondary education, Designs for Learning, No. 109

The use of commercial, off-the-shelf computer games as teaching tools is an interesting possibility, but one that may alter the teacher’s role. Unlike specially adapted, game- like educational software, students’ attitudes toward the learning potential of computer games may be very different in the presence or absence of an accompanying teacher. The purpose of this work is to investigate whether commercial, unmodified computer games have potential as a tool for learning enhancement, whether varying properties of game genres have an impact on study results, and how the students perceive the teachers role in a learning environment using computer games. Twenty-one students, all of them participants in a longer-term trial programme in game-based education, were inter- viewed concerning their perceptions of the learning environment, their preferred game genres, and the outcome of their studies. Our findings show that this form of learn- ing results in significantly increased knowledge. It also appears that accompanying teacher activities are important, especially when successfully linked to in-game activities.

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